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Full text of "NYC FIRE (2011): New York City Fire Code"

NEW YORK CITY 




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2008 



Michael R. Bloomberg, Mayor 



NEW YORK CITY 
FIRE CODE 



2008 

(EFFECTIVE JULY 1, 2008) 



ENACTED BY 

NEW YORK CITY 

LOCAL LAW NO. 26 OF 2008 



BASED ON THE 2003 EDITION OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



2008 New York City Fire Code 



First Printing: May 2009 



ISBN: 978-1-58001-717-6 (softbound) 



COPYRIGHT© 2009 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The New York City Fire Code is based on the 2003 International Fire Code, which is a copyrighted 
work owned by the International Code Council. ICC reserves all rights in its copyrighted works. For information on permission to 
copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

"International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Fire Code" are trademarks of the Inter- 
national Code Council, Inc. 

The New York City Fire Department logo is a trademark of The City of New York. 

Cover photographs: front cover (Empire State Building); rear cover (19th Century Fire Headquarters; Triangle Shirtwaist Fire; 
Contemporary Manhattan Fire Scene). All photos © FDNY Photo Unit, except Triangle Shirtwaist Fire © Brown Brothers (used 
by permission). 

Inquiries relating to the New York City Fire Code may be directed to the Bureau of Legal Affairs, New York City Fire Department, 
9 MetroTech Center, Brooklyn, NY 11201-3857. 

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



DEDICATION 



To the people of our great city and all those who visit it, 
whose fire safety is our mission. 

To the staff of the New York City Fire Department, 
who dedicate themselves to carrying out that mission. 



To the memory of all those who made the supreme sacrifice 
in the fulfillment of that mission. 



New York City Fire Department 

Nicholas Scoppetta, Fire Commissioner 
Salvatore Cassano, Chief of Department 

Code Revision Project 

Julian Bazel 
Counsel to the Department 

James Hansen 
Director of Code Revision 



2008 



PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This Fire Code is the first comprehensive revision of New York City's fire safety laws in almost a century. By 
enacting a Fire Code based on the International Fire Code, New York City joins a growing number of state and local 
jurisdictions across the country that have adopted uniform fire safety standards, with appropriate modifications to 
address local conditions and concerns. 

The Fire Code Revision Project was undertaken with the participation of Fire Department fire officers, 
engineers, inspectors and attorneys; Law Department and Department of Buildings staff; City Council members 
and staff; and representatives of building management, design/engineering, manufacturing, public utility, real 
estate, trade and union organizations. 

The Fire Department wishes to thank all of the individuals, agencies and organizations who contributed to the 
development of this Fire Code and made its enactment possible. 



CITATION 

The New York City Fire Code is codified as Chapter 2 of Title 29 of the Administrative Code of the City of New 
York. Individual Fire Code sections should be identified using the prefix FC, e.g., "FC101.1," and may be cited as 
"29 NYC Admin Code §FC ." 



MARKINGS AND NOTATIONS 
Marginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicates a text change from the 2003 International 
Fire Code. Deletion indicators (■*) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or portion thereof has been 
deleted. 

Text Notations 

The following notes have been included to identify correction of certain errors in the text of the Fire Code, as 
enacted by New York City Local Law No. 26 of 2008. Typographical errors not affecting the meaning of the text 
(including punctuation and capitalization) have been corrected but not noted. 

1 Text added to correct grammatical error. 

2 Metric equivalent of English unit added. 

3 Spelling of terms "clean agent," "interagency," "lifesaving," "liquidproof," "microbacterial," "nonaerosol," 
"nonautomatic," "noncombustible," "noncommercial," "noncorrosive," "noncryogenic," "nonelectric," 
"nonferrous," "nonflammable," "nonliquefied," "nonmetallic," "nonpressurized," "nonpyrotechnic," 
"nonrecirculation," "nonrefillable," "nonresidential," "nonworking," "retested," "sparkproof," "shutoff," 
"substations," and "wet chemical," and nonadjectival use of term "out of service," conformed throughout by 
deletion of a hyphen or space. 

4 Spelling of terms "color-coded," "closed-circuit," "cross-street," "dry-break," "fire-rated," "fuel-consum- 
ing," "full-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities," "full-service CNG motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities," "full-service marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities," "garden-type," 
"high-intensity liquid pool fire," "high-pressure," "level-indicating," "liquid- and vapor-tight," "liq- 
uid-tight," "long-handled," "materials-handling," "motor fuel-dispensing area," "motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities," "motor fuel-dispensing pumps," "non-production," "off-street," "oil-absorbent," "oil-disper- 
sant," "oil-free," "oven-cleaning," "pressure-increasing," "pressure-reducing," "sealed-in-place," "self-ser- 
vice automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities," "temperature-sensitive," "vehicular-mounted," and 
"water-reactive," and adjectival use of term "out-of-service," conformed throughout by addition of a hyphen. 

5 Omission of reference to footnote corrected by inclusion of footnote reference. 

vi 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF 

CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Reserved 2 

104 Duties and Powers of Commissioner 2 

105 Permits and Other Approvals 4 

106 Inspections 12 

107 Maintenance 12 

108 Reserved 12 

109 Violations 12 

1 10 Reserved 13 

111 Order to Discontinue Work 13 

1 12 Certificate of Approval 13 

1 13 Certificate of Fitness and Qualification 14 

114 Certificates of License 15 

115 Company Certificates 16 

1 16 Expeditor Registration Certificate 16 

117 Fees 17 

CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 21 

Section 

201 General 21 

202 Definitions 21 

CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 29 

Section 

301 General 29 

302 Definitions 29 

303 Tar Kettles 29 

304 Storage and Accumulation of Rubbish 

and Other Combustible Waste 30 

305 Ignition Sources 30 

306 Motion Picture Film and Screens 31 

307 Open Fires 31 

308 Open Flames 32 

309 Powered Industrial Trucks 33 

310 Smoking 34 

3 1 1 Vacant and Temporarily Unoccupied 

Premises 34 

312 Vehicle Impact Protection 35 

313 Portable Fueled Equipment 35 

314 Indoor Displays 36 



CONTENTS 

315 Combustible Materials Storage 36 

316 Automotive Salvage and Wrecking Facilities ... 37 

CHAPTER 4 

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND 

PREPAREDNESS 39 

Section 

401 General 39 

402 Definitions 41 

403 Public Gatherings 42 

404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans and 
Emergency Action Plans 42 

405 Fire Drills and EAP Drills 45 

406 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plan and 
Emergency Action Plan Staff Training 46 

407 Reserved 47 

408 Use and Occupancy-Related Requirements 47 

CHAPTER 5 

FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES 51 

Section 

501 General 51 

502 Definitions 51 

503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 51 

504 Access to Buildings and Roofs 53 

505 Premises Identification 55 

506 Key Boxes 55 

507 Hazards to Emergency Responders 55 

508 Fire Protection Water Supplies 55 

509 Fire Command Center 56 

510 Fire Department Access to Equipment 56 

CHAPTER 6 

BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 59 

Section 

601 General 59 

602 Definitions 59 

603 Fuel-Fired Appliances and Equipment 59 

604 Emergency Power Systems 61 

605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 62 

606 Refrigerating Systems 62 

607 Elevators in Readiness 66 

608 Stationary Lead-Acid Battery Systems 66 

609 Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Battery 
Systems 66 

610 Commercial Cooking Exhaust Hoods 67 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION ... 69 

Section 

701 General 69 

702 Definitions 69 

703 Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction 69 

704 Floor Openings and Shafts 69 

CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FURNISHINGS, 

DECORATIONS AND SCENERY 71 

Section 

801 General 71 

802 Definitions 71 

803 Furnishings 71 

804 Decorative Vegetation 73 

805 Decorations and Scenery 74 

806 Interior Finish 74 

CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 75 

Section 

901 General 75 

902 Definitions 77 

903 Sprinkler Systems 79 

904 Fire Extinguishing Systems 81 

905 Standpipe Systems 89 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 89 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 92 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 93 

909 Smoke Control Systems 94 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 94 

911 Explosion Control 94 

912 Fire Department Connections 96 

913 Fire Pumps 96 

914 Yard Hydrant Systems 97 

CHAPTER 10 

MEANS OF EGRESS 99 

Section 

1001 General 99 

1002 Definitions 99 

1003 Reserved 99 

1004 Reserved 99 

1005 Reserved 99 

1006 Reserved 99 

1007 Reserved 99 

1008 Reserved 99 



1009 Reserved 99 

1010 Reserved 99 

1011 Reserved 99 

1012 Reserved 99 

1013 Reserved 99 

1014 Reserved 99 

1015 Reserved 99 

1016 Reserved 99 

1017 Reserved 99 

1018 Reserved 99 

1019 Reserved 99 

1020 Reserved 99 

1021 Reserved 99 

1022 Reserved 99 

1023 Reserved 99 

1024 Reserved 99 

1025 Emergency Escape and Rescue 99 

1026 Reserved 99 

1027 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 99 

CHAPTER 11 

AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS .... 101 

Section 

1101 General 101 

1 102 Definitions 101 

1103 General Precautions 101 

1 104 Aircraft Maintenance 102 

1 105 Portable Fire Extinguishers 102 

1 106 Aircraft and Motor Vehicle Fueling 103 

1 107 Helistops and Heliports 107 

1 108 Seaplane Base Operations 107 

1 109 Helicopter Landing Operations 107 

1 1 10 Helicopter Lift Operations 108 

1111 Hot Air Balloon Operations 108 

CHAPTER 12 

DRY CLEANING HI 

Section 

1201 General Ill 

1202 Definitions 1 1 1 

1203 Classifications 1 1 1 

1204 General Requirements 112 

1205 Operating and Maintenance Requirements .... 112 

1206 Spotting and Pretreating 113 

1207 Dry Cleaning Systems 113 

1208 Fire Protection 1 14 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 13 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING 

OPERATIONS 115 

Section 

1301 General 115 

1302 Definitions 115 

1303 Precautions 115 

1304 Explosion Protection 115 

CHAPTER 14 

FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION, 

ALTERATION AND DEMOLITION 117 

Section 

1401 General 117 

1402 Definitions 117 

1403 Portable Fueled Space Heaters 117 

1404 Precautions Against Fire 117 

1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 118 

1406 Flammable Gases and Oxygen 118 

1407 Explosive Materials 119 

1408 Construction Site Fire Safety Manager 119 

1409 Fire Alarm Reporting 120 

1410 Access for Firefighting 120 

141 1 Means of Egress and Elevators 120 

1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection 120 

1413 Standpipes 120 

1414 Sprinkler System 120 

1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers 120 

1416 Internal-Combustion-Powered Equipment 120 

1417 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 121 

1418 Small Arms Ammunition for 

Powder- Actuated Tools 121 

CHAPTER 15 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES 123 

Section 

1501 General 123 

1 502 Definitions 123 

1503 Protection of Operations 124 

1504 Spray Finishing 125 

1505 Dipping Operations 128 

1506 Electrostatic Apparatus 129 

1507 Powder Coating 130 

1508 Automobile Undercoating 130 

1509 Organic Peroxides and Dual-Component 
Coatings 130 

1510 Floor Finishing Operations 131 

1511 Indoor Manufacturing of Reinforced Plastics ..131 



CHAPTER 16 

FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 133 

Section 

1601 General 133 

1602 Definitions 133 

1603 Ethylene Gas 133 

1604 Sources of Ignition 133 

1605 Combustible Waste 133 

1606 Ethylene Generators 133 

1607 Warning Signs 133 

CHAPTER 17 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 135 

Section 

1701 General 135 

1702 Definitions 135 

1703 Fire Safety Requirements 135 

CHAPTER 18 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION 

FACILITIES 137 

Section 

1801 General 137 

1802 Definitions 137 

1803 General Safety Provisions 137 

1804 Storage 140 

1805 Handling and Use 142 

CHAPTER 19 

LUMBER YARDS AND WOOD 

WASTE MATERIALS 145 

Section 

1901 General 145 

1902 Definitions 145 

1903 General Requirements 145 

1904 Reserved .145 

1905 Reserved 145 

1906 Reserved 145 

1907 Reserved 145 

1908 Outdoor Storage of Wood Chips and 

Other Wood Waste Material 145 

1909 Outdoor Storage of Finished Lumber 

Products 146 

CHAPTER 20 

MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS .... 147 

Section 

2001 General 147 

2002 Definitions 147 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2003 General Precautions 147 

2004 Electrical Equipment and Protection 1 47 

2005 Process Structures 148 

2006 Process Mills and Kettles 148 

2007 Process Piping 148 

2008 Raw Materials in Process Areas 149 

2009 Raw Materials and Finished Products 149 

CHAPTER 21 

INDUSTRIAL FURNACES 151 

Section 

2101 General 151 

2102 Definitions 151 

2103 Location 151 

2104 Fuel Piping 151 

2105 Interlocks 151 

21 06 Fire Protection 152 

2107 Operation and Maintenance 152 

CHAPTER 22 

MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND 

REPAIR GARAGES 153 

Section 

2201 General 153 

2202 Definitions 153 

2203 Automotive Liquid Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facility 
Location of Dispensing Devices 154 

2204 Automotive Liquid Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facility 
Dispensing Operations 155 

2205 Automotive Liquid Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facility 
Operational and Maintenance Requirements . . 157 

2206 Automotive Liquid Motor Fuel-Dispensing 
Facilities Design and Installation Requirements 157 

2207 Reserved 164 

2208 Compressed Natural Gas Motor 
Fuel-Dispensing Facilities 164 

2209 Reserved 168 

2210 Marine Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities 168 

221 1 Repair Garages 169 

CHAPTER 23 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 173 

Section 

2301 General 173 

2302 Definitions 173 

2303 Commodity Classification 174 

2304 Designation of High-Piled Storage Areas 176 

2305 Housekeeping and Maintenance 176 



2306 General Fire Protection and Life Safety 
Features 176 

2307 Solid-Piled and Shelf Storage 179 

2308 Rack Storage 180 

2309 Automated Storage 180 

2310 Record Storage 181 

CHAPTER 24 

TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE 

STRUCTURES 183 

Section 

2401 General 183 

2402 Definitions 183 

2403 Reserved 183 

2404 Temporary and Other Membrane Structures. . . 1 83 

CHAPTER 25 

TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE 187 



Section 

2501 General 

2502 Definitions 

2503 Tire Rebuilding 

2504 Precautions Against Fire 

2505 Outdoor Storage 

2506 Fire Department Access 

2507 Fencing 

2508 Fire Protection 

2509 Indoor Storage Arrangement 



87 
87 
87 
87 
87 



CHAPTER 26 

WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK 189 

Section 

2601 General 189 

2602 Definitions 1 89 

2603 General Requirements 189 

2604 Fire Safety Requirements 190 

2605 Gas Welding and Cutting 191 

2606 Electric Arc Hot Work 192 

2607 Reserved 192 

2608 Reserved 192 

2609 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for 

Fuel Gases and Oxygen 192 

CHAPTER 27 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS- 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 193 

Section 

2701 General 193 

2702 Definitions 194 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



2703 General Requirements 196 

2704 Storage 209 

2705 Handling and Use 212 

2706 Non-Production Chemical Laboratories 216 

2707 Transportation of Hazardous Materials 217 

CHAPTER 28 

AEROSOLS 223 

Section 

2801 General 223 

2802 Definitions 223 

2803 Classification of Aerosol Products 223 

2804 Indoor Storage of Aerosol Products 223 

2805 Outside Storage 226 

2806 Retail Display 226 

CHAPTER 29 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 229 

Section 

2901 General 229 

2902 Definitions 229 

2903 General Requirements 229 

2904 Loose Fiber Storage 229 

2905 Baled Storage 230 

2906 Storage of Combustible Fibers on Waterfront 
Structures 230 

CHAPTER 30 

COMPRESSED GASES 233 

Section 

3001 General 233 

3002 Definitions 233 

3003 General Requirements 234 

3004 Storage of Compressed Gases 235 

3005 Handling and Use of Compressed Gases 235 

3006 Medical Gas Storage 236 

3007 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated . . 237 

3008 Ethylene Oxide 237 

CHAPTER 31 

CORROSIVE MATERIALS 239 

Section 

3101 General 239 

3102 Definitions 239 

3103 General Requirements 239 

3104 Storage 239 

3105 Handling and Use 239 



CHAPTER 32 

CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 241 

Section 

3201 General 241 

3202 Definitions 241 

3203 General Requirements 241 

3204 Storage 244 

3205 Handling and Use 244 

3206 LNG Installations and Facilities 246 

CHAPTER 33 

EXPLOSIVES, FIREWORKS 

AND SPECIAL EFFECTS 247 

Section 

3301 General 247 

3302 Definitions 251 

3303 Explosives Recordkeeping and Reporting 254 

3304 Explosives Storage and Handling 255 

3305 Reserved 262 

3306 Storage of Small Arms Ammunition and Primers, 
Black Powder and Smokeless Propellants 262 

3307 Blasting Operations 263 

3308 Fireworks Displays 269 

3309 Special Effects 274 

CHAPTER 34 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS . . 281 

Section 

3401 General 281 

3402 Definitions 281 

3403 General Requirements 282 

3404 Storage 286 

3405 Handling and Use 304 

3406 Special Operations 309 

CHAPTER 35 

FLAMMABLE GASES 323 

Section 

3501 General 323 

3502 Definitions 323 

3503 General Requirements 323 

3504 Storage 324 

3505 Use 325 

3506 Ethylene Oxide 325 

3507 Compressed Natural Gas 327 

3508 Methane Recovery 328 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 36 

FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 329 

Section 

3601 General 329 

3602 Definitions 329 

3603 General Requirements 329 

3604 Storage 329 

3605 Handling and Use 329 

CHAPTER 37 

HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC MATERIALS 331 

Section 

3701 General 331 

3702 Definitions 331 

3703 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and Liquids. . . . 332 

3704 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases . . . 333 

3705 Ozone Gas Generators 337 

CHAPTER 38 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES 339 

Section 

3801 General 339 

3802 Definitions 339 

3803 Installation of Equipment 339 

3804 Reserved 340 

3805 Prohibited Storage, Handling and Use of LPG . 340 

3806 Dispensing and Filling 341 

3807 Safety Precautions and Devices 341 

3808 Portable Fire Extinguishers 341 

3809 Storage of Portable LPG Containers 341 

CHAPTER 39 

ORGANIC PEROXIDES 345 

Section 

3901 General 345 

3902 Definitions 345 

3903 General Requirements 345 

3904 Storage 345 

3905 Handling and Use 347 

3906 Manufacturing Restrictions 347 

CHAPTER 40 

OXIDIZERS 349 

Section 

4001 General 349 

4002 Definitions 349 

4003 General Requirements 349 

4004 Storage 350 



4005 Handling and Use 352 

4006 Manufacturing Restrictions 352 

CHAPTER 41 

PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 353 

Section 

4101 General 353 

4102 Definitions 353 

4103 General Requirements 353 

4104 Storage 353 

4105 Handling and Use 354 

4106 Silane Gas 354 

4107 Manufacturing Restrictions 355 

CHAPTER 42 

PYROXYLIN PLASTICS 357 

Section 

4201 General 357 

4202 Definitions 357 

4203 General Requirements 357 

4204 Storage, Handling and Use 357 

4205 Manufacturing Restrictions 358 

CHAPTER 43 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIALS 359 

Section 

4301 General 359 

4302 Definitions 359 

4303 General Requirements 359 

4304 Storage 360 

4305 Handling and Use 360 

4306 Manufacturing Restrictions 360 

CHAPTER 44 

WATER-REACTIVE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS .... 361 

Section 

4401 General 361 

4402 Definitions 361 

4403 General Requirements 361 

4404 Storage 361 

4405 Handling and Use 362 

4406 Manufacturing Restrictions 362 

CHAPTER 45 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 363 

4501 General 363 

4502 List of Referenced Standards 363 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



APPENDIX A 

FEES 369 

Section 

A01 Certificates 369 

A02 Training Schools 370 

A03 Permits and Inspections 370 

A04 Administrative Services 378 

A05 Late Renewal 378 

APPENDIX B 

REFERENCED STANDARD MODIFICATIONS . . 379 

Section 

B01 National Fire Protection Association 

Referenced Standards 379 

INDEX 

Reserved 381 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



2008 NEW YORK C!TY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION FC 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. This code, including any appendices hereto, shall 
be known as the New York City Fire Code, hereinafter referred 
to as "this code" or "the code." All section numbers in this code 
shall be deemed to be preceded by the designation "FC." 

101.2 Scope. This code governs: 

1. The manufacturing, storage, handling, use, sale and 
transportation of hazardous materials and combustible 
materials, except for the installation of storage tanks and 
auxiliary storage tanks for oil-burning equipment. 

2. The design, installation, operation and maintenance of 
devices, equipment and systems designed to prevent, 
mitigate, control and extinguish fire, explosions or other 
life safety hazards. 

3. Emergency prepardness and planning, including the 
orderly evacuation of occupants of buildings, structures 
or premises in the event of fire, explosion, biological, 
chemical or hazardous material incident or release, natu- 
ral disaster or other emergency, or the threat thereof. 

4. The prevention, mitigation and control of hazards to 
firefighters and emergency responders during emer- 
gency operations. 

5. The operation and maintenance of any manual, auto- 
matic or other fire alarm or fire extinguishing device, 
equipment or system. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish reason- 
able minimum requirements and standards for life safety and 
property protection, to accomplish the purposes set forth in 
Section 101.2. 

101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or 
phrase of this code is adjudged by any court of competent juris- 
diction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or 
invalidate the remainder thereof, but shall be confined in its 
operation to the section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase 
thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judg- 
ment shall have been rendered. 



SECTION FC 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 Design and installation provisions. The design and 
installation provisions of this code shall apply to: 

1 . Facilities established and conditions arising on or after 
the effective date of this code. 

2. Facilities and conditions not lawfully existing prior to 
the effective date of this code. 

3. Facilities and conditions lawfully existing prior to the 
effective date of this code, except as otherwise provided 
in Section 102.3. 



102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions. The administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions of this code, including permit and certification 
requirements, shall apply to: 

1 . Facilities, operations, conditions, uses and occupancies 
established or arising on or after the effective date of this 
code. 

2. Facilities, operations, conditions, uses and occupancies 
established or existing prior to the effective date of this 
code. 

102.2.1 Existing permits and certificates continued. Per- 
mits and certificates for facilities, operations, conditions, 
uses and occupancies issued pursuant to the New York City 
Fire Prevention Code and in effect on the effective date of 
this code shall remain in effect until they expire unless 
sooner revoked or suspended in accordance with this code. 
Renewal of such permits and certificates shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code. 

102.2.2 New permits and certificates. In any case where a 
provision of this code requires a permit or certificate for a 
facility, operation, condition, use or occupancy and no per- 
mit or certificate was previously required therefor pursuant 
to the New York City Fire Prevention Code, such facility, 
operation, condition, use or occupancy may be continued 
without such permit or certificate until July 1, 2009. 

102.3 Lawfully existing facilities and conditions. Facilities, 
or parts thereof, lawfully existing on the effective date of this 
code, as to which the design or installation of a facility would 
not be allowed or approved under this code may be continued in 
compliance with the New York City Fire Prevention Code and 
other laws, rules and regulations or permit conditions applica- 
ble at the time such facility was lawfully allowed or approved, 
and as such provisions may be amended from time to time. 
Manufacturing, storage, handling or use of materials in pre- 
mises under conditions that would not be allowed or approved 
under this code, but which conditions lawfully existed in such 
premises on the effective date of this code, may be continued in 
compliance with the requirements of the New York City Fire 
Prevention Code and other laws, rules and regulations or per- 
mit conditions applicable at the time such condition was law- 
fully allowed or approved, and as such provisions may be 
amended from time to time. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Facilities and conditions lawfully existing prior to the 
effective date of this code shall comply with the 
requirements of this code when specifically required 
by this code. 

2. Facilities and conditions lawfully existing prior to the 
effective date of this code shall comply with the 
requirements of this code when the commissioner 
determines such facility or condition to constitute a 
life safety hazard. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



3 . Fac il ities and conditions existing prior to the effective 
date of this code shall comply with the requirements 
of this code when the part of the building, structure, 
facility or premises in which the facility is located or 
the condition exists undergoes a change in use or 
occupancy on or after such effective date. 

4. Facilities and conditions existing prior to the effective 
date of this code shall comply with the requirements 
of this code when the part of the building, structure, 
facility or premises in which the facility is located or 
the condition exists, undergoes alteration, whether 
made voluntarily, or as a result of damage, deteriora- 
tion or other cause, on or after such effective date. 

102.4 Application of construction codes. The design and 
construction of buildings, structures, facilities or other pre- 
mises shall comply with the requirements of the construction 
codes. 

102.5 Reserved. 

102.6 Relationship with other applicable codes, standards 
and rules. 

102.6.1 Referenced codes. Any codes or other provisions 
of law referenced in this code, including those referenced in 
Chapter 45, shall be considered part of the requirements of 
this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. 
Where differences or inconsistencies arise between the pro- 
visions of this code and any other code or provision of law 
referenced in this code, the more restrictive provision shall 
govern. 

102.6.1.1 Construction codes and Electrical Code ref- 
erences. References in this code to the construction 
codes or the Electrical Code shall not be deemed to be a 
grant of authority to the commissioner to enforce such 
codes, provided, however, that the department may 
require proof of compliance with the requirements of 
such codes pursuant to Section 105.3.9. 

102.6.2 Appendices and referenced standards. Any 

appendix to this code and any referenced standard in Chap- 
ter 45 shall be considered part of the requirements of this 
code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. The 
provisions of any appendix or referenced standard may be 
amended by the commissioner pursuant to the rule making 
process set forth in the charter. Where differences or incon- 
sistencies arise between the referenced standards, the provi- 
sions of this code or any rules promulgated thereunder, the 
provisions of this code or such rules shall govern. 

102.6.3 Rules. The commissioner may promulgate rules in 
accordance with the charter and this code. 

102.7 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no applica- 
ble fire safety or other safety standards or requirements are set 
forth in this code, or applicable laws, codes, rules or regulations 
enforced by the commissioner, facilities, operations and condi- 
tions in a building, structure, facility or other premises shall 
comply with nationally recognized fire safety or other safety 
standards of the particular industry, as approved. Nothing 
herein shall derogate from the authority of the commissioner to 
determine compliance with the requirements of the codes, stan- 
dards, or rules for those facilities, operations and conditions 



within such buildings, structures, facilities or other premises 
within the commissioner's jurisdiction or responsibility. 

102.8 Matters not adequately provided for in this code. 

Requirements that are essential for fire safety in an existing or 
proposed building, structure, or premises, or in connection 
with the regulation of any material, operation or facility, which 
are not specifically provided for by this code may be estab- 
lished by the commissioner. 

102.9 Internal references and inconsistent provisions. 

Where one chapter, section or other provision of this code 
requires compliance with or otherwise references another 
chapter, section or other provision of this code, such reference 
shall be construed in a manner that harmonizes the various pro- 
visions and furthers the purpose of this code. 



SECTION FC 103 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF COMMISSIONER 

104.1 Enforcement. The commissioner shall be responsible 
for the interpretation and enforcement of this code. The com- 
missioner may adopt policies, procedures, rules and regula- 
tions in order to clarify or implement the application of its 
provisions. Such interpretations, policies, procedures, rules 
and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and pur- 
pose of this code and shall, except in those instances in which a I 
modification has been granted, not have the effect of waiving | 
requirements specifically provided for in this code. 

104.2 Applications and approvals. The commissioner shall 
receive, review and, if satisfactory, approve, applications for 
permits, certificates and other approvals, and design and instal- 
lation documents required to be submitted to the commissioner 
by this code or the construction codes, issue permits, inspect 
buildings, structures, facilities, premises, marine vessels and 
vehicles for the purpose of enforcing compliance with the 
requirements of this code, and otherwise administer, imple- 
ment and enforce the provisions of this code. 

104.2.1 Acceptance of professional certification. The 

commissioner shall not accept professional certification of 
compliance with the requirements of this code and the rules 
in lieu of required department inspections, witnessing of 
tests, or approval of design and installation documents, 
except as otherwise provided in this section. Professional 
certification may only be accepted with respect to fire alarm 
system devices or equipment that are not part of the build- 
ing's core fire alarm system. The commissioner shall adopt 
a written policy setting forth procedures by which profes- 
sionally certified fire alarm system devices or equipment 
will be audited by the department to ensure the accuracy of 
such professional certifications. For purposes of this sec- 
tion, "professional certification" or "professionally certi- 
fied" means the submission to the department of a signed, 
persona] verification by a registered design professional 
that accompanies an application and/or design and installa- 
tion documents filed with the department that attests that 



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such application or design and installation documents do 
not contain any false information and that such application 
or design and installation documents are in compliance with 
all applicable laws, rules and regulations. 

104.2.1.1 Disqualification for false certification. The 

commissioner may adopt rules setting forth the penalty 
for submission of false or fraudulent documents certify- 
ing compliance with the requirements of this code and 
the rules. Penalties may include disqualification from 
submission of professionally certified applications, as 
set forth in FC 1 04.2. 1 . Nothing contained herein shall be 
deemed to prohibit the submission of design and installa- 
tion documents by registered design professionals for 
department review and approval. 

104.3 Right of entry. The commissioner and his or her autho- 
rized representatives, in the discharge of their duties, shall have 
the right to enter upon and inspect, at all reasonable times, any 
building, structure, facility, premises, marine vessel, 
watercraft, vehicle or any part thereof, for the purpose of deter- 
mining compliance with the requirements this code and other 
applicable laws, rules and regulations enforced by the depart- 
ment. If access is not obtained, the commissioner shall have 
recourse to remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

104.4 Identification. When entering property pursuant to Sec- 
tion 104.3, officers and employees of the department shall 
identify themselves by exhibiting the badge or other official 
identification of the department; and other authorized repre- 
sentatives of the commissioner shall identify themselves by 
producing and exhibiting their authority in writing signed by 
the commissioner. 

104.5 Notices and orders. Notices, orders and violations may 
be issued by or in the name of the commissioner in accordance 
with Title 15 of the New York City Administrative Code to 
enforce the provisions of this code or the rules. 

104.5.1 Seizure of contraband material. The commis- 
sioner may order the seizure, destruction or other arrange- 
ment for disposal thereof of any device, equipment or other 
article, the manufacture, storage, handling, use, transporta- 
tion or sale of which is prohibited by this code or the rules, 
or which is manufactured, stored, handled, used, trans- 
ported or sold in violation thereof. 

104.6 Official records. The department shall keep official 
records of applications received, approvals, inspections, 
administrative decisions, permits and certificates issued, modi- 
fications approved, fees collected, and notices, orders and vio- 
lations, and such other records as the commissioner may 
prescribe. Such official records shall be retained for the period 
required for retention of public records. 

104.7 Approved devices and equipment. All devices, equip- 
ment or other articles approved by the commissioner shall be 
designed, constructed, installed and used in accordance with 
such approval. Devices, equipment and other articles required 
by the provisions of this code to be of a type for which a certifi- 
cate of approval has been issued shall be designed, constructed, 
installed and used in accordance with such certificate approval 
conditions, Section 112 and the rules. 



104.7.1 Device, equipment and system reuse. Devices, 
equipment and systems shall not be reused or reinstalled 
unless they have been reconditioned, tested and placed in 
good and proper working condition. Devices, equipment 
and systems that are unsafe to operate or use shall not be 
operated or used. 

104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptabil- 
ity of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials 
and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building, 
structure, facility or other premises subject to inspection by 1 
the commissioner, the commissioner may require the owner I 
to provide, at the owner's expense, a technical opinion and 
report prepared by a registered design professional or other 
individual or organization whose qualifications are accept- 
able to the commissioner. Such individual or organization 
shall evaluate the safety of the design, operation or use of the 
building, structure, facility or other premises and the facili- 
ties, operations and conditions situated or conducted 
thereon, as applicable. 

104.8 Modifications. When the circumstances, conditions, 
limitations or surroundings of any business, occupation, trade, 
industry or premises to which this code applies are unusual, or 
such as to render it impracticable to enforce all the provisions 
applicable thereto, the commissioner may waive or modify 
such provisions to such extent as the commissioner may deem 
necessary consistent with public safety. 

104.8.1 Application for modification. Any owner or other 
person subject to a provision of this code may request the 
modification of such provision in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

104.8.1.1 Submission. Any person seeking a modifica- 
tion shall submit a written request to the commissioner 
stating the grounds thereof supported by relevant evi- 
dence and citation to this code or any other law, rule or 
regulation or other legal authority. Any additional infor- 
mation or other supplemental submission requested by 
the commissioner shall be filed with the department 
within twenty (20) days of the date of the request, or 
within such other time as may be prescribed by the com- 
missioner. 

104.8.1.2 Determination. The commissioner shall ren- 
der a written determination denying the request, or grant- 
ing such modification as the commissioner determines is 
necessary and appropriate upon such terms and condi- 
tions as the commissioner may prescribe. 

104.8.1.3 Stay of enforcement. The filing of such 
request for a modification shall not stay the enforcement 
of the provision. The person filing such modification 
may request a stay of enforcement of such provision. 
Such request shall be in writing and shall be subject to the 
same requirements as a modification. The commissioner 
shall expeditiously render a written determination of 
such request for a stay, giving due consideration to the 
interests of public safety, the costs of compliance, and the 
apparent merits of the request. 

104.8.2 Board of standards and appeals variances. Not- 
withstanding any other provision of law, rule or regulation, 



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no application for a variance shall be granted by the board of 
standards and appeals in approving changes in bulk storage 
in excess of the standards set forth in this code or the rules, 
as it may apply to the storage of liquefied natural gas, syn- 
thetic or substitute natural gas or naptha in the liquid or gas- 
eous state. 

1104.9 Alternative devices, equipment and systems. The pro- 
visions of this code and the rules are not intended to prevent the 
design, installation or use of any device, equipment or system 
not specifically prescribed or prohibited by this code or the 
rules, provided that any such alternative has been approved by 

I the commissioner. The commissioner may approve such an 
alternative device, equipment or system where the commis- 
sioner finds that the proposed design, installation or use is satis- 
factory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this 
I code or the rules, and that the device, equipment or system 
offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of 
that prescribed in this code or the rules in quality, strength, 
effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

1 104.10 Fire investigations. The commissioner may investi- 
gate the cause, origin and circumstances of any fire, explosion 
or other life safety hazard. 

104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The 

1 firefighting personnel in charge at the scene of a fire or other 
emergency involving the protection of life or property, or any 
part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such operation as 
necessary to extinguish or control any fire, perform any rescue 
operation, investigate the existence of suspected or reported 
fires, gas leaks or other hazardous conditions or situations, or 
take any other action necessary in the reasonable performance 

I of duty. In the exercise of such power, firefighting personnel 
may prohibit any person, vehicle, marine vessel or object from 
approaching the scene and may remove, or cause to be removed 
or kept away from the scene, any vehicle, vessel or object 
which could impede or interfere with the operations of the 
1 department and, in the judgment of firefighting personnel, any 
person not actually and usefully employed in the extinguishing 
of such fire or in the preservation of property in the vicinity 
thereof. 

1104.1 1.1 Barricades. The firefighting personnel in charge 
at the scene of a fire or other emergency may place ropes, 
guards, barricades or other obstructions across any street, 
alley, place or private property in the vicinity of such opera- 
tion so as to prevent accidents or interference with the law- 
ful efforts of the department to manage and control the 
situation. 

104.11.2 Obstructing representatives of the department. 

It shall be unlawful to obstruct, interfere with or otherwise 
hamper any representative of the department in conducting 
any inspection, issuing any notice, order or violation, or oth- 
erwise enforcing the provisions of this code, or any other 
law, rule or regulation enforced by the department, or other- 
wise executing the performance of his or her lawful duties. 

104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render a life 
safety device, equipment or system inoperative during an 
emergency except as directed by the firefighting personnel 
in charge of the scene of a fire or other emergency. 



104.12 Cooperation of other departments. Upon request of 
the commissioner, it shall be the duty of all departments to 
cooperate with the department at all times and to furnish the 
department with such information, reports and assistance as the 
commissioner may require. 



SECTION FC 105 
PERMITS AND OTHER APPROVALS 

105.1 General. Permits and other approvals shall be required 
as set forth in Section 105. 

105.1.1 Permits required. It shall be unlawful to manufac- 
ture, store, handle, use, sell or transport a hazardous mate- 
rial or combustible material, or to conduct an operation or to 
maintain a facility for which a permit is required pursuant to 
the provisions of this code without such permit. Permits 
required by this code shall be obtained from the commis- 
sioner. Permit and other applicable fees shall be paid prior to 
issuance of the permit. Issued permits shall be kept on the 
premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily 
available for inspection by any representative of the depart- I 
ment. | 

105.1.2 Types of permits. There shall be two types of per- 
mits as follows: 

1 . Site-specific permit. Such permit authorizes the per- 
mit holder to manufacture, store, handle, use or sell 
hazardous materials or combustible materials, or con- 
duct an operation or maintain a facility at a specific 
premises or location, for which a permit is required by 
Section 105.6. 

2. Citywide permit. Such permit authorizes the permit 
holder to store, handle, use, sell or transport hazard- 
ous materials, or conduct an operation on a citywide 
basis, for which a permit is required by Section 105.6. 
A citywide permit is valid to store, handle, use, sell or 
transport hazardous materials or to conduct an opera- 
tion at one or more locations provided the duration of 
such activity at any individual location does not 
exceed 30 days. Periods of activity in excess of 30 
days at any one location shall require a site-specific 
permit. 

105.1.3 Permits for the same premises or location. When 
more than one permit is required for the same premises or 
other location or portion thereof, the commissioner may 
consolidate such permits into a single permit; provided that 
each type of hazardous material, operation or facility is 
listed in the permit, and provided further that the total fees 
payable for such single permit shall be determined by add- 
ing the fees for the permits consolidated into the single per- 
mit. 

105.1.4 Approval of design and installation documents. 

Where approval of design and installation documents is 
required by this code or other law, rule and regulation, other 
than in connection with a permit application, applications 
shall be made for such approval in accordance with Section 
105.4. 



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105.1.5 Insurance. The commissioner may require appli- 
cants for permits or other approvals to obtain and furnish 
proof of general liability insurance, in such amounts and in 
accordance with such requirements, as may be set forth in 
this code or the rules, otherwise required by law, or required 
as a condition of the permit or other approval. The permit or 
other approval shall expire by operation of law if any such 
required insurance lapses, expires or is cancelled during the 
term of the permit or other approval. 

105.2 Permit application. Application for a permit required 
by this code shall be made to the commissioner in such form 
and detail as the commissioner may prescribe. Applications for 
permits shall be accompanied by design and installation docu- 
ments and/or such other information or documentation as may 
be prescribed by this code, the rules or the department. Appli- 
cations for permits relating to the storage, handling, use or 
transportation of high explosives shall be accompanied by 
proof of United States citizenship. 

105.2.1 Reserved. 

105.2.2 Inspection authorized. Before a permit or other 
approval is issued, the commissioner may inspect the build- 
ing, structure, facility, premises, marine vessel, vehicle, or 
any portion thereof to confirm the facts set forth in the appli- 
cation, determine compliance with the requirements of this 
code, the rules and other applicable laws, rules or regula- 
tions enforced by the commissioner, or to evaluate whether 
any restrictions should be imposed as a condition of the per- 
mit or other approval. The department may require the 
applicant to arrange any such inspection, and require the 
applicant to attend such inspection with his or her design 
professionals, contractor or other appropriate representa- 
tives. 

105.2.3 Time limitation on application. An application for 
a permit or other approval shall be deemed to have been 
abandoned six months after the date of filing, unless such 
application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit or 
other approval shall have been issued; except that the com- 
missioner may grant one or more extensions of time for 
additional periods not exceeding 90 days each if there is rea- 
sonable cause. 

105.2.4 Action on application. Completed permit applica- 
tions for the manufacture, storage, handling, use, transpor- 
tation or sale of flammable or combustible liquids, 
combustible materials or hazardous materials or an opera- 
tion or facility that comply with the requirements of this 
code and other applicable laws, rules and regulations shall 
be approved by the commissioner no later than 40 calendar 
days after the submission thereof, except that on or before 
the fortieth day, the commissioner may, for good cause, 
extend such time for an additional 40 calendar days. Permit 
applications that do not comply with the requirements of 
this code and other applicable laws, rules and regulations 
shall be denied or preliminarily denied no later than 40 cal- 
endar days from the submission thereof and written notice 
of such denial or preliminary denial, stating the grounds 
therefor, shall be promptly given to the applicant. When a 
permit application has been denied or preliminarily denied 
and is thereafter revised and resubmitted to meet the stated 



grounds for denial, the revised completed application shall 
be approved or denied or preliminarily denied in accordance 
with the foregoing procedures and time periods. 

105.3 Authority granted by permit. A permit shall constitute 
permission to manufacture, store, handle, use, sell or transport 
hazardous materials or combustible materials, conduct an 
operation, or maintain a facility, as applicable, in accordance 
with this code where a permit is required by Section 105.6. 
Such permission shall not be construed as authority to violate, 
cancel or set aside any of the provisions of this code or other 
applicable laws, rules or regulations. 1 

105.3.1 Permit issuance and renewal. Every permit or 
renewal thereof granted by the commissioner shall be for a 
period specified therein, not to exceed two years, and shall 
expire at the end of such period unless the commissioner 
approves its renewal. Permits are not transferable and any 
change in occupancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall 
require that a new permit be issued. 

105.3.2 through and including 105.3.4 Reserved. 

105.3.5 Posting the permit. Permits shall be posted in a 
conspicuous location on the premises designated therein at 
all times and shall be readily available for inspection by any 
representative of the department. 

105.3.6 Compliance with the requirements of the code. 

The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed 
to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of 
the provisions of this code or of other law, rule or regulation. 
Permits purporting to authorize any such violation shall not 
be valid. The department's approval of design and installa- 
tion documents or other submission, in connection with or 
independent of a permit application, shall not prevent the 
department from requiring the correction of errors in such 
documents or other submission. Any addition to, or alter- 
ation of, approved design and installation documents shall 
be approved in advance by the department. 

105.3.7 Reserved. 

105.3.8 Hazardous industries. Except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, no person shall engage in a hazardous 
industry, trade, occupation, activity or operation requiring 
the manufacture, storage, handling, sale, use or transporta- 
tion of hazardous materials or combustible materials with- 
out a permit, issued upon such conditions as the 
commissioner deems necessary in the interest of public 
safety. 

105.3.9 Compliance with the requirements of the con- 
struction codes and Electrical Code. The commissioner 
may require that the applicant for a permit or renewal 
thereof demonstrate, by submission of a certificate of occu- 
pancy or other authorization or approval issued by the 
Department of Buildings, that the building, structure or pre- 
mises or portion thereof used for the manufacture, storage, 
handling or use of flammable or combustible liquids, com- 
bustible materials or hazardous materials, and all operations 
or facilities subject to this code, are designed, constructed 
and occupied in accordance with the certificate of occu- 
pancy, the construction codes and the Electrical Code. 



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105.3.9.1 Department of Buildings required 
approval. No permit shall be issued when work requires 
the approval of the Commissioner of Buildings in con- 
nection with a material, operation or facility unless proof 
is submitted to the department that such work has been 
approved by the Commissioner of Buildings. 

105.4 Design and installation documents. Design and instal- 
lation documents required to be submitted to the commissioner 
pursuant to the provisions of this code, the rules or the con- 
struction codes, including but not limited to those set forth 
below, or as directed by the commissioner to demonstrate or 
document that a device, equipment, system, operation or facil- 
ity regulated by this code is designed and installed in accor- 
dance with this code, shall be submitted in accordance with this 
section. The time limitations for approval of design and instal- 
lation documents and for deeming such submissions aban- 
doned shall be as set forth in Section 105.2.4 and Section 
105.2.3, respectively. 

1 . Aerosol products storage facilities: 

1.1. General purpose warehouses (Section 2804). 

1.2. Aerosol warehouses (Section 2804). 

1.3. Liquid storage rooms (Section 2804). 

1.4. Liquid warehouses (Section 2804). 

1.5. Outside storage (Section 2805). 

1.6. Retail display (Section 2806). 

2. Aircraft fueling systems (Section 1 106). 

3. Ammonia diffusion systems for refrigerating systems 
using ammonia refrigerant (Section 606). 

4. Sprinkler systems where the design is specified in this 
code (Sections 2306, 2307, 2308, 2309, 2310, 2804, 
2806 and 3404). 

5. Cellulose nitrate film storage facilities (Section 306). 

6. CNG motor fuel-dispensing systems (Sections 2201). 

7. Combustible fibers storage facilities: 

7.1. Loose fiber storage (Section 2904). 

7.2. Baled fiber storage (Section 2905). 

8. Combustible material storage (Section 315). 

9. Commercial cooking system fire extinguishing sys- 
tems (Section 904). 

10. Corrosive materials systems and facilities: 

10.1. Storage (Section 3104). 

10.2. Handling and use (Section 3105). 

11. Cryogenic fluids systems and facilities: 

11.1. Storage (Sections 3203 and 3204). 

11.2. Handling and use (Sections 3203 and 3205). 

11.3. Liquefied natural gas facilities (Section 3206). 

12. Dry cleaning systems using Class II and III solvents 
(Section 1207). 

13. Explosion control systems for certain hazardous mate- 
rials and special uses (Section 911). 



14. Explosion (dust) protection systems for combustible 
metals, metal powders, metal dusts and sulfur (Section 
1304). 

15. Explosives (Section 3304). 

16. Fire alarm systems (Building Code Section 907). 

17. Fire apparatus access roads for developments (Section 

503). 

1 8. Flammable and combustible liquids systems and facili- 
ties: 

18.1. Piping, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, 
fuel-dispensing facilities and similar facilities 
where flammable and combustible liquids are 
manufactured, stored, handled or used, includ- 
ing dispensing (Section 3404). 

18.2. Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales 
uses (Section 3404). 

18.3. Liquid storage rooms (Section 3404). 

18.4. Liquid storage warehouses (Section 3404). 

18.5. Outdoor storage (Section 3404). 

18.6. Bulk plants and terminals (Section 3406). 

19. Flammable gases systems and facilities: 

19.1. Storage (Section 3504). 

19.2. Handling and use (Section 3505). 

19.3. CNG storage in portable containers (Section 
3507). 

19.4. Methane gas recovery from landfills (Section 
3508). 

20. Flammable solids systems and facilities: 

20.1. Storage (Section 3604). 

20.2. Handling and use (Section 3605). 

21. Flammable spraying, dipping or powder-coating sys- 
tems and facilities: 

21.1. Spray booths (spray finishing) (Section 1504). 

21.2. Spray rooms (spray finishing) (Section 1504). 

21.3. Dip tanks (Section 1505). 

21 .4. Spray booths (powder coating) (Section 1507). 

21 .5. Spray rooms (powder coating) (Section 1 507). 

22. Flaring systems for refrigerating systems using flam- 
mable or toxic or highly toxic refrigerants (Section 
606). 

23. Hazardous materials systems and facilities (Sections 
2703, 2704 and 2705) (applicable to compressed gases, 
corrosive materials, cryogenic fluids, explosives, flam- 
mable and combustible liquids, flammable gases, flam- 
mable solids, highly toxic and toxic materials, LPG, 
organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, 
unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids 
and liquids): 

23.1. Tanks (Section 2703). 



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23.2. Piping, tubing, valves and fittings (Section 
2703). 

23.3. Highly toxic and toxic compressed gas rooms 
(Section 2703). 

24. Highly toxic and toxic materials systems and facilities: 

24. 1 . Storage, handling and use of highly toxic and 
toxic solids and liquids (Section 3703). 

24.2. Storage, handling and use of highly toxic and 
toxic compressed gases (Section 3704). 

24.3. Ozone gas generators (Section 3705). 

25. High-piled combustible storage areas (Section 2301). 

26. Industrial furnaces (Section 2101). 

27. Liquid motor fuel-dispensing systems: 

27. 1 . Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facil- 
ities (Section 2201). 

27.2. Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
(Section 2201). 

28. LPG (Section 3801). 

29. Medical gas storage rooms (Section 3006). 

30. Nonflammable 3 compressed gases systems and facili- 
ties (Section 3003). 

31. Non-water fire extinguishing systems: 

31.1. Wet chemical 3 systems (Section 904). 

31.2. Dry chemical systems (Section 904). 

31.3. Foam systems (Section 904). 

31.4. Carbon dioxide systems (Section 904). 

31.5. Halon systems (Section 904). 

31.6. Clean agent 3 systems (Section 904). 

32. Organic coating manufacturing process facilities (Sec- 
tion 2005). 

33. Organic peroxides storage and facilities: 

33.1. Storage (Section 3904). 

33.2. Handling and use (Section 3905). 

34. Oxidizer systems and facilities: 

34.1. Storage (Section 4004). 

34.2. Handling and use (Section 4005). 

35. Oxygen-fuel gas systems (Sections 2601 and 2609). 

36. Private fire hydrant systems (Section 508). 

37. Pyrophoric materials systems and facilities: 

37.1. Storage (Section 4104). 

37.2. Handling and use (Section 4105). 

37.3. Storage, handling and use of silane gas (Section 
4106). 

38. Pyroxylin plastics systems and facilities (Section 

4204). 

39. Semiconductor fabrication facilities: 

39.1. Facilities (Section 1803). 



39.2. Fabrication areas (Section 1803). 

39.3. Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms 
(Section 1803). 

40. Treatment systems for refrigerating systems using 
toxic or highly toxic refrigerants (Section 606). 

41 . Unstable (reactive) materials systems and facilities: 

41.1. Storage (Section 4304). 

41 .2. Handling and use (Section 4305). 

42. Water-mist fire extinguishing systems (Section 904). 

43. Water-reactive solids and liquids systems and facili- 
ties: 

43.1. Storage (Section 4404). 

43.2. Handling and use (Section 4405). 

105.4.1 Submissions. Design and installation documents 
shall be submitted in such number and in such form and 
detail as may be prescribed by the commissioner. The 
design and installation documents shall be prepared by a 
registered design professional. The commissioner may 
require that such submissions be made in an approved elec- 
tronic format or medium. 

105.4.2 Information on design and installation docu- 
ments. Design and installation documents shall be drawn to 
scale. Design and installation documents shall indicate the 
location, nature and extent of the work proposed and dem- 
onstrate compliance with the requirements of this code, the 
rules and other applicable laws, rules and regulations. 

105.4.3 Reserved. 

105.4.4 Approved documents. The commissioner shall 
approve, or deny, or preliminarily deny design and installa- 
tion documents in accordance with the procedures and time 
periods set forth in Section 105.2.4. Upon review and 
approval of design and installation documents, the commis- 
sioner shall mark such approval upon such documents 
and/or issue a letter of approval or other form of written 
authorization. Design and installation documents approved 
by the commissioner are approved with the intent that such 
design and installation documents comply in all respects 
with the requirements of this code, the rules and any other 
applicable laws, rules or regulations. Review and approval 
by the commissioner shall not relieve the applicant of the 
responsibility of compliance with the requirements of this 
code, the rules and any other applicable laws, rules or regu- 
lations. 

105.4.5 Corrected documents. Where field conditions 
necessitate any change from the approved design and instal- 
lation documents, corrected design and installation docu- 
ments or other documentation acceptable to the department 
shall be submitted. 

105.4.6 Retention of design and installation documents. 

One set of design and installation documents shall be 
retained by the commissioner. One set of approved design 
and installation documents shall be returned to the appli- 
cant, and shall be kept on the site of the building, structure or 
at the work site at all times and readily available for inspec- 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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tion by any representative of the department until the 
required permit is posted on the premises as required by 
Section 105.3.5, or where no permit is required, until the 
work performed under such approved design and installa- 
tion documents has been inspected and approved by the 
department. 

105.5 Revocation. The commissioner may revoke a permit 
issued under the provisions of this code when: 

1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other 
than that for which it was issued. 

2. The permit is used for a purpose or operation other than 
that listed in the permit. 

3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have 
been violated. 

4. There has been a false statement or misrepresentation 
material to the issuance of the permit. 

5. The party engaging in the manufacture, storage, handle, 
use, sale or transportation of hazardous materials or 
combustible materials, or conducting an operation or 
maintaining a facility is different from the party to whom 
the permit was issued. 

6. The permit holder fails, refuses or neglects to timely 
comply with the commissioner' s orders or notices of vio- 
lation duly served in accordance with this code, or other 
law, rule or regulation enforced by the department. 

7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of this code 
or other applicable law, rule or regulation. 

8. Circumstances or conditions material to the issuance of 
the permit applied for and issued have changed. 

9. Other good cause exists. 

105.6 Required permits. The commissioner shall issue the 
following permits for the manufacture, storage, handling, use, 
transportation and sale of the following materials, the conduct 
of the following operations, and the design, installation, opera- 
tion and maintenance of the following facilities in accordance 
with this code: 

Aerosol products. A permit is required to store, handle or 
use an aggregate quantity of Level 1, 2 or 3 aerosol products 
in excess of 100 pounds (45.4 kg) net weight. 

Amusement buildings. A permit is required to maintain or 
operate a special amusement building. 

Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. A per- 
mit is required to maintain or operate an automotive liquid 
motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

Aviation operations. A permit is required for the following 
aviation operations: 

1 . To operate or maintain an aircraft-fueling vehicle. 

2. To operate or maintain a seaplane base. 

3. To conduct a helicopter landing at other than an 
approved heliport, helistop or airport. 

4. To conduct a helicopter lift operation. 



5. To conduct a hot air balloon operation. S 

Cellulose nitrate film. A permit is required to store, handle 
or use cellulose nitrate film in the following quantities: 

1. Any amount in a Group A occupancy. | 

2. 10 pounds (4.54 kg) or more in other than a Group A I 
occupancy. 1 

Combustible dust-producing operations. A permit is 
required to maintain or operate a grain elevator, flour starch 
mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, 
cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations pro- 
ducing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2. 

Combustible fibers. A permit is required to store or handle i 
combustible fibers in quantities greater than 100 cubic feet 
(2.8 m 3 ). 

Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural stor- 
age. 

Combustible material storage. A permit is required to 
store in any building, structure, premises or facility more 
than 2,000 cubic feet (56.6 m 3 ) gross volume of combustible 
empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or similar containers, 
rubber (excluding tires), cork or similar combustible mate- 
rial, including combustible waste, or more than 1,000 
pounds (454 kg) of plastic foam products, irrespective of 
volume. 

Exceptions: 

1. A permit is not required for such storage in build- 
ings or structures protected throughout by a sprin- 
kler system. 

2. A permit is not required if the storage is kept exclu- 
sively in a dedicated area of a building or structure 
which is protected throughout by a sprinkler sys- 
tem and separated from the rest of the building or 
structure by 2-hour fire -resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

Commercial cooking systems. A permit is required to 
maintain or operate a commercial cooking system. 

Compressed gases. A permit is required to store, handle or 1 
use compressed gases in excess of the amounts listed in 
Table 105.6(1). ■ 

Exception: Permits are not required for motor vehicles I 
equipped for and using compressed gases as a fuel for 1 
propelling the vehicle. 

Compressed natural gas (CNG) motor fuel-dispensing 
facility. A permit is required to maintain or operate a CNG 
motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

Compressing gases. A permit is required to compress: 

1 . A flammable gas to a pressure exceeding 6 psig (41.4 
Kpa) 2 . 

2. A nonflammable, corrosive or oxidizing gas, includ- 
ing air, to a pressure exceeding 1 00 psig (689.5 Kpa) 2 . 

Exception: Outdoor air compressing at other than 
a fair or festival. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



Cryogenic fluids. A permit is required to manufacture, 
store, handle or use, including dispensing, cryogenic fluids 
in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6(2). 

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles 
equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for pro- 
pelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the cargo. 

TABLE 105.6(1) 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES 



TYPE OF GAS 


AMOUNT (SCF) 


Corrosive 


400 


Flammable 


400 


Highly toxic 


Any Amount 


Nonflammable and nonoxidizing, except 
carbon dioxide 


3,000 


Carbon dioxide 


4,500 


Oxidizing 


504 


Pyrophoric 


Any Amount 


Toxic 


Any Amount 


Unstable (reactive) 


Any Amount 


Water reactive 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 . 



TABLE 105.6(2) 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 



TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID 


INDOORS 
(gallons) 


OUTDOORS 
(gallons) 


Flammable 


More than 1 


10 


Nonflammable 


60 


100 


Oxidizing (includes oxygen) 


10 


50 


Physical or health hazard not 
indicated above 


Any Amount 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

Dry cleaning facilities. A permit is required to maintain or 
operate dry cleaning equipment that utilizes a Class II or 
Class III solvent. 

Explosives. A permit is required to store, handle, use or 
sell explosives as follows: 

1. Store, sell or offer for sale any amount of black 
powder and smokeless powder. 

2. Store, sell or offer for sale any amount of blasting 
caps. 

3. Store, sell or offer for sale 200 or more shells of 
small arms ammunition. 

4. Store, handle, use, sell or offer for sale any amount 
of explosives, other than those specified in Items 1 , 
2 and 3 above. 



Fireworks. A permit is required for each display or other 
event involving the handling, discharge or other use, or stor- 
age for use, of fireworks. 

Flammable and combustible liquids. A permit is 
required: 

1. To store, handle or use amounts of Class I liquids, 
other than paints, varnishes, lacquers, gasoline and 
other petroleum-based Class I liquids, in excess of 5 
gallons (19 L), except that a permit is not required for 
the storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a 
motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft. 

2. To store, handle or use amounts of gasoline and other 
petroleum-based Class I liquids other than paints, var- 
nishes and lacquers, in excess of 2V 2 gallons (9.5 L), 
except that a permit is not required for the storage or 
use of gasoline or other petroleum-based Class I liq- 
uids in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, or 
watercraft. 

3. To store, handle or use amounts of Class II or Class III 
liquids with a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less, 
other than paints, varnishes and lacquers, in excess of 
10 gallons (38 L), except that a permit is not required 
for the storage or use of Class II or Class III liquids 
with a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less in the fuel 
tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, or watercraft. 

4. To store, handle or use amounts in excess of 20 gal- 
lons (76 L) of Class I, Class II or Class III liquids hav- 
ing a flash point of 300°F (149°C) or less that are 
commonly used for painting, varnishing, staining or 
other similar purposes, including paint, varnish and 
lacquer. 

5. To store, handle or use amounts in excess of 70 gal- 
lons of petroleum based Class III liquids with a flash 
point exceeding 300°F (149°C). 

6. To operate a bulk plant or terminal or bulk transfer 
facility where flammable and combustible liquids are 
blended, produced, processed, transported, stored, 
dispensed or used. 

7. To manufacture flammable or combustible liquids. 

8. To store and/or use fuel oil stored on a barge or marine 
vessel moored to or anchored at privately owned 
waterfront property. 

9. To store and use fuel oil on mobile heating trailers. 

Floor finishing. A permit is required to conduct floor fin- 
ishing or surfacing operations over an area exceeding 350 
square feet (33 m 2 ) using Class I or Class II liquids or where 
the quantity of floor finishing or surfacing products stored, 
handled or used requires a flammable or combustible liquid 
permit pursuant to this section. 

Fruit and crop ripening. A permit is required to maintain 
or operate a fruit-, or crop-ripening facility or conduct a 
fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas. 

Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging. A permit is 
required to maintain or operate a facility in which a fumi- 
gant or thermal insecticidal fogger is used. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



Hazardous materials. A permit is required to store, handle 
or use hazardous materials in excess of the amounts set forth 
in Table 105.6(3). 

TABLE 105.6(3) 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 



TABLE 105.6(3)— continued 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AMOUNT 


Combustible liquids 


See Section 105.6 for flammable 
and combustible liquids 


Corrosive materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Table 105.6(1) 
55 gallons 
1000 pounds 


Explosive materials 


See Section 105.6 for explosive 
materials 


Flammable materials 
Gases 
Liquids 

Solids 


See Table 105.6(1) 

See Section 105.6 for flammable 

and combustible liquids 
See Table 105.6(4) 


Highly toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Table 105.6(1) 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Oxidizing materials 
Gases 
Liquids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Solids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 


See Table 105.6(1) 

Any Amount 
1 gallon 
10 gallons 
55 gallons 

Any Amount 
10 pounds 
100 pounds 
500 pounds 


Organic peroxides 
Liquids 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 
Solids 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 


Any Amount 
Any Amount 

1 gallon 

2 gallons 

No Permit Required 

Any Amount 

Any Amount 

10 pounds 

20 pounds 

No Permit Required 


Pyrophoric materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Table 105.6(1) 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 


Toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 


See Table 105.6(1) 
1 gallons 
100 pounds 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


AMOUNT 


Unstable (reactive) materials 




Gases 


See Table 105.6(1) 


Liquids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


5 gallons 


Class 1 


10 gallons 


Solids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


50 pounds 


Class 1 


1 00 pounds 


Water-reactive Materials 




Gases 


See Table 105.6(1) 


Liquids 




Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


5 gallons 


Class 1 


55 gallons 


Solids 




Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


50 pounds 


Class 1 


500 pounds 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

TABLE 105.6(4) 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 



FORMS OF FLAMMABLE SOLID 


INDOORS 
(pounds) 


OUTDOORS 
(pounds) 


Pigs, ingots, billets, heavy castings 


1,000 


100 


Light castings, light metallic 
products 


125 


100 


Scraps, shavings, powders, dusts 


1 


100 



(continued) 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 2 

Hazardous production materia! (HPM) facilities. A per- 
mit is required to store, handle or use hazardous production 
materials. 

High-piled storage. A permit is required to use an area 
exceeding 500 square feet (46 m 2 ) in a building or structure J 
or part thereof as a high-piled storage area. 1 

Hot work operations. A permit is required to conduct hot 
work using oxygen and a flammable gas. 

Industrial furnaces. A permit is required to maintain or 
operate an industrial furnace regulated by Chapter 21 . 

Laboratory units. A permit is required to store, handle or 
use hazardous materials in a laboratory unit in amounts 
exceeding 1 gallon (3.8 L) of flammable liquid, I gallon (3.8 
L) of combustible liquid or 75 SCF (2.12 m 3 ) of flammable 
gas. 

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A permit is required to 
store, handle or use amounts of LPG in excess of the 
amounts set forth in Table 105.6(1). 

Exception: A permit is not required for stationary instal- 
lations in Group R-3 occupancies. 



10 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



Lumber yards. A permit is required to store amounts of 
lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8,333 ft 3 ) (236 m 3 ). 

Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. A permit is 
required to maintain or operate a marine liquid motor fuel 
dispensing facility. 

Methane recovery. A permit is required for the recovery of 
methane from landfills and related processing. 

Natural gas liquefication facility. A permit is required to 
maintain or operate a natural gas liquefication facility. 

Open flames. A permit is required to use open flames: 

1. In any public assembly occupancy. 

2. In any other place of public gathering. 

3. In a covered mall building. 

Organic coatings. A permit is required to conduct an 
organic-coating manufacturing operation producing more 
than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in one day. 

Places of assembly. A permit is required to maintain or 
operate a place of assembly. 

Portable fueled space heaters. A permit is required to 
store, handle or use portable fueled space heaters as follows: 

1. Fueled by a combustible liquid. 

2. Fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG). 

3. Fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). 

4. Fueled by piped natural gas, except in Group R-3 
occupancies. 

Pyrotechnic material. A permit is required to store, handle 
or sell, including storage for sale, any quantity of pyrotech- 
nic materials, articles and devices, other than pyrotechnic 
materials, articles and devices used solely for a purpose 
other than to create a special effect. 

Pyroxylin plastics. A permit is required to store, handle 
and/or use pyroxylin plastics as follows: 

1. To store, handle and/or use more than 25 pounds (1 1 
kg) of raw pyroxylin plastic. 

2. To use any amount of raw pyroxylin plastic for the 
assembly or manufacture of articles. 

Refrigerating system. A permit is required to maintain or 
operate a refrigerating system that uses a group Al , A2, A3, 
B 1 , B2 or B3 refrigerant or that is mounted on or suspended 
from a roof or ceiling. 

Exceptions: 

1. A refrigerating system of less than five horse- 
power that uses a group Al refrigerant and that is 
not mounted on or suspended from a roof or ceil- 
ing. 

2. A refrigerating system installed in the residence 
portion of any building, installed in motor vehi- 
cles, marine vessels, watercraft or tank cars, or 
employing water or air as a refrigerant. 

Repair garages. A permit is required to maintain or operate 
a repair garage. 



Special effects. A permit is required for: 

1 . The discharge or other use for any purpose of any 
material, article or device of an explosive, flammable 
or combustible nature used to create a special effect, 
including fireworks meeting the definition of fire- 
works, 1.4G, and pyrotechnic materials, articles or 
devices. 

2. The storage for use in a special effects display or other 
event of any material, article or device of an explo- 
sive, flammable or combustible nature, including 
fireworks meeting the definition of fireworks, 1 .4G, 
and pyrotechnic materials, articles or devices. 

Spraying or dipping. A permit is required to conduct a 
spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable or com- 
bustible liquids or the application of combustible powders 
regulated by Chapter 15. 

Sulfur. A permit is required to store, handle or use sulfur in 
amounts that exceed 200 pounds (90.8 kg). 

Tar kettles. A permit is required to store, handle or use a tar 
kettle. 

Tire-rebuilding plants. A permit is required to maintain or I 
operate a tire-rebuilding plant. ' 

Tires, scrap tires and tire byproducts. A permit is 
required to store tires, scrap tires and tire byproducts, except 
tires mounted on vehicles, in amounts that exceed: 

1 . 2,500 cubic feet (71 m 3 ) of total volume of scrap tires 
or 1,000 tires, whichever is less, either outdoors, or in 
buildings of noncombustible construction that are 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system. 

2. 250 cubic feet (7.1 m 3 ) of total volume of scrap tires or 
100 tires, whichever is less, in buildings of combusti- 
ble construction, or in buildings of noncombustible 
construction that are not protected throughout by a 
sprinkler system. 

Transportation of hazardous materials. A permit is 
required to transport hazardous materials, as follows: 

1. Any marine vessel transporting upon the navigable 
waters within the city, any amount of explosives for 
delivery at a wharf, pier, bulkhead, or other structure 
over or contiguous to such navigable waters, or to a 
marine vessel lying thereto, in excess of the amount 
required for the vessel's own use. 

2. Any motor vehicle transporting a flammable liquid in 
a quantity exceeding 1,000 pounds (454 kg) aggre- 
gate gross weight, except vehicles transporting paint 
products prominently labeled as such in accordance 
with applicable laws, rules and regulations. 

3. Any motor vehicle transporting a combustible liquid 
in a quantity exceeding 1 ,000 pounds (454 kg) aggre- 
gate gross weight, except vehicles transporting paint 
products prominently labeled as such in accordance 
with applicable laws, rules and regulations. 

4. Any motor vehicle transporting a compressed gas in 
an amount exceeding the limits set forth in Tables 
105.6(1) or 105.6(2). 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



11 



ADMINISTRATION 



5. Any motor vehicle transporting any amount of explo- 
sives, except small arms ammunition. 



SECTION FC 106 
INSPECTIONS 

106.1 Inspection authority. The commissioner may enter and 
examine any building, structure, facility, premises, marine ves- 
sel, watercraft or vehicle in accordance with Section 104.3 for 
the purpose of enforcing this code or any other law, rule or reg- 
ulation enforced by the commissioner. 

106.2 Reserved. 

106.3 Concealed work. Whenever any installation subject to 
inspection, testing and/or approval in accordance with this 
code, the construction codes or any other law, rule or regulation 
prior to use is covered or concealed without having first been 
inspected, tested and/or approved, the commissioner may 
require that such work be exposed for inspection. 



SECTION FC107 
MAINTENANCE 

107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Whenever or wherever 
any device, equipment or system is installed, condition is 
established, or action is taken, whether or not required for com- 
pliance with the requirements of this code or the rules, such 
device, equipment, system, condition, or action shall thereafter 
be continuously maintained in accordance with this code and 
the rules. 

107.2 Testing and operation. Devices, equipment and sys- 
tems requiring periodic inspection, testing or operation to 
ensure maintenance shall be inspected, tested or operated as set 
forth in this code and the rules. 

107.2.1 Test and inspection records. Required test and 
inspection records shall be available at all times for inspec- 
tion by any representative of the department or such records 
as the commissioner designates shall be filed with the 
department. 

107.2.2 Reinspection and testing. Where any work, instal- 
lation or test required to be witnessed by a representative of 
the department does not pass an initial inspection or test, the 
necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compli- 
ance with the requirements of this code or other law, rule or 
regulation enforced by the commissioner. The non-comply- 
ing condition shall then be corrected and arrangements 
made for reinspection and/or retesting. 

107.3 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be under the 
supervision of a competent person who shall ensure that such 
maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in 
accordance with this code and the rules. When required by spe- 
cific provisions of this code or the rules, such person shall be 
certified by the department or the Department of Buildings. 

107.4 Tampering with or rendering equipment inoperable. 

It shall be unlawful for any person to deface, obscure, remove 
or otherwise tamper with or render inoperable or inaccessible 
any fire protection system, fire hydrant, fire detection and 
alarm system, portable fire extinguisher or other fire appliance 



and related appurtenances, except as necessary during emer- 
gencies, maintenance, repairs, alterations, drills, prescribed 
testing or as otherwise authorized by the commissioner. 

Exception: Non-emergency use of fire hydrants approved 
by the Department of Environmental Protection. 

107.4.1 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. 

Coverings placed on or over fire protection devices to pro- 
tect them from damage during construction operations shall 
be removed immediately upon the completion of each work 
shift. 

107.4.2 Other tampering. Locks, gates, doors, barricades, 
chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals required by this code, 
the rules, permit or order of the commissioner shall not be 
removed, defaced, obscured, unlocked and/or otherwise 
rendered illegible or inoperable. 

107.5 Owner/occupant responsibility. The owner shall be 
responsible at all times for the safe maintenance of a building, 
structure and premises in accordance with this code. Correc- 
tion and abatement of violations of this code and the rules shall 
be the responsibility of the owner. If an occupant creates, or 
allows to be created, hazardous conditions in violation of this 
code or the rules, the occupant shall also be responsible for the 
abatement of such hazardous conditions. 

107.6 Overcrowding. It shall be unlawful to cause overcrowd- 
ing, maintain an indoor or outdoor space in an overcrowded 
condition, or allow an indoor or outdoor area or space to 
become overcrowded. The commissioner may order remedial 
actions necessary to abate the overcrowding condition and pre- 
vent future recurrence of such condition, including suspending 
or terminating the event or other gathering, vacating the pre- 
mises, enforcing the lawful use and maximum occupancy of 
the premises and/or requiring the provision of fire guards. 

107.7 Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping required by this code, 
the rules or the referenced standards, including records of staff 
training, inspections, tests, servicing and other operation or 
maintenance of devices, equipment, systems or facilities, shall 
be maintained on the premises or other approved location for a 
minimum of 3 years, unless a different period of time is speci- 
fied in such code, rules or referenced standards. 



SECTION FC 108 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 109 
VIOLATIONS 

109.1 Violations. The provisions of this code and the rules 
shall be enforced in accordance with this chapter, Title 1 5 of the 
New York City Administrative Code and the rules. 

109.2 Penalties. Penalties for violations of this code and the 
rules shall be in accordance with this chapter, Title 15 of the 
New York City Administrative Code and the rules. 

109.2.1 Transportation of extremely hazardous materi- 
als. Except for transportation subject to Section 2707.4 and 
in addition to any other penalties provided by law, rule or 
regulation, a person who transports explosives, fireworks, 



12 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



chlorine, or any hazardous material in violation of this code 
or the rules shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon con- 
viction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than 
one thousand dollars and not more than ten thousand dol- 
lars, or imprisonment for not more than six months or both, 
for each offense. 

109.2.2 Failure to provide fire protection systems. In 

addition to any other penalties provided by law, rule or regu- 
lation, any person who shall violate, or refuse, or neglect to 
comply with any provision of law requiring a sprinkler sys- 
tem, fire alarm system or emergency lighting in a Group A 
occupancy shall upon conviction thereof be punished by a 
fine of not less than five hundred dollars nor more than ten 
thousand dollars for the first violation, not less than one 
thousand dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars for the 
second violation, not less than fifteen hundred dollars nor 
more than ten thousand dollars for the third violation, and 
not less than two thousand dollars nor more than ten thou- 
sand dollars for the fourth violation, and every subsequent 
violation, or, for any such violation by imprisonment for not 
more than six months, or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment. 

109.2.3 Criminal liability. In the event that any person is 
burned by the explosion of any material the sale of which is 
prohibited by this code, or which has not been approved as 
herein provided, and death ensues therefrom, in addition to 
any other penalties provided by law, rule or regulation, the 
person found guilty of selling the material shall be deemed 
guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction, shall be punished 
by a fine of not less than one thousand dollars, nor more than 
five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment for a term not less 
than one year nor more than five years; and in case of a 
bodily injury the person injured may maintain an action for 
damages against the person violating the provisions of this 
code. 

109.2.4 Civil penalty for use of fireworks without a per- 
mit. Nothwithstanding any other provision of law, and in 
addition to any criminal penalties that may apply, any per- 
son who violates Section 105.6 by discharging or otherwise 
using fireworks without a permit shall be liable for a civil 
penalty of seven hundred fifty dollars, which may be recov- 
erable in a proceeding before the New York City Environ- 
mental Control Board. For the purposes of subdivision e of 
Section 15-230 of the Administrative Code, such violation 
shall be deemed to be hazardous. 



SECTION FC 110 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 111 
ORDER TO DISCONTINUE WORK 

111.1 Order. Whenever the commissioner finds any work reg- 
ulated by this code or the rules being performed in a manner 
contrary to the provisions of such code or the rules, any design 
and installation document approved by the department, or any 
condition of a permit, or otherwise being performed in an 



unsafe manner, the commissioner may issue an order to discon- 
tinue work. 

111.2 Issuance. An order to discontinue work shall be in writ- 
ing and shall be issued to the owner or other person authoriz- 
ing, supervising or engaging in the work. Upon issuance of an 
order to discontinue work, the cited work shall immediately 
cease. The order to discontinue work shall state the reason for 
the order, and the conditions under which the cited work may 
resume. 

111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the commis- 
sioner shall not be required to give written notice prior to order- I 
ing the work discontinued. 1 



SECTION FC 112 
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL 

112.1 Approval of articles, equipment and devices. Where 
required by this code, the manufacturer of any article, equip- 
ment or device installed in any facility or used in connection 
with any material or operation shall obtain a certificate of 
approval for the design, installation, operation and/or mainte- 
nance of such article, equipment or device. 

112.2 Conditions of approval. The commissioner may set 
forth in the certificate of approval conditions on the approved 
purpose or use of such article, equipment or device, or type, 
class or kind thereof, as may be necessary in the interest of pub- 
lic safety. The commissioner may include under a single certifi- 
cate of approval more than one type, class or kind of article, 
equipment or device of a similar design or common character- 
istic. 

112.3 Markings. Each article, equipment or device, or type, 
class or kind thereof, for which a certificate of approval has 
been issued shall have the number of such certificate plainly 
stamped or otherwise affixed upon it. 

112.4 List of acceptable laboratories, articles and devices. 

A current list of all testing services and laboratories acceptable 
to the commissioner for the purpose of testing articles, equip- 
ment and devices, and a current list of all acceptable articles, 
equipment and devices shall be maintained by the department 
and made available for public inspection. 

112.5 Application. Applications for a new or renewal certifi- 
cate of approval required by the provisions of this code or the 
rules shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and 
detail as the commissioner may prescribe, including such 
information and documentation as the commissioner may 
require. An application for a certificate of approval shall 
include complete drawings of and specifications for the article, 
equipment or device for which approval is sought and, unless 
the commissioner determines that it is impracticable, the arti- 
cle, equipment or device itself shall be attached to or submitted 
with the application. The commissioner may require that the 
article, equipment or device be examined, tested or demon- 
strated at the applicant's expense in a manner prescribed by the 
commissioner, including examination and testing by a testing 
laboratory acceptable to the commissioner. In those instances 
where a testing or performance standard is not prescribed by 
this code or the rules, the article, equipment or device or type, 
class or kind of article, equipment or device shall have been 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



13 



ADMINISTRATION 



examined and tested in a manner acceptable to the commis- 
sioner. 

112.6 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application 
for a certificate of approval upon a determination that the appli- 
cation article, equipment or device is designed for the purpose 
for which it is to be used and can be safely operated in accor- 
dance with this code, the rules and other applicable laws, rules 
and regulations. 

112.6.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal 
thereof granted by the commissioner shall be for a period as 
specified therein, not to exceed 3 years, and shall expire at 
the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its 
renewal. 

112.6.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. 

Applicants may apply for renewal during the period from 60 
days prior to a certificate's expiration date to not more than 
one year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew 
certificates that have been expired for more than one year. 
Applicants holding such certificates must apply for an origi- 
nal certificate and comply with all the original certificate 
requirements. 

1 12.6.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discre- 
tion of the commissioner in the interest of public safety. The 
department may reevaluate the design and safety of the arti- 
cle, equipment or device in light of changes in applicable 
laws, rules or regulations, new technology, and safety con- 
cerns arising from the use of the article, equipment or 
device. 

112.7 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to install arti- 
cles, equipment or devices authorized by a certificate after the 
term of such certificate has expired. 

112.8 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commis- 
sioner may, at any time, revoke or suspend a certificate for good 
cause. The certificate holder shall be afforded notice and an 
opportunity to be heard prior to any such suspension or revoca- 
tion except that, in the circumstance of an imminent threat to 
public safety, such notice and opportunity to be heard may be 
given promptly after such revocation or suspension. 



SECTION FC 113 
CERTIFICATES OF FITNESS AND QUALIFICATION 

113.1 Supervision required. The commissioner may require 
that a material, operation or facility subject to the provisions of 
this code, the rules, or other laws, rules and regulations 
enforced by the department, be manufactured, stored, handled, 
used, maintained, inspected and tested, transported, conducted 
by, or operated under the supervision of, a person holding a cer- 
tificate pursuant to this section. The commissioner may require 
such supervision to be personal supervision or general supervi- 
sion of the material, operation or facility. Where a reference in 
this code is made to a certificate of fitness without identifying 
the type of certificate, such reference shall be to the certificate 
of fitness designated by the commissioner as appropriate to 
conduct or supervise the material, operation or facility. 



113.1.1 Work location. Except as otherwise provided in 
this code or the rules, the commissioner may issue certifi- 
cates for one or more designated work locations. 

1 13.2 Duties. In addition to any other responsibilities specified 
in this code or the rules, a certificate holder shall be responsible 
for: 

1. The safe manufacturing, storage, handling, use, opera- 
tion, maintenance, inspection, testing, repair and/or 
supervision of the material, operation or facility for 
which the certificate is required, in accordance with this 
code, the rules, and any other applicable laws, rules and 
regulations. 

2. Notifying the department of any explosion, fire, report- 
able leak or other release of hazardous material, or other 
emergency related to the duties of his or her certificate. 

3. Keeping such certificate upon his or her person or other- 
wise readily available for inspection by any representa- 
tive of the department, at all times while conducting or 
supervising the material, operation or facility for which 
the certificate is required. 

113.3 Applications. Applications for new or renewal certifi- 
cates required by the provisions of this code or the rules shall be 
made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the com- 
missioner may prescribe, including such information and doc- 
umentation as the commissioner may require. 

113.4 Minimum qualifications. Applicants for certificates 
shall comply with the following minimum requirements: 

1. Be at least 18 years of age, or such age above the age of 
18 as may be required by law, rule or regulation. 

2. Have a reasonable understanding of the English lan- 
guage and be able to answer satisfactorily such questions 
as may be asked of such applicant upon his or her exami- 
nation. 

3. Present such evidence of his or her character, habits and 
past employment, as may be satisfactory to the commis- 
sioner. 

4. Present such evidence of his or her qualifications as set 
forth in the rules or the department's notice of examina- 
tion for such certificate. 

5. Pass an examination, administered by the department or 
other entity that tests the applicant's knowledge of the 
code, law, rules and regulations governing the regulated 
material, operation or facility, and the precautions and 
other actions necessary to ensure the proper and safe per- 
formance of his or her duties as a certificate holder. 

6. When applying for a certificate of fitness relating to stor- 
age, handling and use of explosives, present proof of 
United States citizenship. 

113.5 Investigation. Applicants are subject to an investigation 
by the department in connection with their application and their 
qualifications and fitness for the certificate. 

113.6 Fingerprinting. Applicants for a certificate of fitness for 
the storage, use and handling of explosives, fireworks, pyro- 
technics and special effects shall be fingerprinted and a crimi- 
nal background check conducted for the purposes authorized 



14 



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ADMINISTRATION 



by law. The commissioner may require such fingerprinting and 
criminal background check for other certificates. 

113.7 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application 
for a certificate upon a determination that the applicant pos- 
sesses the qualifications and fitness required for such certifi- 
cate, as set forth in the code and the rules. 

113.7.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal 
thereof granted by the commissioner shall be for a period as 
specified therein, not to exceed 3 years, and shall expire at 
the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its 

renewal. 

113.7.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. 

Applicants may apply for renewal during the period from 60 
days prior to a certificate's expiration date to not more than 
one year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew 
certificates that have been expired for more than one year. 
Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original 
certificate and comply with all of the original certificate 
requirements. 

1 13.7.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discre- 
tion of the commissioner in the interest of public safety 
based on a review of the certificate holder's qualifications 
and fitness. The department may review the 1 certificate 
holder's qualifications and fitness and may require a certifi- 
cate holder to complete a department-approved continuing 
education program and/or provide other proof of the 
holder's continuing qualifications and fitness. 

113.8 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to perform or 
provide such supervision for a material, operation or facility 
authorized by a certificate after the term of such certificate has 
expired. 

113.9 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commis- 
sioner may, at any time, revoke or suspend a certificate for mis- 
conduct, or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be 
afforded notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such 
suspension or revocation except that, in the circumstance of an 
imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to 
be heard may be given promptly after such revocation or sus- 
pension. 



SECTION FC 114 
CERTIFICATES OF LICENSE 

114.1 Supervision required. The commissioner may require 
that the installation, alteration, testing and repair of liquid 
motor fuel storage and dispensing equipment and systems, and 
flammable or combustible liquid storage systems, be con- 
ducted by a person holding a certificate of license or by an 
employee of such certificate holder working under his or her 
direct supervision. 

114.2 Duties. In addition to any other responsibilities specified 
in this code or the rules, a certificate of license holder shall be 
responsible for: 

1 . The proper and safe installation, alteration, testing and 
repair of liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing equip- 
ment and systems, and flammable or combustible liquid 



storage systems in accordance with this code, the rules, 
and any other applicable laws, rules and regulations. 

2. Verifying that all required approvals from the depart- 
ment have been obtained prior to installing, altering, test- 
ing or repairing liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing 
equipment, and flammable or combustible liquid storage 
systems. 

3. Notifying the department of any explosion, fire, report- 
able leak or other release of hazardous material, or other 
emergency related to the duties of his or her certificate. 

114.3 Applications. Applications for new or renewal certifi- 
cates required by the provisions of this code or the rules shall be 
made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the com- 
missioner may prescribe, including such information and doc- 
umentation as the commissioner may require. 

114.4 Minimum qualifications. Applicants for certificates 
shall comply with the following minimum requirements: 

1. Be at least 18 years of age. 

2. Have a reasonable understanding of the English lan- 
guage and be able to answer satisfactorily such questions 
as may be asked of such applicant upon his or her exami- 
nation. 

3. Present such evidence of his or her character and past 
employment, as may be satisfactory to the commis- 
sioner. 

4. Present such evidence of his or her qualifications set 
forth in the rules or the department's notice of examina- 
tion for such certificate. 

5. Pass an examination, administered by the department or 
other entity, that tests the applicant's knowledge of the 
code, law, rules and regulations governing the installa- 
tion, alteration, testing and repair of liquid motor fuel 
storage and dispensing equipment and systems and flam- 
mable and combustible liquid storage systems the pre- 
cautions and other actions necessary to ensure the proper 
and safe performance of his or her duties as a certificate 
holder. 

114.5 Investigation. Applicants and their principals are sub- 
ject to an investigation by the department in connection with 
their application and their qualifications and fitness for the cer- 
tificate. 

114.6 Fingerprinting. The commissioner may require the fin- 
gerprinting and criminal background check of applicants for a 
certificate for purposes authorized by law. 

1 14.7 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application 
for a certificate of license upon a determination that the appli- 
cant possesses the qualifications and fitness required for such 
certificate, as set forth in the code and the rules. 

114.7.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal 
thereof granted by the commissioner shall be for a period as 
specified therein, not to exceed 2 years, and shall expire at 
the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its 
renewal. 

114.7.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. 

Applicants may apply for renewal during the period from 60 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



15 



ADMINISTRATION 



days prior to a certificate's expiration date to not more than 
one year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew 
certificates that have been expired for more than one year. 
Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original 
certificate and comply with all of the original certificate 
requirements. 

114.7.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discre- 
tion of the commissioner in the interest of public safety 
based on a review of the certificate holder's qualifications 
and fitness. The department may review the 1 certificate 
holder's qualifications and fitness and may require a certifi- 
cate holder to complete a department-approved continuing 
education program and/or provide other proof of the 
holder's continuing qualifications and fitness. 

114.8 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to engage in 
the business authorized by a certificate after the term of such 
certificate has expired. 

114.9 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commis- 
sioner may, at any time, revoke or suspend a certificate for mis- 
conduct or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be 
afforded notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such 
suspension or revocation except that, in the circumstance of an 
imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to 
be heard may be given promptly after such revocation or sus- 
pension. 

114.10 Insurance. The commissioner may require certificate 
holders to obtain and furnish proof of general liability insur- 
ance, in such amounts and in accordance with such require- 
ments, as may be set forth in the code or the rules, otherwise 
required by law, or required as a condition of the certificate 
issuance. The certificate shall expire by operation of law if any 
such required insurance lapses, expires or is cancelled during 
the term of the certificate. 



SECTION FC 115 
COMPANY CERTIFICATES 

115.1 Duties. A certificate holder shall be responsible for the 
safe manufacturing, storage, handling, use, operation, mainte- 
nance, inspection, testing, repair and/or supervision of the 
activity for which the certificate is required, in accordance with 
this code, the rules and any other applicable laws, rules or regu- 
lations. 

115.2 Applications. Applications for new or renewal certifi- 
cates required by the provisions of this code or the rules shall be 
made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as the com- 
missioner may prescribe, including such information and doc- 
umentation as the commissioner may require. 

115.3 Minimum qualifications. Applicants and their princi- 
pals shall submit evidence acceptable to the commissioner of 
such experience and qualifications as set forth in this code, the 
rules or the department's notice of examination for such certifi- 
cate. 

115.4 Investigation. Applicants and their principals are sub- 
ject to an investigation by the department in connection with 
their application and their qualifications and fitness for the cer- 
tificate. 



1 15.5 Fingerprinting. The commissioner may require the fin- 
gerprinting and criminal background check of applicants for a 
certificate and their principals. 

115.6 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application 
for a company certificate upon a determination that the appli- 
cant possesses all of the qualifications for such certificate, as 
set forth in the code and the rules. 

115.6.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal 
thereof granted by the commissioner shall be for a period as 
specified therein, not to exceed 2 years, and shall expire at 
the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its 
renewal. 

115.6.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. 

Applicants may apply for renewal during the period from 60 
days prior to a certificate's expiration date to not more than 
one year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew 
certificates that have been expired for more than one year. 
Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original 
certificate and comply with all of the original certificate 
requirements. 

115.6.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discre- 
tion of the commissioner in the interest of public safety 
based on a review of the certificate holder's qualifications 
and fitness. The department may review the 1 certificate 
holder's qualifications and fitness and may require a certifi- 
cate holder to complete a department-approved continuing 
education program and/or provide other proof of the 
holder's continuing qualifications and fitness. 

115.7 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to engage in 
the business authorized by a certificate after the term of such 
certificate has expired. 

115.8 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commis- 
sioner may, at any time, revoke or suspend a certificate for mis- 
conduct or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be 
afforded notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such 
suspension or revocation except that, in the circumstance of an 
imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to 
be heard may be given promptly after such revocation or sus- 
pension. 

115.9 Misrepresentation as department employees. No per- 
son may falsely represent himself or herself to be a member or 
agent of the department. 

115.10 Insurance. The commissioner may require certificate 
holders to obtain and furnish proof of general liability insur- 
ance, in such amounts and in accordance with such require- 
ments, as may be set forth in the code or the rules, otherwise 
required by law, or required as a condition of the certificate 
issuance. The certificate shall expire by operation of law if any 
such required insurance lapses, expires or is cancelled during 
the term of the certificate. 



SECTION FC 116 
EXPEDITOR REGISTRATION CERTIFICATES 

116.1 Registration. No person may submit, file, request, nego- 
tiate or otherwise seek approval of applications for issuance of 
permits, or other approvals, including approval of design and 



16 



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ADMINISTRATION 



installation documents, without first having obtained an 
expeditor registration certificate in accordance with this sec- 
tion and the rules. It shall be unlawful to hold oneself out to the 
public or otherwise represent that one is "registered with the 
fire department," "registered" or make any similar representa- 
tion in such a manner as to convey the impression that such per- 
son is registered with the department unless such person is 
registered in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions: The following persons are exempt from the 
provisions of this section: 

1. Any person or entity making application on his, her 
or its own behalf. If the applicant is a partnership or 
corporation, the general partners and principal offi- 
cers thereof shall be included within this exception. 
Principal officers of a corporation shall include the 
president, vice presidents, secretary and treasurer. 

2. The occupants of a premises that is the subject of the 
application, if authorized by the owner to file the 
application. 

3. Registered architects licensed by the New York 
State Department of Education. 

4. Professional engineers licensed by the New York 
State Department of Education. 

5. Attorneys admitted to practice in New York State. 

6. Master plumbers licensed by the Commissioner of 
Buildings, when such application relates to work 
performed under their license. 

7. Master fire suppression piping contractors licensed 
by the Commissioner of Buildings, when such 
application relates to work performed under their 
license. 

8. Master electricians licensed by the Commissioner 
of Buildings, when such application relates to work 
performed under their license. 

9 . Certificate of license holders , when such application 
relates to work performed under their license. 

1 0. Fire safety director or fire safety /emergency action 
plan director certificate holders when the applica- 
tion relates to the fire safety and evacuation plan or 
emergency action plan of the building for which 
they are registered. 

116.2 Applications. Applications for new or renewal 
expeditor registration certificates required by Section 116.1 
shall be made to the commissioner, in such form and detail as 
the commissioner may prescribe, including such information 
and documentation as the commissioner may require. 

116.3 Investigation. Applicants are subject to an investigation 
by the department in connection with their application and their 
qualifications and fitness for the certificate. 

116.4 Fingerprinting. The commissioner may require finger- 
printing and a criminal background check for a certificate for 
purposes authorized by law. 

116.5 Issuance. The commissioner may grant an application 
for a certificate upon a determination that the applicant pos- 
sesses all of the qualifications for such certificate, as set forth in 



the code and the rules, qualifying the applicant to appear before 
the department to submit, file, request, negotiate or otherwise 
seek approval of applications for issuance of permits, or other 
approvals. 

116.5.1 Term of certificate. Every certificate or renewal 
thereof granted by the commissioner shall be for a period as 
specified therein, not to exceed 2 years, and shall expire at 
the end of such period unless the commissioner approves its 
renewal. 

116.5.2 Time for submission of renewal applications. 

Applicants may apply for renewal during the period from 60 
days prior to a certificate's expiration date to not more than 
one year after such date. The commissioner shall not renew 
certificates that have been expired for more than one year. 
Persons holding such certificates must apply for an original 
certificate and comply with all of the original certificate 
requirements. 

116.5.3 Renewal. Certificate renewals shall be at the discre- 
tion of the commissioner in the interest of public safety 
based on a review of the certificate holder's qualifications 
and fitness. 

116.6 Expired certificates. It shall be unlawful to engage in 
the business authorized by a certificate when the term of such 
certificate has expired. 

116.7 Certificate revocation and suspension. The commis- 
sioner may, at any time, revoke or suspend a certificate for mis- 
conduct or other good cause. The certificate holder shall be 
afforded notice and an opportunity to be heard prior to any such 
suspension or revocation except that, in the circumstance of an 
imminent threat to public safety, such notice and opportunity to 
be heard may be given promptly after such revocation or sus- 
pension. 



SECTION FC 117 
FEES 

117.1 Fees. Fees shall be as set forth in Appendix A. 

117.2 Fee exemptions. Exemptions from department fees 
shall be in accordance with Sections 117.2.1 through 117.2.3. 

117.2.1 Permit, inspection and performance test fee 
exemption. The provisions of this code as to the payment of 
fees for permits, inspections or witnessing of required sys- 
tem performance tests shall not apply to premises used and 
owned or operated by a church, corporation or association 
organized and operated exclusively for religious, charitable 
or educational purposes that is qualified as an exempt orga- 
nization pursuant to United States Internal Revenue Code 
Section 501(c)(3), provided that no part of the net earnings 
enures to the benefit of any private shareholder or individ- 
ual, and provided further, that this exemption shall apply 
only to such portions of the premises as are used by such 
church, corporation or association for religious, charitable 
or educational purposes. 

117.2.2 Individual certificate fee exemption. Employees 
of the city who submit evidence satisfactory to the commis- 
sioner that they require such certificate as a condition of 
their continued employment with the city shall be exempt 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



17 



ADMINISTRATION 



from payment of any application, written examination, 
practical examination and renewal fees. This fee exemption 
shall not include any required late renewal or fingerprinting 
fees. Certificate holders converting their certificate from 
fee-exempt to non-fee-exempt status shall be required to 
pay all applicable original application, written examination 
and practical examination fees previously waived. 

117.2.3 Company certificate fee exemption. Agencies of 
the city that require certificates to conduct the business of 
their agency shall be exempt from payment of certificate 
fees. 

117.3 Penalties and fees for late renewal. Failure to timely 
render payment of fees for any certificate, permit or other 
approval issued by the commissioner, or service provided by 
the department, shall be sufficient grounds for denial of a cer- 
tificate, permit or other approval or service, or renewal thereof. 
Fees for late renewal shall be in accordance with Sections 
117.3.1 through 117.3.2.2. 

117.3.1 Late renewal of certificates. In addition to the pay- 
ment of the renewal fee, any applicant renewing a certificate 
more than 90 days but less than one year after its expiration 
date shall be subject to a late filing charge of 50 percent of 
the renewal fee or 25 dollars, whichever is greater. 

117.3.2 Late renewal of permits. Fees for late permit 
renewal shall be in accordance with Sections 1 17.3.2.1 and 
1 17.3.2.2, except the commissioner may waive the payment 
of late filing fees or prior annual fees, or both, upon a deter- 
mination that the late renewal was caused by circumstances 
beyond the control of the applicant. 

117.3.2.1 Renewal within one year. In addition to the 
payment of the renewal fee, any applicant renewing a 
permit more than 90 days but less than one year after its 
expiration date shall be subject to a late filing charge of 
50 percent of the renewal fee. 

117.3.2.2 Renewal after one year. In addition to the 
payment of the renewal fee, any applicant renewing a 
permit later than one year after its expiration date shall be 
subject to a late filing charge of 100 percent of the 
renewal fee. Such applicant shall be liable also for all the 
annual fees which should have been paid from the date 
on which the permit expired to the date on which such 
permit was renewed. 

117.3.3 Late payment of fees for services. All fees for ser- 
vices rendered by the department, including inspections and 
witnessing of tests, shall be paid within 30 days of receipt of 
the bill therefor. Any disputes regarding such bill shall be 
submitted in writing within 20 days of the date of receipt 
thereof. Failure to timely remit payment shall subject the 
owner or other person receiving such service to be addition- 
ally liable to the department for interest on the compensa- 
tion due and owing to the department. Such interest shall be 
computed for the period from the date of the bill to the date 
of payment, based on the amount of the bill and the rate of 
interest set forth in Section 5004 of the New York Civil 
Practice Law and Rules. 



117.4 Liens on property for permit and inspection fees. 
Liens on property for permit and inspection fees shall be as fol- 
lows: 

1. Any unpaid fee for an inspection performed by the 
department pursuant to law or rule, any unpaid fee for the 
issuance or renewal pursuant to this code of a permit to 
manufacture, store, handle, use or sell hazardous materi- 
als or combustible materials, or conduct an operation or 
maintain a facility on land or in a building specified 
therein, and any unpaid penalties imposed for late pay- 
ment of any such renewal fees shall constitute a lien upon 
the land and buildings upon or in respect to which such 
inspection was performed, or upon the land and build- 
ings specified in such permit, as hereinafter provided. 

2. There shall be filed in the office of the department a 
record of all fees for inspections performed by or on 
behalf of the department, all fees for permits to manufac- 
ture, store, handle, use or sell hazardous materials or 
combustible materials, or conduct an operation or main- 
tain a facility on land or in a building issued or renewed 
by the department, and all penalties for late payment of 
any such renewal fees imposed by the department. Such 
records shall be kept on a building by building basis and 
shall be accessible to the public during normal business 
hours. An entry of a fee on the records of the department 
shall constitute notice to all parties. 

3. All such unpaid fees shall constitute a lien upon the land 
and building upon or in respect to which such inspection 
was performed, or upon the land and buildings specified 
in such permit, when the amount thereof shall have been 
definitely computed as a statement of account by the 
department, and the department shall cause to be filed in 
the office of the city collector an entry of the account 
stated in the book in which such charges against the pre- 
mises are to be entered. Such lien shall have a priority 
over all other liens and encumbrances except for the lien 
of taxes and assessments. However, no lien created pur- 
suant to this section shall be enforced against a subse- 
quent purchaser in good faith or mortgagee in good faith 
unless such transaction occurred after the date of entry of 
a fee on the records of the department pursuant to Section 
117.4(2). 

4. A notice thereof, stating the amount due and the nature of 
the charge, shall be mailed by the city collector, within 5 
days after such entry, to the last known address of the 
person whose name appears on the records in the office 
of the city collector as being the owner or agent or as a 
person designated by the owner to receive tax bills or, 
where no name appears, to the premises, addressed to 
either the owner or the agent. 

5. If such charge is not paid within 30 days from the date of 
entry, it shall be the duty of the city collector to receive 
interest thereon at a rate of 1 5 percent per annum, to be 
calculated to the date of payment from the date of entry . 

6. Such charges and the interest thereon shall continue to 
be, until paid, a lien on the premises. Such lien shall be a 
tax lien within the meaning of Sections 11-319 and 



18 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



1 1-401 of the New York City Administrative Code and 
may be sold, enforced or foreclosed in the manner pro- 
vided in Chapters 1 , 3 and 4 of Title 1 1 of the New York 
City Administrative Code or may be satisfied in accor- 
dance with Section 1354 of the New York State Real 
Property Actions and Proceedings Law. 

7. Such notice mailed by the city collector pursuant to this 
section shall have stamped or printed thereon a reference 
to this section of this code. 

8. In any proceedings to enforce or discharge a lien created 
pursuant to this section, the validity of the lien shall not 
be subject to challenge based on the lawfulness of the 
inspection, or the propriety and accuracy of the fee for 
which a lien is claimed, except as provided in this sec- 
tion. 

9. No such challenge may be made except by the owner of 
the property, or a mortgagee or lienor whose mortgage or 
lien would, but for the provisions of this section, have 
priority over the department's lien. 

117.5 Disposition of revenues. All fees, fines and forfeitures 
and all proceeds of suits for penalties, which may be paid or 
collected pursuant to this code, shall be paid into the general 
fund of the city established pursuant to Section 109 of the New 
York City Charter. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 19 



20 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION FC 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings set 
forth in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words stated in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the construction codes or 
Electrical Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to 
them as in those codes. Any reference to any of the construction 
codes shall be deemed to include any related or other applica- 
ble provisions of any of the construction codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have the ordinarily accepted meanings as the context 

* implies. 

1 SECTION FC 202 

* DEFINITIONS 

AEROSOL. See Section 2802.1. 

* Level 1. See Section 2802.1. 

* Level 2. See Section 2802. 1 . 

* Level 3. See Section 2802. 1 . 
AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1. 
AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802. 1 . 

IAIRBLAST. See Section 3302.1. 
AIRCRAFT LANDING SITE. See Section 1 102.1. 
AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA. See Section 1102.1. 
1 AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402. 1 . 
AIRPORT. See Section 1 102.1 . 
AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Section 3402.1. 

ALTERATION. Any addition to, or modification of, an exist- 
ing installation, other than any repair made in the ordinary 
course of maintenance. 

AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302.1. 

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

■ APPLICATION. An application submitted to the commis- 
sioner for a permit, certificate or other approval or determina- 



tion issued or made by the commissioner pursuant to this code 
or other law, rule or regulation, including documents and oraL 
representations submitted in connection with such application. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the commissioner. 

AREAWAY. See Section 502.1. 

ARRAY. See Section 2302.1. 

ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1. 

ASSISTANT BLASTER. See Section 3302.1. 1 

AUTOMATIC. See Section 902. 1 . * 

AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202. 1 . 

AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING FACIL- I 
ITY. See Section 302.1. | 

AVIATION FACILITY. See Section 1102.1. 1 

BARRICADE. See Section 3302. 1 . 

Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1. 

Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1. 

BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1. 

BATTERY, LEAD ACID. See Section 602.1. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See 
Section 602.1. 

BATTERY, VALVE-REGULATED LEAD- ACID (VRLA). 
See Section 602. 1 . 

BATTERY, VENTED (FLOODED) LEAD-ACID. See Sec- 
tion 602.1. 

BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1. 

BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1. 

BLAST SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTER. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302. 1 . 

BLASTING CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. See Section 
3302.1. 

BLASTING CREW. See Section 3302.1. 

BLASTING OPERATION. See Section 3302.1. 

BOILING POINT. See Section 2702.1. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to 
raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1°F 
(0.5565°C). 

BUILDING. An enclosed structure designed or occupied to 
house any use or occupancy. 

BUILDING CODE. The New York City Building Code in 
effect on and after July 1 , 2008. 

BULK NITROUS OXIDE SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1. 

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1. 

BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

CARGO TANK. See Section 2702.1. 

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product. 

CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1. 

CENTRAL STATION. See Section 902.1. 

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL. A written statement issued 
by the commissioner, certifying that an article, device or equip- 
ment, or type, class or kind thereof, has been examined, tested 
and approved for a specific purpose or use in conformity with 
the requirements of this code or the rules. 

CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS. A written statement issued by 
the commissioner certifying that the person to whom it is 
issued has passed an examination as to his or her qualifications 
or is otherwise deemed qualified to use or supervise the stor- 
age, handling and use of a material, conduct or supervise an 
operation, or supervisee facility for which such certificate is 
required by this code or the rules. 

CERTIFICATE OF LICENSE. A written statement issued 
by the commissioner authorizing the operation of a business to 
install, alter, test or repair liquid motor fuel storage and dis- 
pensing equipment and systems or flammable or combustible 
liquid storage systems, for which such certificate is required by 
this code or the rules. 

CERTIFICATE OF OPERATION. See Section 902.1. 

CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION. See Section 602. 1 . 

CERTIFIED ATTENDANT. See Section 2202.1. 

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1. 

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702.1. 

I CITY WIDE STANDARD KEY. See Section 502.1. 

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 

CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

■ CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of any compressed gas, and the 
use of a solid or liquid hazardous material in equipment or a 
vessel or system that remains closed during normal operation, 

I such that vapors emitted during the operation of such equip- 
ment, vessel, or system are not liberated outside of the equip- 
ment, vessel or system and the gas or hazardous material is not 
exposed to the atmosphere during such operation. Examples of 

■ closed systems include hazardous materials conveyed through 
a piping system into closed equipment or a closed vessel or sys- 
tem. 

CNG. See Section 2202.1. 

CNG MOTOR FUEL. See Section 2202.1. 

CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Sec- 
tion 2202.1. 

CNG MOTOR FUEL SYSTEM. See Section 2202.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1. 



COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

COMBUSTIBLE WASTE. Any substance, item or other 
organic or inorganic matter that presents a fire hazard and is a 
byproduct or residue of the construction, use or occupancy of 
any premises, or any activity conducted thereon, that has no 
economic value in connection with such use or occupancy. A 
combustible waste that has economic value in connection with 
the use and occupancy of such premises shall be deemed to be a 
combustible material. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Section 
602.1. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST SYSTEM SER- 
VICING COMPANY CERTIFICATE. See Section 902.1. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

COMMISSIONER. Fire Commissioner of the City of New 
York or his or her duly authorized representative. 

COMMODITY. See Section 2302. 1 . 

COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1. 

Compressed gases in solution. See Section 3002.1. 

Compressed gas mixtures. See Section 3002.1. 

Liquefied compressed gases. See Section 3002.1. 

Nonliquefied compressed gases. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1. 

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002. 1 . 

CONDITION. The location or manner at or in which a mate- 
rial may be manufactured, stored, handled, used, or an opera- 
tion conducted, upon a premises. 

CONIFER. See Section 802.1 . 

CONSTRUCTION CODES. The New York City construc- 
tion codes, consisting of the New York City Building, Fuel 
Gas, Mechanical and Plumbing Codes in effect on and after 
July 1 , 2008. 

CONSTRUCTION SITE. See Section 1402.1. 

CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1. 

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
1802.1. 

CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

CORROSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3102.1 . 

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1. 

DANGER ZONE. See Section 3302.1. 

DECORATION. See Section 802.1. 

DECORATIVE MATERIAL. See Section 802.1. 

DEFINED FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 



22 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1. 

DEPARTMENT. The Fire Department of the City of New 
York. 

DESIGN AND INSTALLATION DOCUMENTS. Plans 
and specifications, or other written, graphic and pictorial docu- 
ments or submissions, setting forth the location, design, 
arrangement and physical characteristics of the device, equip- 
ment, system, operation or facility for which approval by the 
commissioner is sought. 

DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1. 

DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1. 

DETEARING. See Section 1502.1. 

DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1. 

DETONATION. See Section 3302.1. 

DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1. 

DEVELOPMENT. See Section 502.1. 

DIP TANK. See Section 1502.1. 

DISCHARGE AREA. See Section 1102.1. 

DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 
2202.1. 

DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

DOTn. United States Department of Transportation. 

DOTy. United States Department of Treasury. 

DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1. 

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING FACILITY. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Section 1202.1. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1. 

EAP DIRECTOR. See Section 401.7.2. 

EAP DRILL. See Section 402. 1. 

EAP STAFF. See Section 402. 1 . 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1. 

' ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1. 

EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN. See Section 402.1. 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1 802. 1 . 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 
Section 1002.1. 

' EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1. 

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 2702.1. 
'EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 



EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1 002. 1 . 
EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1. 
EXPLOSION. See Section 2702.1. 
EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1. 

High Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1. 

Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302. 1. 

EXTERNAL LOAD. See Section 1 102.1 . 

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See 
Section 2302.1. 

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1. 

FACILITY. Any premises at, in or upon which a material regu- 
lated by this code is manufactured, stored, handled, used or 
transported, or an operation regulated by this code is con- 
ducted. 

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302. 1 . 

FINISHED PYROXYLIN PLASTIC PRODUCTS. See 

Section 4202.1. 

FIRE. A rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases heat 
and light, especially the burning of a combustible substance in 
the presence of oxygen. For purposes of this code, aflame used 
in any lawful, properly operating device, equipment or system 
or other controlled setting shall not be considered a fire. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1 . 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SUB-SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD KEY. See Section 
502.1. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, 
frame, hardware, and other components. 

FIRE DRILL. See Section 402.1. 

FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE GUARD. See Section 2602.1. 

FIRE LANE. See Section 502.1. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire. 

FIRE POINT. See Section 3402.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE-RETARDANT COATING. See Section 802. 1 . 1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLAN. See Section 
402.1. 

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure con- 
tinuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion 
thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of 
identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs 
of fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the department. 

FIREWORKS. See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 3302.1. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302.1. 

FIREWORKS CONTRACTOR CERTIFICATE. See Sec- 
tion 3302. 1 . 

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1. 

FLAME-RESISTANT MATERIAL. See Section 802.1. 

FLAME-RETARDANT TREATMENT. See Section 802. 1 . 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STOR- 
AGE SYSTEM. See Section 3402.1. 

FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202. 1 . 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502.1. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. See Section 

2202.1. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600°F (3 1°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702. 1 . 

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1. 

FLEET AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DIS- 

PENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

FLEET CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. 
See Section 2202.1. 

FLEET MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENS- 
ING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1 . 

FLOOR FINISHING OPERATION. See Section 1502.1. 

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1. 

FRONTAGE SPACE. See Section 502. 1. 

FSP STAFF. See Section 402.1 . 

FUEL GAS CODE. New York City Fuel Gas Code. 

FULL SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR 
FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

FULL SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 



FULL SERVICE MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DIS- 
PENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

FUME CLASS 1. See Section 3302.1. 

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1. 

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1. 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOG- 
GING OPERATION COMPANY CERTIFICATE. See 
Section 1702.1. 

FURNACE. See Section 2102.1. 

Class A. See Section 2102.1. 

Class B. See Section 2102.1. 

Class C. See Section 2102.1 . 

Class D. See Section 2102.1. 

FURNISHING. See Section 802.1. 

GAS CABINET. See Section 2702.1. 

GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1. 

GENERAL SUPERVISION. Except as otherwise provided 
in this code, supervision by the holder of any department certif- 
icate who is responsible for performing the duties set forth in 
Section 113.2 but need not be personally present on the pre- 
mises at all times. 

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See 
Section 1802.1. 

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1. 

HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATION. See Section 1102.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1. 

HELISTOP. See Section 1102.1. 

HI-BOY. See Section 302.1. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 

2302.1. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1. 

HIGHLY TOXIC MATERIAL. See Section 3702.1. 

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1. 

HOOD. See Section 602.1. 

Type I. See Section 602.1. 

HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATION. See Section 1102.1. 

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM AUTHORIZATIONS. See Sec- 
tion 2602.1. 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1. 

HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1. 



24 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



HYDRANT-FUELING VEHICLE. See Section 1102.1. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 2702.1. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1. 
INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1. 

INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

IRRITANT. A material which is not corrosive, but which 
causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A material shall be classi- 
fied a skin irritant if, when tested in accordance with the regula- 
tions of the United States Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, as set forth in 16 CFR Section 1500.41, it results 
in an empirical score of 5 or more. A material shall be classified 
as an eye irritant in accordance with the regulations of the 
United States Consumer Product Safety Commission, as set 
forth in 1 6 CFR Section 1 500.42. 

JOB SITE. See Section 3302.1. 

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1. 

LABELED. A listed material, device, equipment or system to 
which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying 
mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory or other 
approved organization, and whose labeling indicates compli- 
ance with nationally recognized standards and designates suit- 
able usage. 

LABORATORY CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1. 

LABORATORY UNIT. See Section 2702.1. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202.1. 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG). See Section 
3802.1. 

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1. 

LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. See Section 2202.1. 

LIQUID MOTOR FUEL STORAGE AND DISPENSING 
SYSTEM. See Section 2202.1. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1. 

LIQUID-TIGHT 4 CONSTRUCTION. Construction 
designed to prevent a liquid manufactured, stored, handled or 
used in a room or other area from escaping from such room or 
other area by means of penetration through a surface. 

LISTED. A material, device, equipment or system included on 
a list published by a nationally recognized testing laboratory or 
other approved organization performing product evaluations 
that maintains periodic inspection of production of such listed 
material, device, equipment or system, and whose listing indi- 
cates compliance with nationally recognized standards and 
designates suitable usage. 

LOADER. See Section 3302.1. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

LOW-PRESSURE CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1. 



LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAGAZINE. See Section 3302. 1 . 

MAGAZINE KEEPER. See Section 3302. 1 . 1 

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302. 1 . 

MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 
2702.1. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE 1 
(MAWP). See Section 3202. 1 . § 

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL CODE. The 1 New York City Mechanical 1 
Code. 1 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 
2302.1. 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1. 

MINIMUM SECURED RADIUS. See Section 3302. 1 . I 

MORTAR. See Section 3302.1. 

MOTOR VEHICLE. See Section 2202. 1 . I 

MUCKING. See Section 3 302. 1 . I 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

NESTING. See Section 3002.1. 

NATURAL DECORATIVE GREEN. See Section 802. 1 . J 

NATURAL TREE. See Section 802. 1 . 1 

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 
3302.1. 

NON-PRODUCTION LABORATORY. See Section I 

2702.1. 1 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). 
See Section 2702.1. 

OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building 
or space is used or designed to be used. References to occu- 
pancy classification shall be deemed to include the equivalent 
occupancy classifications under the 1968 Building Code and 
all prior Building Codes or other applicable laws, rules and reg- 
ulations. The occupancy classifications used in this code are 
defined as follows: 

Group A. An assembly occupancy, including Groups A-l, 
A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5, as defined in Section 303 of the 
Building Code. 

Group B. A business occupancy, as defined in Section 304 
of the Building Code. 

Group E. An educational occupancy, as defined in Section 
305 of the Building Code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



25 



DEFINITIONS 



Group F. A factory and industrial occupancy, including 
Groups F-l and F-2, as defined in Section 306 of the Build- 
ing Code. 

Group H. A high-hazard occupancy, including H-l, H-2, 
H-3, H-4 and H-5, as defined in Section 307 of the Building 
Code. 

Group I. An institutional occupancy, including Groups 1-1, 
1-2, 1-3 and 1-4, as defined in Section 308 of the Building 
Code. 

Group M. A mercantile occupancy, as defined in Section 
309 of the Building Code. 

Group R. A residential occupancy, including Groups R-l, 
R-2 and R-3, as defined in Section 310 of the Building 
Code. 

Group S. A storage occupancy, including Groups S-l and 
S-2, as defined in Section 31 1 of the Building Code. 

Group U. A utility and miscellaneous occupancy, as 
defined in Section 312 of the Building Code. 

OFFICE BUILDING. See Section 402.1. 

OPEN FIRES. See Section 302.1. 

OPEN FLAME. See Section 302.1. 

OPEN-FLAME DEVICE. See Section 302.1. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial in equipment or a vessel, or system that remains open dur- 
ing normal operation, such that vapors are emitted during the 
operation of such equipment, vessel or system and the material 
is exposed to the atmosphere during such operation. Examples 
of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from 
or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank 
operations. 

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a device, 
equipment or system operates. 

ORGANIC COATING. See Section 2002.1 . 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1. 

Class I. See Section 3902.1. 

Class II. See Section 3902.1. 

Class III. See Section 3902.1. 

Class IV. See Section 3902.1. 

Class V. See Section 3902.1. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902. 1 . 

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1. 

§ OUT-OF-SERVICE 4 SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when: (1) the 
number of occupants present in any premises or part thereof 
exceeds the maximum number of occupants specified for such 
premises or part thereof by the certificate of occupancy or other 
authorization issued by the New York City Department of 
Buildings, or, in the absence of such certificate or authoriza- 
tion, the maximum number of occupants established by using 
the applicable occupant-area allowances set forth in Section 
1004.1 of the Building Code; or (2) the commissioner deter- 



mines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants of any 
premises or part thereof by reason of the number of persons on 
the premises and/or the presence of persons sitting and/or 
standing in locations that may obstruct or impede access to 
means of egress, including obstructing or impeding access to 
aisles, passages, corridors, stairways or exits. 

OWNER. The owner of the freehold of any real property (as 
defined in section two of the Real Property Law), or of a lesser 
estate therein, a mortgagee or vendee in possession, assignee of 
rents, receiver, executor, trustee, lessee, agent, or any other per- 
son, firm or corporation, directly or indirectly in control of real 
property. Any reference in this code to the owner of any struc- 
ture shall be deemed to designate collectively any and all of the 
foregoing, including, but not limited to, the owner of the free- 
hold or lesser estate therein and a managing agent designated 
by such owner pursuant to Section 27-2098 of the New York 
City Administrative Code. 

OXIDIZER. See Section 4002.1. 

Class 1. See Section 4002.1. 

Class 2. See Section 4002.1. 

Class 3. See Section 4002.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4002.1. 

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1 . 

OZONE GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1. 

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1. 

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 
2702.1. 

PERMIT. A written statement issued by the commissioner 
authorizing the manufacture, storage, handling, use or trans- 
portation of a hazardous material, or other material, or to con- 
duct an operation or to maintain a facility, for which a permit is 
required by this code. 

PERSONAL SUPERVISION. Except as otherwise provided 
in this code, supervision by the holder of any department certif- 
icate who is required to be personally present on the premises, 
or other proximate location acceptable to the department, while 
performing the duties for which the certificate is required. 

PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1. 

PLUMBING CODE. The 1 New York City Plumbing Code. 

PORTABLE COOKING EQUIPMENT. See Section 902. 1 . 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SALES COMPANY 
CERTIFICATE. See Section 902.1. 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SERVICING COM- 
PANY CERTIFICATE. See Section 902.1. 

PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT. See 302.1 

PORTABLE SPACE HEATER. See Section 302.1. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1. 

PREMISES. Any real property, including buildings and struc- 
tures thereon, or any part thereof. 

PRESIGNAL SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702. 1 . 



26 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of contain- 
ment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which 
comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the 
material being contained. 

PRIMER. See Section 3302.1. 

PRIVATE ROAD. See Section 502.1. 

PRIVATE STREET. See Section 502.1 . 

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1. 

PROCESSING VESSEL. See Section 3402.1. 

PROPELLANT. See Section 2802.1. 

PROTECTED EXPOSURE. See Section 3302.1. 

PROTECTED PREMISES. See Section 902.1. 

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1. 

PUBLIC STREET. See Section 502.1. 

PYROPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 4102.1. 

' PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE OR DEVICE. See Section 
3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1. 

PYROTECHNIC SUPPLIER CERTIFICATE. See Section 
3302.1. 

PYROXYLIN PLASTIC. See Section 4202.1. 

RACK STORAGE. See Section 2302.1. 

RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1. 
' RAW PYROXYLIN PLASTIC. See Section 4202.1. 

READY BOX. See Section 3302.1. 
' REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1. 

REFINERY. See Section 3402.1. 

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1. 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. See Section 602.1. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect 
registered to practice the profession of architecture, or an engi- 
neer licensed to practice the profession of engineering, as set 
forth in the laws, rules and regulations of the State of New 
York. 

REGULAR BUSINESS HOURS. See Section 402.1. 

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1. 

REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1. 

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1. 

ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBISH. Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, 
including dust, dirt, ashes, rags, paper, cartons, cans, plastic 
and glass containers, and discarded appliances. 

RULES. Rules of the commissioner, promulgated pursuant to 
the authority granted by the New York City Charter, this code, 
or other law, rule or regulation. 



SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702. 1 . 

SCENERY. See Section 802. 1 . | 

SEAPLANE BASE. See Section 1 1 02. 1 . ■ 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702. 1 . 

SELF-SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR 
FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1. 

SELF-SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 1 
FACILITY. See Section 2202. 1 . I 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See 

Section 1802.1. 

SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 3302. 1 . I 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1. 

SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302.1. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902. 1 . 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. See Section 3302.1. 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION PRIMERS. See Section 
3302.1. 

SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE DETECTOR MAINTENANCE COMPANY 1 
CERTIFICATE. See Section 902. 1 . I 

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302.1. 

SOLID. See Section 2702.1. 

SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302.1. 

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402. 1 . 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is 
temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or sys- 
tem that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, 
around or over a course in any direction as a form of amuse- 
ment arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent 
due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally con- 
founded egress path, or is not readily available because of the 
mode of conveyance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302. 1 . 1 

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Sec- 
tion 3302.1. 

SPONSOR. See Section 3302.1. 1 

SPRAY AREA. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1502.1. _ 

SPRAY SPACE. See Section 1502.1. 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1 

STAGING AREA. See Section 1102.1. 

STANDARD CUBIC FEET (SCF). See Section 2702.1. 

STANDPIPE, MULTI-ZONE. See Section 902.1. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the Building Code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



27 



DEFINITIONS 



■ STRUCTURE. Any construction on, above or below real 
property, including buildings, enclosures, sheds and tents. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 
Section 902.1. 

SYSTEM. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L). 

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1. 

TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1 . 

TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402. 1 . 

■ TANK, PROTECTED ABOVEGROUND. See Section 
2202.1 and Section 3402.1. 

TANK, STATIONARY. See Section 2702.1 . 

TENT. See Section 2402.1 . 

THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 
1702.1. 

I TNT EQUIVALENT. See Section 3302. 1 . 

TOOL. See Section 1802.1. 

TORCH- APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 
1 TOXIC MATERIAL. See Section 3702. 1 . 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1. 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

I UNDERGROUND BUILDING. See Section 402.1 . 
UNNECESSARY ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
4302.1. 

Class 1. See Section 4302.1 

Class 2. See Section 4302.1. 

Class 3. See Section 4302.1. 

Class 4. See Section 4302.1. 
■ UNWARRANTED ALARM. See Section 902.1. 
VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502.1. 
VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702. 1. 

(VENDOR. See Section 3302. 1 . 
VIEWING AREA. See Section 3302.1. 
WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 1. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 2. See Section 4402.1. 
Class 3. See Section 4402. 1 . 
WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1. 

(ZONING RESOLUTION. The 1 New York City Zoning Res- 
olution. 



28 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



SECTION FC 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the operation and main- 
tenance of buildings, structures and premises with respect to 
precautions to prevent fire and the spread of fire. This chapter 
shall additionally govern the design, installation, operation and 
maintenance of the operations, facilities and premises set forth 
herein. 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6. 



SECTION FC 302 
DEFINITIONS 

302.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meanings shown herein. 

AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING 
FACILITY. Any premises used for the dismantling and/or 
wrecking of motor vehicles in connection with the sale of auto 
parts or scrap metal. 

HI-BOY. A cart used to move hot roofing materials on a roof. 

OPEN FIRES. The burning of materials wherein products of 
combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without 
passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. 
For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded 
as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, only 
apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide 
combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open. 

OPEN FLAME. A flame that is generated by any material or 
device in a sustained and controlled manner and that is not 
securely enclosed by noncombustible material, such as a candle 
that is unenclosed or enclosed in a globe or lantern, or a gas light 
lantern, but not a flame contained in a furnace or other similar 
approved device, equipment or system. Torches operated in 
accordance with Chapter 26 and lighted smoking paraphernalia 
shall not be considered an open flame. 

OPEN-FLAME DEVICE. Any device utilizing an open flame. 

PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT. Any portable device, 
equipment or system, whether or not flue-connected, that uti- 
lizes a flammable or combustible liquid or flammable gas as a 
fuel, except an open-flame device. 

PORTABLE SPACE HEATER. Any portable equipment 
designed or used for space heating that utilizes a combustible 
liquid or flammable gas as a fuel, whether or not flue-connected. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, 
platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an elec- 
trical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial 



trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for 
highway use. 



SECTION FC 303 
TAR KETTLES 

303.1 Transporting. Tar kettles shall not be transported or oth- 
erwi se moved when the heat source for the kettle is operating . < 

Exception: Tar kettles in the process of patching road sur- 
faces. 

303.2 Location. Tar kettles shall not be located within 20 feet 
(6096 mm) of any combustible material, combustible building 
surface or any building opening and within a controlled area 
identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or other approved 
means. Tar kettles and pots shall not be utilized inside or on the 
roof of a building or structure. Roofing kettles and operating tar 
kettles shall not block means of egress, gates, roadways or 
entrances. 

303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be 
located at least 1 feet (3048 mm) from the burner. 

Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or 
flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the burner. 

303.4 Supervision. An operating tar kettle requiring a permit 
shall be under the personal supervision of a person holding a cer- 
tificate of fitness. The certificate of fitness holder shall be within 
100 feet (30 480 mm) of the kettle, have the kettle within sight 
and have unobstructed access to the kettle. Ladders and other 
obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the certifi- 
cate of fitness holder and the kettle. The certificate of fitness 
holder shall not have to climb or descend a ladder or circumvent 
any obstacle to gain access to the kettle. 

303.5 Portable fire extinguishers. There shall be at least one 
portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of 
Section 906 and with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating within 25 
feet (7620 mm) of each tar kettle during the period such kettle is 
being utilized, and one additional portable fire extinguisher 
with a minimum 3- A : 40-B :C rating on the roof being covered. 

303.6 Lids. Tar kettles shall be equipped with tight-fitting lids. 

303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. Hi- boys shall be limited to a capac- 
ity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall 
not be allowed as part of a hi-boy. 

303.8 Kettle construction. Any kettle used as a tar kettle shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials. 

303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. It shall be unlawful 
to store, handle or use fuel containers that operate under air pres- 
sure. 

303.10 Flammable liquid fuel. It shall be unlawful to store, 
handle or use tar kettles that utilize flammable liquid as a fuel. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



29 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



303.11 Roofing operations. Roofing operations, including 
repairs, using open-flame devices shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 1417 and Chapters 26 and 35. 



SECTION FC 304 

STORAGE AND ACCUMULATION OF RUBBISH AND 

OTHER COMBUSTIBLE WASTE 

304.1 Accumulation of combustible waste. It shall be unlaw- 
ful to cause or allow rubbish and other combustible waste to 
accumulate in a building or structure or upon a premises. 

304.1.1 Maintenance. Roofs, courts, yards, vacant lots, 
alleys, parking lots, open spaces, and the space beneath a 
grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, or other similar structure, 
shall be regularly cleaned so as to prevent the accumulation of 
any rubbish, vegetation or other combustible waste. 

304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines, brush or other veg- 
etation that is capable of being ignited shall be regularly 
pruned, or cleared and removed for a distance of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) from any building or structure by the owner. 

304.2 Unsafe storage of combustible waste prohibited. It 

shall be unlawful to store rubbish or other combustible waste in a 
manner that creates a fire hazard or public nuisance. 

304.3 Containers. Rubbish and other combustible waste stored 
pending removal in a building or structure or upon a premises 
shall be stored in accordance with this section, and any other 
applicable law, rule or regulation. 

304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Rubbish and other combus- 
tible waste susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily 
rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. Contents 
of such containers shall be removed and disposed of daily. 

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers 
with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0. 15 
m 3 ) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials or approved com- 
bustible materials. 

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters 
and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic 
yards (40.5 cubic feet) (1.15 m 3 ) or more shall not be stored 
in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combusti- 
ble walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines. 

Exceptions: 

1. Dumpsters or containers in areas protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

2. Storage shall not be prohibited in a structure of 
Type I or Type II A construction or other construc- 
tion with an equivalent fire rating, where such stor- 
age is located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
other buildings or structures and used exclusively 
for dumpster or other container storage. 

304.4 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a property 
line or within 50 feet (15240 mm) of the nearest wall of a build- 



ing occupied as a Group A occupancy, Group E (educational) 
occupancy or Group R-2 occupancy. 

304.4.1 Height. Storage shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) 
in height. 

304.4.2 Reduced separation distance. The separation dis- 
tances required by Section 304.4 may be reduced when 
approved and when in compliance with the requirements of 
Sections 304.4.2. 1 through 304.4.2.3. 

304.4.2.1 Fencing. The storage shall be enclosed by an 
approved well-constructed and maintained fence between 
10 and 18 feet (3048 and 5486 mm) in height above the 
street level. If any building having an unpierced fire wall 
adjoins the enclosure, no fence shall be required on that 
side. 

304.4.2.2 Separation from building openings. The stor- 
age shall be completely separated from any window or 
door openings of any wall of an adjoining building by a 
well-constructed and maintained fence of 
noncombustible material of an approved height, erected at 
least 6 feet (1829 mm) from such opening and extending 
at least 6 feet (1829 mm) on each side thereof and contin- 
ued to the sides of the enclosure or carried to the walls of 
the building. 

304.4.2.3 Pile height. The storage at any point shall not be 
piled higher than 2 feet (610 mm) below the top of the 
fence required by Section 304.4.2.1. 

304.4.3 Portable fire extinguishers. At least one portable 
fire extinguisher with a rating of at least 4- A shall be provided 
for every 2,500 square feet (232.3 m 2 ) of storage area, or por- 
tion thereof, or in lieu thereof, a hose of at least 1 inch (25.4 
mm) in diameter, equipped with a nozzle of at least Vi inch 
(12.7 mm) in diameter, sufficient in length to reach all parts of 
the enclosure, and connected to an adequate water supply 
may be provided. 



SECTION FC 305 
IGNITION SOURCES 

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between 
ignition sources, such as light fixtures, heaters and open-flame 
devices, and combustible materials shall be maintained in an 
approved manner. 

305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot 

ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials 
subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a com- 
bustible container, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combus- 
tible material, including combustible walls and partitions and 
combustible waste, or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to 
buildings or structures. 

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to 
other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where 
the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible 
receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground sur- 
face or stand. 



30 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



305.3 Open-flame warning devices. It shall be unlawful to use 
an open-flame device on roadways as a warning signal or for any 
other purposes. 

Exception: The use of fusees at the scene of an emergency or 
as required by standard railroad operating procedures. 

305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to 
deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burn- 
ing of combustible material or combustible waste in such a 
manner as to endanger the safety of persons or property. 



SECTION FC 306 
MOTION PICTURE FILM AND SCREENS 

306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon 
or other light source projection equipment which develops haz- 
ardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of rib- 
bon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source 
used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture 
projection room complying with the requirements of Section 
409 of the Building Code. 

306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage, handling and use. Cel- 
lulose nitrate film shall be stored, handled and used in accor- 
dance with NFPA 40 and subject to the approval of the 
commissioner. 

306.2.1 Supervision. The handling and use of cellulose 
nitrate film, including motion picture projection, shall be 
under the personal supervision of a person holding a certifi- 
cate of fitness. The storage of cellulose nitrate film shall be 
under the general supervision of a person holding a certificate 
of fitness. 

306.3 Motion picture screens. The screens upon which motion 
pictures are projected shall be of noncombustible construction as 
set forth in Chapter 6 of the Building Code, or shall be treated to 
be flame resistant in accordance with NFPA 701 , or shall comply 
with the requirements for a Class A interior finish in accordance 
with Section 803 of the Building Code. Screens installed prior to 
the effective date of this code shall comply with the applicable 
Building Code requirements. The construction supporting such 
motion picture screens shall be of noncombustible construction 
as set forth in Chapter 6 of the Building Code, and shall comply 
with the load bearing requirements of the Building Code. 



SECTION FC 307 
OPEN FIRES 

307.1 General. Kindling, building, maintaining or using an 
open fire is prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor barbecues on residential property as autho- 
rized by Section 307.5. 

2. Outdoor noncommercial barbecue fires in equipment 
provided by and located in city parks where such open 
fires are permitted by the Department of Parks and 
Recreation. 



3. In connection with training of fire brigades or similar 
purposes by persons or entities where such training is 
required by law, rule or regulation. 

4. Approved open fires used for special effects in connec- 
tion with television, motion picture, theatrical and 
other entertainment productions. 

307.2 Reserved. 

307.2.1 Authorization. Open fires allowed pursuant to Sec- 
tion 307.1 may only be kindled, built, maintained or used 
with the prior written authorization of the agencies with regu- 
latory jurisdiction, property owner and other required 
approvals, and only when such open fires are maintained in 
compliance with all conditions of such authorization or 
approval. The commissioner may prohibit the kindling, 
building, maintaining or use of open fire or order the extin- 
guishment of any open fire allowed by this section, upon a 
determination that such open fire will create an undue hazard 
because of conditions in the surrounding environment. 

307.3 Reserved. 

307.4 Attendance. Open fires shall be constantly attended until 
the fire is extinguished. A minimum of one portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 with a 
minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extinguish- 
ing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden hose or 
water truck, shall be available for immediate use. 

307.5 Barbecues on residential premises. Outdoor barbecues 
on residential premises shall be installed, operated and main- 
tained in accordance with Sections 307.5.1 through 307.5.3. 

307.5.1 Charcoal and electric barbecues. Outdoor barbe- 
cues designed to use charcoal or electricity with a total grate 
area not exceeding 10 square feet (0.929 m 2 ) may be 
installed, operated and maintained on any residential pre- 
mises, provided that such barbecues are not installed or oper- 
ated within 10 feet (3048 mm) of any combustible waste, or 
combustible material, including combustible building sur- 
faces, balconies and decks, and a garden-type 4 hose attached 
to a water supply or a minimum of one portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 with 
a minimum 4-A rating is readily available for use. 

307.5.2 Piped natural gas-fired barbecues. Outdoor barbe- 
cues designed to use piped natural gas shall be installed, oper- 
ated and maintained in accordance with Section 307.5. 1 . The 
natural gas piping shall comply with the requirements of the 
construction codes, including the Plumbing Code. 

307.5.3 LPG-fired barbecues. Outdoor barbecues designed 
to use LPG from portable containers shall be installed, oper- 
ated and maintained on the premises of a Group R-3 occu- 
pancy in accordance with Section 307.5.1 and the following 
requirements: 

1 . Not more than 2 containers may be stored and/or used. 

2. Each container shall have a maximum capacity of 20 
pounds (9.08 kg) LPG, except that on balconies, each 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



31 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



container shall have a maximum capacity of 16.4 
ounces (0.465 kg) LPG. 



SECTION FC 308 
OPEN FLAMES 

308.1 General. This section governs the use of open flames in 
all buildings, structures and premises. 

308.2 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1 . Cause or allow an open flame to be lit or maintained in any 
room or other area of a building, structure, premises, 
marine vessel, watercraft or other place in which a hazard- 
ous material is stored, handled or used, or where condi- 
tions exist that could cause ignition of flammable vapors 
or combustible material. 

2. Use or maintain in any area in which smoking is prohib- 
ited, as set forth in S ection 3 1 or else where in this code , a 
lighted match or other flame which has not been approved 
for use by the commissioner in such areas. 

3. Place or discard, or cause to be placed or discarded, an 
open flame, lighted match or other flaming substance or 
object on any surface or article where it can cause the igni- 
tion of combustible material or combustible waste, or oth- 
erwise cause an unwanted fire. 

308.3 Use of open flames. Open flames may only be lighted, 
maintained and used in Group A occupancy and public gather- 
ing places in accordance with this section. 

308.3.1 Reserved. 

308.3.2 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame dec- 
orative devices, including wall-mounted candles, torch 
sconces, insect-repellant candles in glass jars or metal cans, 
tabletop candles and oil lamps, free standing torch holders 
and candelabras, shall comply with the following require- 
ments: 

1 . Class I and Class II liquids and LPG shall not be 
used. 

2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing 
more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extin- 
guish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 
teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped 
over. 

3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent 
the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more 
than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1 .26 ml per minute) 
when the device or holder is not in an upright posi- 
tion. 

4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will 
return to the upright position after being tilted to an 
angle of 45 degrees from vertical. 

Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if tipped 
over and do not spill fuel or wax at the rate of more 
than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per min- 
ute) if tipped over. 



5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings 
on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5mm) 
diameter or where openings are on the top and the 
distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper 
placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds. 

6. Enclosures shall be made of noncombustible mate- 
rials and securely attached to the open-flame device. 

Exception: An enclosure is not required to be 
attached to any open-flame device that will 
self -extinguish if the device is tipped over. 

7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 

8. Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 34. 

9. Shades, where used, shall be made of 
noncombustible materials and securely attached to 
the open-flame device holder or enclosure. 

10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be 
securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, 
and shall be located away from occupants using the 
area and away from possible contact with drapes, 
curtains or other combustibles. 

1 1 . Open-flame decorative devices in Group A occupan- 
cies and other buildings, structures and premises used 
for a public gathering shall additionally comply with 
the requirements of applicable rules promulgated by 
the commissioner designed to ensure the safe use of 
such devices. 

308.3.3 Separation from combustibles. Open flames shall 
be kept at a safe distance from decorations, decorative vegeta- 
tion or other combustible materials. 

308.3.4 Aisles and exits. Lighted candles shall be prohib- 
ited in areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit. 

308.3.5 Reserved. 

308.3.6 Theatrical performances. Where use is approved 
in conjunction with theatrical performances, open flames 
shall be used in accordance with Chapter 33 and NFPA 1 60. 

308.3.7 Prohibition. It shall be unlawful to light, maintain or 
use an open flame in a Group A occupancy or other building 
or structure used for a public gathering. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open flames may be used in the following loca- 
tions and circumstances, provided that precautions 
are taken to prevent ignition of combustible mate- 
rial and otherwise ensure the safety of occupants, in 
accordance with this code, the rules and the permit: 

1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or reli- 
gious purposes. < 

1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part 
of a performance in accordance with Sec- 
tion 308.3.6. 

1.3. Where candles on tables are securely sup- 
ported on substantial noncombustible 
bases and the candle flames are protected. 



32 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



1.4. The preparation of flaming foods or bever- 
ages in accordance with Section 308.6. 

1.5. Open-flame devices using LPG for demon- 
strations in exhibitions or trade shows. 

1 .6. Open-flame device for food warming. 

2. Nonportable heat-producing equipment installed 
in compliance with the requirements of Chapter 6 
and the Mechanical Code. 

3. Natural gas light fixtures installed in compliance 
with the requirements of the Building Code and the 
Plumbing Code, and approved precautions are 
taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials. 

308.4 Torches for removing paint. It shall be unlawful to 
remove paint in or on buildings, structures or premises with a 
torch or any other flame-producing device. Such paint removal 
may be performed using heat-producing devices other than 
open-flame devices. The person using such heat-producing 
device to remove the paint shall remain at the location where 
the heating operation was performed to maintain a fire watch 
for not less than one hour after using such device. 

i 308.5 Reserved. 

308.5. 1 Signals and markers. Open-flame devices, such as 
lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be operated or 
used as a signal or marker in or on any building, structure or 
premises. 

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scene of an 
emergency or as required by standard railroad operating 
procedures. 

308.5.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable 
open-flame devices fueled by flammable gases or combusti- 
ble liquids shall be enclosed or used in such a manner as to 
prevent the flame from contacting or igniting combustible 
material or combustible waste. 

308.6 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The prepara- 
tion of flaming foods or beverages in Group A occupancies and 
public gathering places shall be in accordance with Section 
308.6.1 through 308.6.5. 

308.6.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids used 
in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall be dis- 
pensed from one of the following: 

1. A 1 -ounce (29.6 ml) container; or 

2. A container not exceeding 1-quart (946.5 ml) capacity 
with a controlled-pouring device that will limit the 
flow to a 1 -ounce (29.6 ml) serving. 

308.6.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured 
to prevent spillage when not in use. 

308.6.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of flaming 
foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall 
not create flames higher than 6 inches (152.4 mm). The pour- 
ing, ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum 
height of 8 inches (203 mm) above the receiving receptacle. 

308.6.3.1 Ignition. The flaming food or beverage shall be 
ignited on serving tables. Such tables shall have 



noncombustible tops or, if the top is combustible, it shall 
be protected by a noncombustible mat. The mat, when 
used, shall cover the entire top of the table. Flames shall be 
extinguished before serving. 

308.6.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be pre- 
pared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being served. 
Flaming foods and beverages shall not be transported or car- 
ried while burning. 

308.6.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming 
foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately 
available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an 
emergency and, in addition to portable fire extinguishers 
required by Section 906, a carbon dioxide extinguisher with 
at least a 5-B rating shall be kept within 25 feet (7620 mm) of 
the flaming food or beverage preparation area and at the door- 
way between the kitchen and the dining area. 



SECTION FC 309 
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS 

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks shall be operated 
and maintained in accordance with this section. 

309.1.1 Hazardous locations. Powered industrial trucks 
used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations in 
accordance with the Electrical Code shall be listed and 
labeled for use in such environments in accordance with 
NFPA 505. Entry by non-classified equipment may be 
allowed for the purpose of maintenance where the owner has 
established an entry authorization procedure and has verified 
that the entry area is clear of hazardous environment and will 
remain so for the duration of the entry. 

309.1.2 Powered industrial trucks using flammable gas 
fuel. Powered industrial trucks that use LPG or other flam- 
mable gas as fuel shall be limited to one fuel container with a 
capacity not greater than 40 pounds (18.16 kg) or 340 SCF 
(9.63 m 3 ), whichever is less. Liquefied gas containers 
installed in a horizontal position shall be of such a design that 
the pressure relief valve will discharge vapor properly. Such 
powered industrial trucks shall not be parked near open 
flames or other heat or ignition sources, or near open pits, 
underground entrances, elevator shafts, or similar areas. Such 
powered industrial trucks shall be stored and used in loca- 
tions with adequate ventilation. It shall be unlawful to store or 
use such powered industrial trucks in below grade areas, 
including in a basement or cellar. 

309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an 
approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum 
of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging 
shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 

309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved 
manner in battery-charging areas to prevent the accumulation 
of flammable gas. 

309.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Powered industrial trucks 
shall be equipped with one 2-B:C rated portable fire extin- 
guisher. Battery-charging areas shall be provided with a porta- 
ble fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



33 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 
feet (6096 mm) of the battery charger. 

309.5 Storage and handling of fuel. Powered industrial trucks 
using a liquid or gas fuel shall be refueled or have their cylinders 
replaced outdoors or in areas specifically approved for that pur- 
pose and in accordance with this code and the rules. All connect- 
ing and disconnecting of fuel gas containers shall be performed 
outdoors away from open pits, underground entrances, or simi- 
lar below grade areas, and away from all open flames or other 
heat or ignition sources. 

309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and 
repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in 
approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically 
approved for that purpose. 

309.7 Storage. When not in use, powered industrial trucks that 
use a liquid and/or a gas fuel shall be stored in approved desig- 
nated storage areas. Each storage area shall be provided with a 
portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of 
Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating. 



SECTION FC310 
SMOKING 

310.1 General. Smoking, including the carrying of a lighted 
pipe, cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking parapherna- 
lia or material, shall be conducted in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

310.2 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1 . Smoke in any area in which smoking is prohibited, as set 
forth in this section or elsewhere in this code. 

2. Place or discard, or cause to be placed or discarded, any 
lighted pipe, cigar, cigarette or other type of smoking par- 
aphernalia or material where it can cause the ignition of 
combustible material or combustible waste, or otherwise 
cause an unwanted fire. 

3. Smoke in any building, structure, premises or part thereof 
where flammable or combustible materials or explosives 
are manufactured, stored, handled, used or transported. 

4. Smoke in the following occupancies and spaces: 

4.1. Cellars and basements, except in R-3 occupan- 
cies. 

4.2. Group A occupancies and public gathering places. 

4.3. Group M occupancies. 

4.4. Hospitals, nursing homes, sanatorias, convales- 
cent homes, homes for the aged or chronic 
patients, except within designated smoking rooms 
when in compliance with the requirements of the 
Title 17 of the Administrative Code, the New 
York City Health Code and rules promulgated by 
the commissioner. 

4.5. On any bulkhead, dock, drydock, shipyard, pier, 
wharf, warehouse or shed on the waterfront. 



4.6. On board any ship, barge, ferry, lighter, carfloat, 
scow, and all other similar floating watercraft or 
equipment whether berthed or moored at a dock, 
wharf, pier, or to a marine vessel made fast thereto 
or in a shipyard. 

4.7. Factories as set forth in Section 283 of the New 
York State Labor Law. 

4.8. As otherwise prohibited by this code or the rules. 

310.3 "No Smoking" signs. When smoking is prohibited by 
this code or the rules, durable "No Smoking" signs shall be con- 
spicuously posted at approved locations throughout the facility 
or other location in accordance with Section 3 1 0, or as otherwise 
specifically provided in this code. The content, lettering, size 
and color of required "No Smoking" signs shall be in accor- 
dance with the rules, or as otherwise approved by the commis- 
sioner. 

310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted "No Smoking" 
sign shall not be removed, obscured or rendered illegible. 

310.5 Compliance with "No Smoking" signs. It shall be 
unlawful to smoke, or discard or deposit any burning substance, 
in any building, structure or premises or part thereof, in which 
"No Smoking" signs are posted pursuant to this code or the rules 
or otherwise for fire safety purposes. 

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable 
noncombustible ash trays or receptacles shall be provided at 
appropriate locations. 

310.7 Reserved. 

310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. The commis- 
sioner may prohibit lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or other 
burning substances in any location upon a determination that 
such activity creates an undue fire hazard because of conditions 
in the surrounding environment. 



SECTION FC 311 

VACANT AND TEMPORARILY 

UNOCCUPIED PREMISES 

311.1 Vacant buildings. Any vacant building, structure or pre- 
mises, or part thereof, that is deemed unsafe pursuant to Article 
216 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code, shall be safeguarded 
and maintained in compliance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion, the Department of Buildings and/or the Department of 
Housing, Preservation and Development, as applicable. Any 
vacant building, structure or premises, or part thereof, not 
deemed unsafe pursuant to such provisions shall be deemed to 
constitute a temporarily unoccupied building, and shall comply 
with the requirements of this section applicable thereto. 

311.2 Temporarily unoccupied buildings. Temporarily unoc- 
cupied buildings, structures, premises or parts thereof, including 
tenant spaces, shall be secured and protected in accordance with 
this section. 

311.2.1 Security. Exterior openings and interior openings 
accessible to unauthorized persons, including tenants, shall 
be locked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by unautho- 
rized persons. 



34 



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311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and 
standpipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condi- 
tion at all times, except as authorized by the commissioner. 

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, 
fire barriers, and fire walls, including those separating tem- 
porarily unoccupied tenant spaces from the remainder of the 
building shall be maintained. Openings, joints, and penetra- 
tions in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected 
in accordance with Chapter 7 of the Building Code. 

311.3 Removal of combustible waste. The owner of any build- 
ing, structure or premises, or part thereof, that is deemed unsafe, 
and any temporarily unoccupied building, structure or premises, 
or part thereof, shall remove therefrom and prevent accumula- 
tions of rubbish and other combustible waste by regular cleaning 
of the premises. 

Exception: Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, 
premises or parts thereof undergoing construction or repair in 
accordance with the Building Code, where rubbish and other 
combustible waste is controlled and removed in accordance 
with Section 304. 

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. The owner of any 
vacant building, structure or premises, or part thereof, that con- 
tains hazardous materials and that is deemed unsafe pursuant to 
Article 21 6 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code shall comply 
forthwith with the facility closure requirements of Section 
2701 .6. The owner of a temporarily unoccupied building, struc- 
ture or premises, or part thereof, that contains hazardous materi- 
als regulated by Chapter 27 shall comply with the facility closure 
requirements of Section 2701.6. Vacant and temporarily unoc- 
cupied buildings, structures or premises, and all parts thereof, 
shall thereafter be maintained free of hazardous materials, 
including hazardous waste material, except as approved by the 
commissioner. 



SECTION FC 312 
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this 
code shall be provided by posts that comply with the require- 
ments of Section 312.2 or by other approved physical barriers 
that comply with the requirements of Section 312.3. 

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with the following 
requirements: 

1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter and concrete filled. 

2. Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on 
center. 

3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete foot- 
ing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter. 

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (9 1 4 mm) 
above ground. 

5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected 
object. 

312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum of 
36 inches (9 1 4 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 1 2,000 



pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adja- 
cent ground surface. 



SECTION FC 313 
PORTABLE FUELED EQUIPMENT 

313.1 Scope. The storage, handling and use of portable fueled 
equipment shall be governed by this section and the rules. 

313.2 General. Portable fueled equipment shall be stored, han- 
dled and used in accordance with this section. 

313.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1. Store, handle or use indoors portable fueled equipment, 
including lawn-care equipment and kerosene and other 
portable space heaters. The owner of a building, structure 
or premises shall not provide, or cause to be provided, any 
such equipment, including equipment designed for space 
heating. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Storage, handling and/or use of portable fueled 
equipment, other than portable fueled space 
heaters, in buildings or structures constructed 
for such purposes in accordance with this code 
and the Building Code. Portable fueled equip- 
ment may be stored and handled, and motor ve- 
hicles may be stored, handled and used, in 
garages or garage spaces if such garage or ga- 
rage spaces are separated from the dwelling 
spaces or other occupancies in accordance with 
the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

2. The storage, handling and use of portable 
fueled equipment where authorized by this 
code, including this section, Sections 308 and 
314, and Chapter 14. 

2. Store, handle or use for space heating, other than storage 
for sale, any portable fueled equipment that utilizes a 
flammable liquid as a fuel, or, except as authorized by 
Section 313.5, that utilizes a combustible liquid as a fuel. 
Any such portable fueled equipment that shows evidence 
of having been used shall be deemed to be in use. 

3. Use any portable fueled equipment that utilizes waste oil 
as a fuel. Any such portable fueled equipment that shows 
evidence of having been used shall be deemed to be in use. 

313.4 Removal. The commissioner may confiscate or order the 
removal of portable fueled equipment from locations where the 
storage, handling and/or use of such equipment is determined by 
the commissioner to be hazardous. 

313.5 Portable fueled space heaters. Portable fueled equip- 
ment used for space heating shall additionally be stored, handled 
and used in accordance with Sections 313.5. 1 through 313.5.2. 

313.5.1 Listing and labeling of space heaters. Portable 
fueled space heaters and other portable fueled equipment 
used for space heating shall be listed and labeled. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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313.5.2 Authorized uses. Portable fueled equipment may be 
used for space heating as set forth in Sections 313.5.2.1 
through 313.5.2.6. 

313.5.2.1 Portable natural gas heaters. Portable space 
heaters fueled by natural gas supplied from a public utility 
may be stored, handled and used for outdoor use when 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with this code, the rules and the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. 

313.5.2.2 Construction sites. Portable fueled space heat- 
ers may be stored, handled and used at construction sites 
in accordance with Chapter 14 and the rules. 

313.5.2.3 Business storage and handling. Portable 
fueled space heaters may be stored, handled and used for 
indoor or outdoor use when they are lawfully used in the 
business of manufacturing, storing, handling, selling, 
repairing or transporting such heaters, provided that such 
heaters are not stored, handled or used for the purpose of 
space heating. 

313.5.2.4 Local emergency. In the event of failure during 
severe cold weather of a central heating unit in any build- 
ing or structure other than a private dwelling, multiple 
dwelling or Group A occupancy, portable fueled space 
heaters approved for such indoor use may be used for a 
period not to exceed two weeks when such use has been 
approved. 

313.5.2.5 Public emergencies. In the event of a public 
emergency which disrupts, interferes with or impairs the 
operation or use of equipment, supplies or utilities nor- 
mally utilized for heating, use of portable fueled space 
heaters for indoor or outdoor use may be authorized by the 
commissioner upon a declaration of emergency by the 
mayor. 

313.5.2.6 Supervision. The handling and use of portable 
fueled space heaters shall be under the personal supervi- 
sion of a certificate of fitness holder. The storage of porta- 
ble fueled space heaters, and the fuel therefor, shall be 
under the general supervision of a certificate of fitness 
holder. 

Exception: Group R-3 occupancies. 



SECTION FC 314 
INDOOR DISPLAYS 

314.1 General. Indoor displays in any occupancy shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with Sections 314.2 
through 314.4. 

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods 
for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, 
immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by 
Chapter 10 and the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

314.3 Highly combustible goods. It shall be unlawful to dis- 
play highly combustible goods, including flammable or com- 
bustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, oxidizing 
materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, in main 



exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors. 

314.4 Vehicles and watercraft. Watercraft and fueled vehicles, 
including motor vehicles, motorcycles and mopeds, that are dis- 
played indoors shall comply with the following requirements: 

1. Batteries shall be disconnected. 

2. Fuel in fuel tanks shall not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 
gallons (19 L) (whichever is least). 

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings shall be closed and sealed to 
prevent tampering. 

4. Fueling or defueling shall not be conducted indoors. 

5. Such additional requirements as the commissioner may 
promulgate governing the display of such vehicles and 
watercraft in Group A occupancies, and buildings, struc- 
tures or premises used for public gatherings. 

314.5 Required clearance from fire safety systems. Sprinklers 
and fire alarm systems shall not be obstructed by indoor dis- 
plays. 

314.5.1 Sprinkler systems. A sprinkler system shall be 
installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, or con- 
cession stands that exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. The 
clearance between any sprinkler head deflector installed 
above the top of the kiosks, displays, booths, or concession 
stands shall not be less than 18 inches (457 mm). 

Exception: Open-grid and drop-out ceilings complying 
with the requirements of NFPA 13 may be installed 
beneath sprinklers. 

314.5.2 Fire alarm systems. Sufficient clearance shall be 
provided between kiosks, displays, booths, or concession 
stands and fire alarm and carbon monoxide systems equip- 
ment and devices including detectors and strobes, so as not to 
interfere with their operation. 



SECTION FC 315 
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS STORAGE 

315.1 General. Combustible materials shall be stored, handled 
and used in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Storage of materials during construction and 
demolition operations shall comply with the requirements of 
Chapter 14. 

315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials 
in buildings shall be orderly. Storage area shall be separated 1 
from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that 
ignition cannot occur. 

315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 
feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in areas of build- 
ings not protected by a sprinkler system, or a minimum of 1 8 1 
inches (457 mm) below sprinkler head deflectors in areas 
protected by a sprinkler system. I 

315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not 
be stored in a manner that obstructs egress from any building, 1 
structure or premises. 1 



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315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not 
be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electrical 
equipment rooms. 

315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of com- 
bustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 
required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-clos- 
ing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood 
core not less than 1.75 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Stor- 
age shall not be placed on exposed joists. 

Exceptions: 

1. Areas protected throughout by sprinkler systems. 

2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

315.3 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 1 feet (3048 mm) of a property 
line or within 50 feet ( 1 5 240 mm) of the nearest wall of a build- 
ing occupied as a Group A occupancy, Group E educational 
occupancy, Group 1-2 occupancy, or any building, structure or 
premises used for a public gathering. 

315.3.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from 
buildings. Combustible materials stored or displayed out- 
doors at locations adjoining buildings or structures that are 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system shall not be 
stored or displayed under eaves, canopies or other projec- 
tions or overhangs that are not protected by a sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

315.3.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height. 

315.3.3 Reduced separation distance. The separation dis- 
tances required by Section 315.3 may be reduced when 
approved and when in compliance with the requirements of 
Sections 315.3.3.1 through 315.3.3.3. 

315.3.3.1 Fencing. The outdoor storage area shall be 
enclosed by an approved well-constructed and maintained 
fence between 10 and 18 feet (3048 and 5486 mm) in 
height above the street level. If any building having an 
unpierced fire wall adjoins the enclosure, no fence shall be 
required on that side. 

315.3.3.2 Separation from building openings. The out- 
door storage area shall be completely separated from any 
window or door openings of any wall of an adjoining 
building by a well-constructed and maintained fence of 
noncombustible 3 material of an approved height, erected 
at least 6 feet (1829 mm) from such opening and extend- 
ing at least 6 feet (1829 mm) on each side thereof and con- 
tinued to the sides of the enclosure or carried to the walls 
of the building. 

315.3.3.3 Pile height. The outdoor storage at any point 
shall not be piled higher than 2 feet (610 mm) below the 
top of the fence required by Section 315.3.3.1. 

315.3.4 Portable fire extinguishers. At least one portable 
fire extinguisher with a rati ng of at least 4- A shall be provided 
for every 2,500 square feet (232.3 m 2 ) of storage area, or por- 



tion thereof, or in lieu thereof, a hose of at least 1 inch (25.4 
mm) in diameter, equipped with a nozzle of at least V 2 inch 
( 1 2.7 mm) in diameter, sufficient in length to reach all parts of 
the enclosure, and connected to an adequate water supply 
may be provided. 

315.4 Space underneath grandstands and bleachers. Except 
where enclosed in not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction in accordance with the Building Code, spaces under- 
neath grandstand and bleacher seating shall not be occupied or 
utilized for purposes other than means of egress. 



SECTION FC 31 6 

AUTOMOTIVE SALVAGE AND WRECKING 

FACILITIES 

316.1 General. Automotive salvage and wrecking facilities 
shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with this section. 

316.2 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

i. Dispose of any fuel or flammable or combustible liquid 
waste by discharging or otherwise disposing of such fuel 
or liquid waste in any drain or sewer, upon any premises, 
or in any river, stream or other body of water. 

2. Light or maintain an open fire for the burning, disman- 
tling, salvaging, scrapping wrecking of motor vehicles or 
parts thereof. 

316.3 Supervision. The de-fueling of motor vehicle fuel tanks 
and the transfer of fuel from the de-fueling equipment shall be 
under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. 

316.4 Facility requirements. Automotive salvage and wreck- 
ing facilities shall be in accordance Sections 316.4.1 through 
316.4.3. 

316.4.1 Licensing. Department permits and other approvals 
shall be issued to an automotive salvage and wrecking facility 
only if such facility is licensed and maintained in accordance 
with requirements of the New York State Department of 
Motor Vehicles and the New York City Department of Con- 
sumer Affairs. 

316.4.2 Lawful occupancy. Department permits and other 
approvals shall be issued to automotive salvage and wrecking 
facilities only if use of the premises for such facility is autho- 
rized by the certificate of occupancy or otherwise constitutes 
a lawful use of the premises. 

316.4.3 Design requirements. Automotive salvage and 
wrecking facilities shall be designed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 316.4.3.1 and 316.4.3.3. 

316.4.3.1 Facility enclosure. The facility shall be 
enclosed on all sides by a solid, opaque fence or wall at 
least 8 feet (2438 mm) in height in accordance with the 
Building Code and the Zoning Resolution. 

316.4.3.2 Fire apparatus roads. The facility shall be 
accessible from fire apparatus roads with a minimum 
unobstructed width of 20 feet (6096 mm). An outdoor 
area of the facility shall be accessible by fire apparatus 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



37 



GENERAL PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 



roads on all four sides with a distance between such 
roads of not greater than 50 feet ( 1 5 240 mm) by 1 00 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

316.4.3.3 De-fueling area. The de-fueling of motor vehi- 
cle fuel tanks shall be conducted at an approved location 
that is protected throughout by a fire extinguishing sys- 
tem. 

316.5 Operation and maintenance. Automotive salvage and 
wrecking facilities shall be operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with Sections 316.5.1 through 316.5.4. 

316.5.1 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads shall be maintained unobstructed to provide access for 
department apparatus. 

316.5.2 Torch operations. Torch operations shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Chapter 26 and in compliance with 
the following requirements: 

1 . Torch operations shall be conducted at least 25 feet 
(7620 mm) from combustible waste, other motor vehi- 
cles, stacks of motor vehicles or other combustible 
material, unless protection in the form of 
noncombustible 3 shields or covers are provided to 
restrict the scattering of sparks and molten metal. 

2. Torch operations shall not be conducted in any location 
where hazardous gases or vapors may be present. Fuel 
tanks of motor vehicles shall be emptied of fuel and 
purged of all flammable vapors before any torch opera- 
tions are commenced. 

3. Compressed gas containers, when in use, shall be prop- 
erly supported and placed a safe distance from torch 
operations. 

4. Compressed gas containers, when not in use, and 
reserve containers, shall be properly supported and 
stored in a location remote from torch operations. The 
valves of such containers shall be closed and protected 
from mechanical damage by the placement of protec- 
tive caps. Empty containers shall be treated as full. 

5. Torch operation areas shall be protected by a charged 
hose line, at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter, con- 
nected to an approved source of water. In lieu of such 
hose line, at least 4 portable fire extinguishers with a 
minimum 2-A rating each may be provided. 

6. The torch operator or a person designated as a fire 
watch shall search the torch operation area immedi- 
ately after operations to determine that no sparks or 
molten metal remain in the area. Additionally, a second 
such search shall be conducted one-half hour thereaf- 
ter. A record of such searches shall be maintained in a 
log book at the premises and made available for inspec- 
tion by any representative of the department. 

316.5.3 Draining of motor vehicle fluids. The draining of 
fluids from motor vehicles shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 316.5.3.1 and 316.5.3.2. 

316.5.3.1 Draining of motor vehicle fuel tanks. As soon 
as practicable after arrival, the fuel tank of motor vehicles 
received at salvage and wrecking facilities shall be 
de-fueled through the vehicle's fuel connection, or other 



approved procedure. De-fueling equipment shall be listed 
for such purpose as a complete assembly and shall have a 
container capacity not exceeding 65 gallons (246 L). The 
fuel recovered by the de-fueler shall be transferred to a 
storage tank complying with the requirements of Chapter 
22 or 34, as applicable. De-fueling equipment shall not be 
used to fuel motor vehicles. 

316.5.3.2 Draining of other motor vehicle fluids. 

Crankcase oil and other flammable or combustible liquid 
waste shall be removed from motor vehicles and stored 
outdoors, in tanks complying with the requirements of 
Chapter 34, or, when approved, portable containers. 

316.5.4 Emergency operations. In automotive salvage and 
wrecking facilities provided with cranes for the purpose of 
moving or stacking motor vehicles, procedures shall be 
developed by the owner such that a crane operator would be 
made available in a reasonable period of time in the event that 
crane operation is required during a fire or other emergency. 

316.6 Excessive fires. The occurrence of more than two fires in 
an automotive salvage and wrecking facility during any 
1 2-month period shall give rise to a rebuttable presumption that 
the owner has failed to properly maintain the facility in compli- 
ance with the requirements of this section, and shall be grounds 
for revocation of department permits and other approvals, or 
other appropriate enforcement action. 



38 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 4 

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



| SECTION FC 401 

GENERAL 

I 401.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern emer- 
gency reporting, planning and preparedness. 

401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety and 
evacuation plans and emergency action plans shall be approved 
by the commissioner. 

401.3 Emergency notification. Any owner, occupant or other 
person who becomes aware of a fire or explosion or any other 
emergency shall immediately report such emergency to the 
department. No owner or other person shall issue any directive 
or take any action to prevent or delay the reporting of a fire or 
other emergency to the department. 

1 401.3.1 Reserved. 

§ 401.3.2 Reserved. 

401.3.3 Fire drills and emergency action plan drills. 

I Nothing in this section shall prohibit the sounding or other 
activation of a fire alarm signal for the purposes of conduct- 
ing a fire drill or EAP drill in accordance with Section 405 . 

1 401.4 Reserved. 

I 401.5 Reserved. 

401.6 Supervision of fire safety and evacuation plans. The 

owner shall designate competent persons to act as FSP staff, 
train the FSP staff and conduct fire drills. Such persons shall 
possess such qualifications and/or hold such certificate of fit- 
ness as are required by this chapter or the rules. The owner shall 
ensure that adequate FSP staff is present on the premises during 
regular business hours, and at other times when the building is 
occupied, to perform the duties and responsibilities set forth in 
the fire safety and evacuation plan. The owners of the following 
buildings and occupancies shall additionally comply with the 
requirements set forth in Sections 401.6.1 through 401.6.8. 

401.6.1 Group A occupancies. The FSP staff in Group A 
occupancies whose lawful use, occupancy or operation 
requires issuance of a license by the New York City Depart- 
ment of Consumer Affairs shall be organized and trained by 
a person holding a certificate of fitness for fire safety train- 
ing. 

401.6.2 Group B occupancy office buildings. Group B 
occupancy office buildings or parts thereof occupied or 
designed to be occupied by more than 500 persons on one or 
more floors, including street level, or by more than 100 per- 
sons on one or more floors other than street level, shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 401.6.2.1 through 
401.6.2.2. 

Exception: Office buildings that have lawfully installed 
an interior fire alarm system, provided that the fire drills 
required by Section 405 are conducted by a person hold- 
ing a certificate of fitness as fire drill conductor. 



401.6.2.1 FSP staff. The fire safety and evacuation plan 
shall designate a fire safety director, deputy fire safety 
directors, fire safety building evacuation supervisors, 
fire safety wardens, deputy fire safety wardens, fire 
safety brigade members and searchers, with such author- 
ity, duties and qualifications as set forth in the rules. 

401.6.2.2 Fire safety director. The fire safety director 
and deputy fire safety directors designated in the fire 
safety and evacuation plan shall hold afire safety director 
certificate of fitness, and shall have the following duties 
and responsibilities and such other duties and responsi- 
bilities as prescribed by rule: 

1. The fire safety director shall be present in the 
building during regular business hours. When the 
fire safety director is absent during such hours, a 
deputy fire safety director shall be present in the 
building and shall perform the duties of the fire 
safety director. 

2. In the event of a fire, the fire safety director shall 
report to the fire command station or designated 
alternative location, and, if appropriate, imple- 
ment the fire safety and evacuation plan in accor- 
dance with its terms and the provisions of the rules, 
and notify arriving emergency response personnel 
and incident commander of the fire and the build- 
ing response thereto. 

3. The fire safety director designated shall be fully 
familiar with the provisions of the fire safety and 
evacuation plan and shall conduct FSP staff train- 
ing drills required by Section 406. 

4. The fire safety director shall conduct the fire drills 
required by Section 405. 

401.6.3 Buildings with class B or M occupancy fire 
alarm system. Buildings or parts thereof equipped with a 
fire alarm system with voice communication of the type 
required in Group B or M occupancies, regardless of 
whether such system is required in such building or part 
thereof, shall comply with the requirements of Section 
401.6.2. 

401.6.4 Group 1-2 occupancies. FSP staff training drills 
required by Section 406 shall be conducted by a person 
holding a certificate of fitness for fire safety training. 

401.6.5 Group R-l occupancies. Group R-l occupancy 
buildings or parts thereof shall be operated in accordance 
with Sections 401.6.5.1 through 401.6.5.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group R-l college or school student dormitories 
occupied or designed to be occupied by 500 per- 
sons or less, and that are 6 stories or 75 feet (22 860 
mm) in height from grade or less need not desig- 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



39 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



nate a fire safety director or deputy fire safety 
directors. 

2. Homeless shelters operated in accordance with 
Section 401.6.8. 

3. All other Group R-l occupancies occupied by 30 
or fewer lodgers, with not more than 15 lodgers 
above street level; operated to accommodate no 
more than these numbers of lodgers; designed to 
contain 30 or fewer sleeping rooms, with not more 
than 15 sleeping rooms above street level; and in 
each instance not occupied or operated to be occu- 
pied by lodgers, or designed to contain sleeping 
rooms, on any floor more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above street level. 

401.6.5.1 FSP staff. The fire safety and evacuation plan 
shall designate a fire safety director, and a sufficient 
number of deputy fire safety directors and fire safety bri- 
gade members, with such authority, duties and qualifica- 
tions as set forth in the rules. The fire safety director and 
deputy fire safety directors designated shall be fully 
familiar with the provisions of the fire safety and evacua- 
tion plan. 

401.6.5.2 Fire safety director. The fire safety director 
and deputy fire safety directors designated in the fire 
safety and evacuation plan shall hold a fire safety director 
certificate of fitness, and shall have the following duties 
and responsibilities and such other duties and responsi- 
bilities as prescribed by rule: 

1. The fire safety director shall be present in the 
building at all times. When the fire safety director 
is absent, a deputy fire safety director shall be pres- 
ent in the building and shall perform the duties of 
the fire safety director. 

2. In the event of a fire, the fire safety director shall 
report to the fire command station or designated 
alternative location, and, if appropriate, imple- 
ment the fire safety and evacuation plan in accor- 
dance with its terms and the rules, and notify 
arriving emergency response personnel and inci- 
dent commander of the fire and the building 
response thereto. 

3. The fire safety director and deputy fire safety 
directors designated shall be fully familiar with the 
provisions of the fire safety and evacuation plan, 
and when a fire brigade is required by Section 
401 .6.5.1, shall conduct fire brigade training drills 
required by Section 406. 

4. The fire safety director shall conduct fire drills 
required by Section 405. 

401.6.6 Buildings or parts thereof with class R-l occu- 
pancy fire alarm system. Buildings or parts thereof 
equipped with a fire alarm system with voice communica- 
tion of the type required in R-l occupancies, regardless of 
whether such system is required in such building or part 



thereof, shall comply with the requirements of Section 
401.6.5. 

401.6.7 Group R-2 occupancies as set forth in Section 

404.2.1(8). Group R-2 occupancies, occupied or operated to 
be occupied, as set forth in Section 404.2.1(8), in whole or 
in part, shall comply with the requirements of Section 
401.6.5. 

401.6.8 Group R-l homeless shelters. Group R-l occu- 
pancy buildings or parts thereof occupied as a homeless 
shelter shall be in accordance with Sections 401.6.8.1 
through 401.6.8.3. 

401.6.8.1 FSP staff. The fire safety and evacuation plan 
shall designate a fire safety coordinator and a sufficient 
number of deputy fire safety coordinators, with such 
authority, duties and qualifications as set forth in the 
rules. 

401.6.8.2 Fire safety coordinator. The fire safety coor- 
dinator and deputy fire safety coordinators designated in 
the fire safety and evacuation plan shall hold a fire safety 
coordinator certificate of fitness, and shall have the fol- 
lowing duties and responsibilities and such other duties 
and responsibilities as prescribed by rule: 

1 . The fire safety coordinator shall be present in the 
building at all times while the building is occupied. 
When the fire safety coordinator is absent, a dep- 
uty fire safety coordinator shall be present in the 
building and shall perform the duties of the fire 
safety coordinator. 

2. In the event of a fire, the fire safety coordinator 
shall report to the fire command station or desig- 
nated alternative location, and, if appropriate, 
implement the fire safety and evacuation plan in 
accordance with its terms and the provisions of the 
rules, and notify arriving emergency response per- 
sonnel and incident commander of the fire, the 
building response thereto, and the building's fire 
protection systems. 

3. The fire safety coordinator and deputy fire safety 
coordinators designated shall be fully familiar 
with the provisions of the fire safety and evacua- 
tion plan. The fire safety coordinator shall conduct 
fire drills required by Section 405. 

401.6.8.3 Fire guard patrols. Buildings or parts thereof 
occupied or operated to be occupied by homeless per- 
sons shall be continuously patrolled by a person holding 
a certificate of fitness as fire guard. Every area of the 
building shall be patrolled at least once every hour. 

401.7 Supervision of emergency action plan. The owner 
shall designate competent persons to act as EAP staff, train the 
EAP staff and conduct EAP drills. Such persons shall possess 
such qualifications and/or hold such certificate of fitness as set 
forth in this chapter or the rules. The owner shall ensure that 
adequate EAP staff is present on the premises during regular 
business hours, and other times when the building is occupied, 1 



40 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



to perform the duties and responsibilities as set forth in the 
emergency action plan. The owner shall additionally comply 
with the requirements set forth in Sections 401 .7. 1 and 401 .7.2. 

401.7.1 EAP staff. The emergency action plan shall desig- 
nate a fire safety/EAP director, deputy fire safety/EAP 
directors, fire safety/EAP building evacuation supervisors, 
fire safety/EAP wardens, deputy fire safety/EAP wardens, 
fire safety/EAP brigade members and critical operation 
staff, with such authority, duties and qualifications as set 
forth in the rules. 

401.7.2 Fire safety/EAP director. The fire safety/EAP 
director and deputy fire safety/EAP directors designated in 
the emergency action plan shall hold a fire safety/EAP 
director certificate of fitness, shall be the persons designated 
as the fire safety director and deputy fire safety director in 
the fire safety and evacuation plan, and shall have the fol- 
lowing duties and responsibilities and such other duties and 
responsibilities as prescribed by rule: 

1. The fire safety/EAP director shall be present in the 
building during regular business hours. When the fire 
safety/EAP director is required but absent, a deputy 
fire safety/EAP director shall be present in the build- 
ing and shall perform the duties of the fire safety/EAP 
director. 

2. In the event of an emergency requiring sheltering in 
place, in-building relocation, partial evacuation or 
evacuation, the fire safety/EAP director shall report to 
the fire command station or designated alternative 
location, and, if appropriate, implement the emer- 
gency action plan in accordance with its terms and the 
rules, and notify arriving emergency response per- 
sonnel and incident commander of the emergency and 
the building response thereto. 

3. The fire safety/EAP director shall be fully familiar 
with the provisions of the emergency action plan, and 
shall conduct EAP staff training drills required by 
Section 406. 

4. The fire safety/EAP director shall conduct EAP drills 
required by Section 405. 

401.8 Periodic inspection. Any occupancy, building, or part 
thereof required to have a fire safety and evacuation plan, emer- 
gency action plan and/or a public gathering site plan pursuant 
to the provisions of this chapter or the rules, shall be subject to 
periodic fire safety inspection by the department, including to 
ensure that the fire safety and evacuation plan, the emergency 
action plan and/or the public gathering site plan have been pre- 
pared and/or implemented in compliance with the require- 
ments of this chapter. 

401.9 Workplace exit inspections. In addition to any other 
inspection requirement imposed by law, rule or regulation, the 
department shall inspect Group M occupancies to determine 
whether workplace exits are locked in violation of Section BC 
1001.3.1 of the Building Code. A minimum of 50 unan- 
nounced inspections shall be conducted each year. Such 
inspections shall include, but not be limited to, premises at 



which violations of such section are known or suspected to 
have occurred. 



SECTION FC 402 
DEFINITIONS 

402.1 Definition. The following terms shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meaning shown herein. 

EAP DRILL. A training exercise by which building occupants 
are familiarized with and/or practice the procedures for safe, 
orderly and expeditious sheltering in place, in-building reloca- 
tion, partial evacuation or evacuation, in accordance with the 
emergency action plan, and to evaluate the efficiency and effec- 
tiveness of the implementation of such plan. 

EAP STAFF. The individuals identified in an emergency 
action plan as responsible for the implementation of such plan, 
including but not limited to the fire safety/EAP director, deputy 
fire safety/EAP director, fire safety/EAP building evacuation 
supervisor, fire safety/EAP wardens, deputy fire safety/EAP 
wardens and members of the fire safety/EAP brigade. 

EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN. A written plan which sets 
forth the circumstances and procedures for the sheltering in 
place, in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation 
of building occupants in response to an incident involving an 
explosion, a biological, chemical or nuclear incident or release, 
natural disaster or other emergency, or the threat thereof, or a 
declaration of emergency by a lawful authority. 

FIRE DRILL. A training exercise by which building occu- 
pants are familiarized with and/or practice the procedures for 
the safe, orderly and expeditious in-building relocation, partial 
evacuation or evacuation, as applicable to the occupancy or 
building type, in accordance with the fire safety and evacuation 
plan, and to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the 
implementation of such plan. 

FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLAN. A written plan 
which sets forth the circumstances and procedures for the 
in-building relocation, partial evacuation or evacuation of 
building occupants, required or as appropriate for such occu- 
pancy or building type, in response to a fire. 

FSP STAFF. The individuals identified in a fire safety and 
evacuation plan as responsible for the implementation of such 
plan. 

OFFICE BUILDING. A group B occupancy designed and 
arranged to provide offices and other areas for the conduct of 
business ordinarily conducted in offices. 

REGULAR BUSINESS HOURS. Times of day and days of 
the week during which a building or occupancy is normally 
occupied and business is conducted, and any time when an 
office building is occupied by more than 500 persons on one or 
more floors, including street level, or by more than 100 persons 
on one or more floors other than street level. 

UNDERGROUND BUILDING. A building or part thereof 
having a floor level for human use or occupancy more than 30 
feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit discharge, as that 
term is defined in the Building Code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



41 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



SECTION FC 403 
PUBLIC GATHERINGS 

403.1 General. The commissioner may establish by rule 
requirements to ensure fire safety at indoor and outdoor public 
gatherings, including arcades, bazaars, carnivals, displays, 
exhibits, street fairs and theaters. Such requirements may 
include preparation and submission to the department of a site 
plan; pre-event fire safety inspection; provision of fire guards 
or other qualified personnel; and provision and maintenance of 
fire apparatus access, and of aisles and other means of egress 
from the public gathering. 

403.2 Overcrowding prohibited. Overcrowding shall not be 
caused, maintained or allowed in any indoor or outdoor area or 
space used for public gatherings. 

403.3 Limitations on standing at public gatherings. Where 
the Building Code, certificate of occupancy or approved seat- 
ing plan allows audience members to stand at performing arts 
or other indoor or outdoor events at which seating is provided 
for the audience, standing areas shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Sections 403.3.1 through 403.3.4. 

403.3.1 Standing areas to be indicated. The space to be 
occupied by standing audience members shall be separated 
from the space to be left clear for passage by a rope, tape or 
other thin material at a height of not less than 3 feet (914 
mm) nor more than 4 feet (1219 mm) above the floor, sup- 
ported by lightweight posts, all to be constructed and placed 
so as not to constitute an obstruction in case of panic or 
emergency. Such standing areas shall be clearly demarcated 
by durable markings on the floor indicating the boundaries 
of the standing area. 

403.3.2 Standing in aisles. It shall be unlawful to stand, or 
allow any person to stand, in or at the head of an aisle. 

403.3.3 Standing in passageways. 

1 . If the passageway is more than 6 feet (1 829 mm) and 
less than 16 feet (4877 mm) deep, persons may stand 
therein, provided an unobstructed passageway of at 
least 6 feet (1829 mm) in depth is left open, and there 
are no more than four rows of persons standing. 

2. If the passageway is more than 16 feet (4877 mm) 
deep, any number of persons or rows of persons may 
stand therein, provided that an unobstructed passage- 
way of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) in depth is left open. 

3 . In places of assembly having a passageway to the rear 
of the seats, 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in depth, and 
having in addition an outer passageway in the rear 
thereof, to which all aisle heads have straight and 
direct access, a maximum of two rows of persons may 
be permitted to stand in the passageway to the rear of 
such seats. 

403.3.4 Standing in balconies. Only one row of persons 
shall be allowed to stand in balconies. 

403.4 Announcements. In performing arts theaters or motion 
picture theaters, and in any other Group A occupancy in which 
there is a non-continuous performance or program, other than 
an occupancy regularly attended by the same audience, an 
audible announcement shall be made not more than 1 minutes 



prior to the start of each performance or program informing the 
occupants of the location of the exits to be u sed in the event of a 
fire or other emergency, provided, however, that in any theater 
the announcement may be projected upon a screen or other sur- 
face approved by the commissioner in a manner approved by 
the commissioner. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the com- 
missioner may grant an exception from such requirement upon 
a determination that the occupancy has at least one exit clearly 
visible from every seat or standing area from which members 
of the audience are authorized to view the performance. 

403.5 Trade shows. The owner of any Group A occupancy 
wherein a trade show or other similar temporary exhibition is to 
be conducted shall, at least one month before the date of such 
exhibition, submit to the department a written notice and a plan 
containing the following information and such other informa- 
tion and documentation as the commissioner may prescribe: 

1 . The dates, times, location, and nature of the trade show 
or other exhibition, and whether the event will be open to 
the public or restricted to the trade. 

2. The design and arrangement of the trade show or other 
exhibition, including aisles, display booths, decorations 
and drapes, and equipment using any hazardous material 
or open flame. 



SECTION FC 404 

FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS AND 

EMERGENCY ACTION PLANS 

404.1 General. The owner of any premises subject to this sec- 
tion shall cause a fire safety and evacuation plan and an emer- 
gency action plan to be prepared for such premises in a form 
prescribed by the commissioner, and periodically reviewed and 
amended, in accordance with this section and the rules. The 
commissioner may prescribe by rule the qualifications of the 
person preparing such plans. 

404. 1. 1 Existing buildings. For purposes of Section 1 02 . 2, 
the preparation of a fire safety and evacuation plan and an 
emergency action plan shall constitute an operational 
requirement. Owners of buildings and occupancies not 
required to have a fire safety and evacuation plan prior to the 
effective date of this code shall have one year from such 
effective date to prepare and, if required pursuant to Section 
404.6, submit, such plan. Any owner of a building or occu- 
pancy that has an approved fire safety plan and an emer- 
gency action plan on the effective date of this code shall not 
be required to prepare and/or file new plans within such 
one-year period, but shall maintain the existing plans in 
compliance with the requirements of the laws, rules and reg- 
ulations applicable to such plans prior to the effective date 
of this code and such additional or amended requirements as 
may be adopted after the effective date of this code, as appli- 
cable in accordance with the terms of such additional or 
amended requirements. 

404.2 Where required. A fire safety and evacuation plan 
and/or emergency action plan is required for the occupancies 
and buildings as set forth in Sections 404.2.1 and 404.2.2. 



42 



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404.2.1 Fire safety and evacuation plans. A fire safety and 
evacuation plan is required for the following occupancies 
and buildings: 

1 . Group A occupancies, other than Group A occupan- 
cies used exclusively for purposes of religious wor- 
ship that have an occupant load less than 2,000. 

2. Group B occupancy office buildings or parts thereof 
and other office buildings or parts thereof, occupied 
or designed to be 1 occupied by more than 500 per- 
sons on one or more floors, including street level, or 
by more than 100 persons on one or more floors 
other than street level. 

3. Group B occupancy educational facilities. 

4. Group E occupancy schools, educational facilities 
and day care facilities. 

5. Group H occupancies, except buildings or parts 
thereof that have prepared one or more of the fol- 
lowing plans in compliance with applicable require- 
ments: 

5.1 . An emergency action plan in accordance with 
the regulations of the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Section 
1910.119. 

5.2. A contingency plan and emergency proce- 
dures in accordance with the regulations of 
the New York State Department of Environ- 
mental Conservation, as set forth in 6 NYCRR 
Part 373. 

5.3. A risk management plan in accordance with 
the rules of the New York City Department of 
Environmental Protection, as set forth in 15 
RCNY §41-08. 

6. Group I occupancies. 

7. Group M occupancies occupied or designed to be 
occupied by more than 500 persons on one or more 
floors, including street level, or by more than 100 
persons on one or more floors other than street level, 
or in which more than 25 persons are employed. 

8. Group R-l occupancies, occupied by more than 30 
lodgers, or more than 15 lodgers above street level, 
for a period of 90 days or less; and/or operated to 
accommodate such numbers of lodgers for such 
period of occupancy; and/or designed to contain a 
total of more than 30 sleeping rooms, or more than 
15 sleeping rooms above the street level, for such 
period of occupancy; and/or occupied by one or 
more lodgers on a floor more than 75 feet (22 860 
mm) above the street level, for such period of occu- 
pancy, or operated or designed for such lodging. 

9. Group R-2 occupancies occupied by more than 30 
lodgers, or more than 15 lodgers above street level, 
for a period of 90 days or less; and/or operated to 
accommodate such number of lodgers for such 
period of occupancy; and/or designed to contain a 
total of more than 30 sleeping rooms, or more than 



15 sleeping rooms above the street level, for such 
period of occupancy; and/or occupied by one or 
more lodgers on a floor more than 75 feet (22 860 
mm) above the street level, for such period of occu- 
pancy, or operated or designed for such lodging. All 
other Group R-2 occupancies shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 408.9. 

1 0. Buildings or parts thereof equipped with a fire alarm 
system with voice communication of the type 
required in Class B, R-l or M occupancies, regard- 
less of whether such system is required in such 
building or part thereof. 

1 1 . Buildings with an atrium and containing a Group A, 
E or M occupancy. 

12. Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m 2 ) in aggregate floor area. 

13. Buildings that are greater than 6 stories or 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) in height, except Group R-2 occupan- 
cies. 

14. Underground buildings occupied or designed to be 
occupied by more than 100 persons below street 
level. 

15. Buildings occupied or designed to be occupied to 
provide emergency shelter for more than 1 5 home- 
less persons for more than 30 days in a year. 

404.2.2 Emergency action plans. An emergency action 
plan is required in Group B occupancy office buildings or 
parts thereof: 

1. Greater than 6 stories in height; or 

2. Greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height; or 

3. Occupied or designed to be occupied by more than 
500 persons on one or more floors, including street 
level, or by more than 100 persons on one or more 
floors other than street level; or 

4. Equipped with a fire alarm system with voice com- 
munication of the type required in Class B or M occu- 
pancies, regardless of whether such system is 
required in such building or space; or 

5. Ordered by the department to comply with the 
requirements of this section, based upon a determina- 
tion that compliance with this section is required in 
the interest of public safety given the location, use or 
occupancy of the building. 

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan and emer- 
gency action plan contents shall be in accordance with Sections 
404.3.1 and 404.3.2. 

404.3.1 Fire safety and evacuation plans. A fire safety and 
evacuation plan shall include the following information and 
such other information and documentation as the commis- 
sioner may prescribe: 

1. The procedures for notifying building occupants of 
a fire and reporting a fire to the department, includ- 
ing the preferred and any alternative means of noti- 
fying and reporting. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



43 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



2. Whether the response to a fire emergency will 
require the occupants of the building to be com- 
pletely evacuated, partial evacuation or relocated 
within the building, and the procedures for each 
such response. 

3. Site plans indicating the following: 

3.1. Surrounding buildings and streets, including 
cross streets, and fire apparatus access 
roads. 

3.2. The location of building occupant assembly 
areas, if applicable. 

4. Floor plans, with corresponding legend, identifying 
the locations of the following, as applicable: 

4.1. Exits. 

4.2. Evacuation routes. 

4.3. Fire barriers. 

4.4. Areas of refuge. 

4.5. Stairs with letter designation. 

4.6. Access and convenience stairways. 

4.7. Elevator bank letter and car number desig- 
nations. 

4.8. Fire command station. 

4.9. Fire warden phones. 

4.10. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4.11. Standpipe hose outlets. 

4.1.2. Sprinkler and standpipe system riser dia- 
grams and Siamese connections. 

4.13. Sprinkler and standpipe system control 
valves. 

4.14. Any part of the building not protected by a 
sprinkler system. 

4.15. Emergency power generator and fuel sup- 
ply. 

5. Permitted hazardous material and combustible 
material storage, handling or use at the premises. 

6. Identification of fire safety director or other build- 
ing employees responsible for implementing the fire 
safety and evacuation plan, training FSP staff, or 
other duties related to the fire safety and evacuation 
plan. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel respon- 
sible for operation of building fire protection, fire 
extinguishing and life safety systems, or other criti- 
cal equipment. 

8. Procedures for employees who must operate critical 
equipment. 

9. Procedures for accounting for building employees 
and building occupants after such employees or 
occupants have been relocated or evacuated to a safe 
area. 



1 0. Identification and assignment of personnel respon- 
sible for implementing the plan. 

1 1. Identification of personnel available, if any, to pro- 
vide emergency medical care. 

12. A description of the emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system alert tone and preprogrammed 
voice messages, when approved. 

13. Procedures for identifying in advance building 
occupants who require assistance to participate in 
the plan because of an infirmity or disability or other 
special need, and approved procedures for provid- 
ing for such assistance. 

404.3.2 Emergency action plans. The commissioner shall 
promulgate rules establishing standards, procedures and 
requirements for the safety of occupants in any office build- 
ing or part thereof in the event of an explosion, a biological, 
chemical or nuclear incident or release, natural disaster or 
other emergency, or the threat thereof, or a declaration of 
emergency by lawful authorities, including procedures for 
the orderly evacuation therefrom. Such rules may require 
the owner of such premises to develop a written emergency 
action plan that includes the following information, and 
such other information and documentation as the commis- 
sioner may prescribe: 

1 . Preparation of the emergency action plan, including 
the form and submission of such plan and support- 
ing documentation. 

2. The responses to be taken in response to each type of 
emergency. 

3. The designation and qualifications of EAP staff, and 
their emergency action plan duties and responsibili- 
ties. 

4. Reporting of emergencies to the department. 

5. Communication with building occupants. 

6. Use of elevators and the operation of other building 

systems. 

7. The conduct of EAP drills. 

8. Recordkeeping requirements. 

9. Obligations of building occupants and employers of 
building occupants. 

10. Procedures for identifying in advance building 
occupants who require assistance to participate in 
the plan because of an infirmity or disability or other 
special need, and approved procedures for provid- 
ing for such assistance. 

404.4 Periodic review and revision. Fire safety and evacua- 
tion plans and emergency action plans shall be reviewed and 
updated as necessitated by changes in staff assignments, use or 
occupancy, or the design and arrangement of the premises, but 
at least annually. An entry shall be made in the log book 
required by Section 405.5 documenting such review, and indi- 
cating the general nature of any amendments to be made to 
such plan. 



44 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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404.5 Maintenance on premises. A copy of the fire safety and 
evacuation plan and the emergency action plan shall be readily 
available on the premises during regular business hours. For 
buildings provided with a fire command station, the plans shall 
be maintained at such station, if practicable. 

404.6 Submission of plans. Group B office building fire safety 
and evacuation plans and emergency action plans, fire safety 
and evacuation plans for Group R- 1 occupancies and buildings 
with a fire alarm system with voice communication as set forth 
in Section 404.2. 1 (9), and such other fire safety and evacuation 
plans as may be specified by the commissioner by rule, shall be 
submitted to the commissioner for acceptance. Such plans shall 
be accompanied by a copy of the fire protection plan filed with 
the New York City Department of Buildings in accordance 
with the Building Code, unless already submitted to the depart- 
ment. A fire safety and evacuation plan and an emergency 
action plan, as applicable, shall be prepared, and, as applicable, 
accepted prior to occupancy of the building. 

404.7 Building information card. The commissioner may 
require by rule the preparation of a building information card 
depicting and/or setting forth the relevant fire safety informa- 
tion for a building or occupancy for which a fire safety and 
evacuation plan is required to be submitted to the department 
pursuant to Section 404.6. A building information card, when 
required to be prepared, shall be maintained on the premises 
and made available upon request to any department representa- 
tive. 



SECTION FC 405 
FIRE DRILLS AND EAP DRILLS 

405. 1 General. Fire drills and EAP drills shall be conducted in 
occupancies and buildings set forth in Section 404.2, in accor- 
dance with Sections 405.2 and 405.3. 

405.2 Frequency of fire drills. Required fire drills shall be 
conducted in the buildings set forth in Section 404.2, in accor- 
dance with Table 405.2. All building occupants, including the 
FSP staff, shall participate in fire drills. 



405.2.1 Group B occupancy colleges and universities fire 
drill frequency. In Group B colleges and university facili- 
ties, the frequency and timing of fire drills shall be in accor- 
dance with the New York State Education Law. 

405.2.2 Group E occupancy schools and educational 
facility fire drill frequency. In Group E schools and educa- 
tional facilities, including dormitories, the frequency and 
timing of fire drills shall be in accordance with New York 
State Education Law. 

405.2.3 Group F occupancy fire drill frequency. Fire 
drills in Group F occupancies shall be conducted as required 
and in accordance with the New York City Board of Stan- 
dards and Appeals Rules, as set forth in 2 RCNY § 9-01 . 

405.2.4 Group 1-1 occupancy fire drill frequency. Fire 
drills in Group 1-1 occupancies shall be conducted at least 
six times per year, two times per year on each shift. Twelve 
drills shall be conducted in the first year of operation. 

405.3 EAP drills. The owner shall conduct EAP drills on a reg- 
ular basis, during regular business hours, in accordance with 
this section and the rules. 

405.3.1 Frequency of EAP drills. EAP drills shall be con- 
ducted on a regular basis, as follows: 

1 . At least two EAP drills shall be conducted within one 
year of the date of department acceptance of the build- 
ing's initial emergency action plan, the first of which 
shall be conducted within six months of such date of 
acceptance. 

2. Beginning one year from the date of department 
acceptance of the building's initial emergency action 
plan, an EAP drill shall be conducted on each floor of 
the building at least once a year. 

405.3.2 Participation in EAP drills. All building occu- 
pants present on the affected floors at the time the EAP drill 
is conducted, including visitors, shall be required to partici- 
pate in such drill. 

405.3.3 Coordination with fire drills. EAP drills shall be 
conducted separately from fire drills required for the build- 



TABLE 405.2 
FIRE DRILL FREQUENCY 



OCCUPANCY OR BUILDING TYPE 



Group B colleges and universities 



Group B office buildings subject to compliance with Section 404.2.1(2) 



Group E day care facilities 



Group E schools and educational facilities 



Group F 



Group I-l a 



Group R 1 college or school student dormi tories 



Group R-l homeless shelters 



Group R-2 occupancies subject to compliance with Section 404.2.1(8) 



FREQUENCY 



In accordance with Section 405.2.1 



Quarterly b 



Monthly 



In accordance with Section 405.2.2 



Monthly in accordance with Section 405.2.3 



In accordance with Section 405.2.4 



In accordance with Section 405.2.2 



Monthly on each shift 



Quarterly on each shift 



a. Fire drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall include complete evacuation of the building in accordance with Section 408.5.5. 

b. The frequency may be reduced to semi-annually 2 years after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



45 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



ing, and shall highlight the differences between the build- 
ing's fire safety and evacuation plan and emergency action 
plan, and the appropriate actions to be taken by building 
occupants upon implementation of each plan. 

405.4 Time. Drills shall be conducted at varying times of day. 

405.5 Recordkeeping. A written record of fire drills and EAP 
drills shall be maintained in a bound log book with consecutive 
numbered pages, or other form of approved electronic 
recordkeeping, and maintained on the premises for a period of 
3 years for fire drills, and 5 years for EAP drills, and made 
available upon request of any department representative. An 
entry shall be made in such log book for each fire drill and EAP 
drill that is conducted in the building that includes the follow- 
ing information, and such other information and documenta- 
tion as the commissioner may require: 

1. The name and, if applicable, certificate of fitness number 
of the person conducting the drill. 

2. Date and time of the drill. 

3. Name and title of the FSP staff or EAP staff assisting in 
the conduct of the drill. 

4. Number of occupants participating in the drill. 

5. Evaluation of effectiveness of the drill, including any 
delays and deficiencies. 

6. If evacuation was conducted, time required to accom- 
plish evacuation. 

I 405.6 Reserved. 

1 405.7 Alarm activation. The fire alarm system shall be acti- 
vated each time a fire drill is conducted to initiate the drill and 
familiarize building occupants with the alarm tones. 

1 405.8 Accounting for occupants. Occupants in a building 
shall be accounted for in accordance with Sections 405.8. 1 and 
405.8.2. 

405.8.1 Educational occupancies. When occupants are 
evacuated and directed to an assembly area, school adminis- 
trators shall account for all students present in the building 
prior to the drill. 

405.8.2 Office buildings. In office buildings, all areas of the 
building to be evacuated shall be searched to ensure that all 
occupants have participated in the drill. 

SECTION FC 406 

FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLAN AND 

EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN STAFF TRAINING 

406.1 General. FSP staff and EAP staff shall be trained in the 
performance of their duties in accordance with the fire safety 
and evacuation plan and emergency action plan, respectively. 

406.2 Frequency. FSP staff and EAP staff shall receive initial 
training in the contents of the fire safety and evacuation plan 
and emergency action plan upon commencement of their 
authority and duties in the building. Such staff shall participate 
in training sessions designed to familiarize them with their 
duties pursuant to the plan in accordance with the frequency set 
forth in Tables 406.2(1) and 406.2(2), as applicable. A written 



record of such staff training shall be maintained in a bound log 
book with consecutive numbered pages, or other form of 
approved recordkeeping, and maintained on the premises for a 
period of 3 years and made available for inspection by depart- 
ment representatives. An entry shall be made in such log book 
for each training session conducted. 

TABLE 406.2(1) 
FSP STAFF TRAINING DRILLS 



OCCUPANCY OR 
BUILDING TYPE 


REFRESHER TRAINING 
DURATION AND FREQUENCY 


Group A 


1 hour quarterly 


Group 1-1 


30 minutes every 2 months 


Group 1-2 


Monthly in accordance with 
Section 406.2.1 


Group R-l 


1 hour quarterly on each shift 


Buildings with a fire alarm system with 
communication as set forth in Section 
404.2.1(9) 


1 hour quarterly" 


All other occupancies or building types 


1 hour annually 



The commissioner may require participation of building occupants in the 
training drill, depending upon the nature of the occupancy in which such fire 
alarm system is installed. Training drills shall be conducted on a 
semi-annual basis beginning two years after the certificate of occupancy has 
been issued. 

406.2.1 Group 1-2 occupancy FSP staff training drills. In 
Group 1-2 occupancies, FSP staff training drills may be con- 
ducted throughout the entire occupancy or in specific areas 
thereof, but training shall be conducted in each and every 
area of the occupancy over the period of 1 year. Such train- 
ing shall be conducted at least once each month for a total of 
not less than twelve training drills per year, distributed 
among the three shifts as follows: 

1 . Day shift — at least three training drills. 

2. Evening shift — at least six training drills. 

3. Night shift — at least three training drills. 



TABLE 406.2(2) 
EAP STAFF TRAINING DRILLS 



EAP STAFF MEMBER 


INITIAL TRAINING 
DURATION 


REFRESHER 

TRAINING DURATION 

AND FREQUENCY 


Deputy fire safety/EAP 
directors 


3 hours 


1 hour 
semi-annually 


Fire safety/EAP 
building evacuation 
supervisors 


3 hours 


1 hour 
semi-annually 


Fire safety/EAP 
wardens 


2 hours 


1 hour annually 


Deputy fire safety/EAP 
warden 


2 hours 


1 hour annually 


Fire safety/EAP brigade 


2 hours 


1 hour annually 



46 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



SECTION FC 407 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 408 
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS 

408.1 General. The premises used or occupied for the pur- 
poses set forth in this section shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of this section, as applicable. 

408.2 Group A occupancies. All Group A occupancies shall 
► comply with the requirements of Sections 408.2.1. 

408.2.1 Seating plan. A copy of the seating plan for Group 
A occupancies required by the Building Code shall be sub- 
mitted to the department prior to occupancy. 

408.3 Group B occupancies. Group B occupancy office build- 
ings or parts thereof, occupied or designed to be occupied by 
more than 500 persons on one or more floors, including street 
level, or by more than 1 00 persons on one or more floors other 
than street level, shall be operated and maintained in compli- 
ance with the additional emergency preparedness and planning 
requirements set forth in the rules. 

408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 
408.4.4. 

408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams 
shall be maintained in an approved location on the premises 
indicating the plan for each area, the amount and type of 
HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves 
for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and 
locations of exits. 

408.4.2 Periodic review and revision. The plans and dia- 
grams required by Section 408.4. 1 shall be maintained up to 
date and the commissioner shall be notified of all changes in 
use or occupancy, and design and arrangement of the pre- 
mises. 

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons 
shall be designated the on-site emergency response team 
and trained to be liaison personnel for the department. 
These persons shall aid the department in preplanning emer- 
gency responses, identifying locations where HPM is 
stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical 
nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel 
for each work shift shall be designated. 

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site 
emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular 
basis but not less than once every three months. Records of 
emergency drills conducted shall be maintained in the same 
manner as records of fire drills. 

408.5 Group 1-1 occupancies. Group 1-1 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 
408.5.5. 

408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special FSP staff actions, including fire protection proce- 



dures necessary for residents, and shall be revised upon 
admission of any resident with special needs. I 

408.5.2 Reserved. 1 

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions 
to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include 
actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where 
the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, 
training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of 
a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. 
Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire 
to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them 
to do so without additional personal risk. 

408.5.4 Reserved. 1 

408.5.5 Resident participation. Fire drills shall involve the 1 
actual evacuation of all residents to a selected assembly 
area. 

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
comply withtherequirements of Sections 408. 6.1 and408.6.2. ♦■ 

408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During fire drills, the 1 
movement of patients to safe areas or to the exterior of the I 
building is not required. 1 

408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When fire drills are con- I 
ducted after visiting hours or when patients or residents are 
expected to be asleep, a coded announcement is allowed 
instead of audible alarms. 

408.7 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 
408.7.4. "" 

408.7.1 FSP staff training content. FSP staff shall be 1 
instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers | 
and other manual fire suppression equipment. ■ 

408.7.2 Staffing. In Group 1-3 occupancies, FSP staff shall 1 
be in the building at all times, and within three floors or 300 I 
feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door of 
each resident housing area. When movement of occupants 
from one smoke compartment to another or egress from the 
building is impeded by staff-controlled manual releases, the 
FSP staff responsible for controlling such movement or 
egress must be continuously available to initiate emergency 
procedures within 2 minutes of an alarm. 

Exception: FSP staff shall not be required to be located 
within three floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) of areas in 
which all locks may be unlocked automatically in accor- 
dance with Section 408.4 of the Building Code. 

408.7.3 Notification. Provision shall be made to promptly 
notify FSP staff of an emergency. 

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed 
in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by 
both touch and sight. 

408.8 Group R-l occupancies. Group R-l occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8. 1 and 408.8.3. 

408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two 
evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



47 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



adjacent to every required egress door from each hotel guest 
room, motel guest room, or dormitory room. The diagram 
shall indicate the following: 

1 . A visual representation of the number of doors open- 
ing onto the public corridor which must be passed to 
reach each exit stair. 

2. Location of the fire alarm pull stations. 

3. Procedures to be followed in the event of a fire alarm 
or smoke detector alarm. 

4. A written description or visual representation of the 
procedures to be followed in the event of fire or 
smoke conditions. 

408.8.2 Reserved. 

408.8.3 Signage. Group R-l occupancies shall comply with 
the additional signage and such other emergency prepared- 
ness and planning requirements set forth in the rules. 

408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancy build- 
ings or parts thereof with 3 or more dwelling units, including 
apartment houses, apartment buildings, apartment hotels and 
other residential buildings or parts thereof that are occupied for 
the shelter and sleeping accommodations of individuals on a 
month to month or longer-term basis shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 408.9.4 and the 
rules. Such buildings or parts thereof shall not be required to 
comply with the supervision requirements of Sections 40 1 , and 
the requirements of Sections 404, 405 and 406. 

Exception: Group R-2 occupancy buildings or parts thereof 
required to prepare a fire safety and evacuation plan as set 
forth in Section 404.2.1(8). Such buildings or parts thereof 
shall be operated and maintained in compliance with the 
additional emergency preparedness and planning require- 
ments set forth in the rules. 

408.9.1 Residential fire safety guide and notices. The 

owner of any premises containing a Group R-2 occupancy 
shall cause a fire safety guide to be prepared for such pre- 
mises, and periodically reviewed, amended and distributed 
in accordance with this section and the rules. 

408.9.1.1 Fire safety guide. The residential fire safety 
guide shall serve to inform building occupants and build- 
ing service employees as to the building's construction, 
fire safety systems, means of egress, and evacuation and 
other procedures to be followed in the event of fire in the 
building. 

408.9. 1 .2 Fire safety notices. The fire safety notice shall 
serve to inform building occupants, building service 
employees and visitors as to the evacuation and other 
procedures to be followed in the event of fire in the build- 
ing. Such notice shall be in such form as prescribed by 
the commissioner by rule and shall be posted within each 
dwelling unit and such other locations as set forth in the 
rales. 

408.9.2 Periodic review and revision. Fire safety guides 
and notices shall be reviewed prior to each distribution and 
posting, and shall be revised within 60 days of any material 
change in the building's fire safety systems, means of egress 



or other building condition required to be included in such 
fire safety guide or notice. 

408.9.3 Distribution and posting. A copy of the fire safety 
guide and fire safety notice shall be distributed to building 
occupants, and fire safety notices shall be posted as set forth 
in this section and the rules. 

408.9.3.1 Cooperative or condominium. In Group R-2 
occupancies with a cooperative or condominium form of 
ownership and management, the board of directors, con- 
dominium association or other party generally responsi- 
ble for maintenance of common areas shall be 
responsible for the preparation and distribution of the 
fire safety guide, the posting and maintenance of fire 
safety notices in common areas, and the preparation and 
distribution to individual dwelling unit owners or propri- 
etary lessees of fire safety notices for dwelling unit 
doors, including instructions and the means for affixing 
the notice. The owners or proprietary lessees of the indi- 
vidual units in such residential buildings or parts thereof 
shall be responsible for the posting and maintenance of 
the fire safety notice on their respective dwelling unit 
doors. 

408.9.4 Floor numbering list. The commissioner shall 
promulgate rules establishing requirements for the elec- 
tronic submission of floor numbering lists to the department 
by owners of buildings or parts thereof classified in Group 
R-2 occupancies that are 150 feet (45 720 mm) or more in 
height, and such other occupancies as the commissioner 
may designate by rule. Such rules shall provide that each 
owner of a building with non-sequential or non-standard 
floor numbering, as defined by rule, submit a floor number- 
ing list indicating the floor numbers assigned to each floor, 
and submit an amended floor numbering list within 2 busi- 
ness days of a change in any floor numbering designation. 

408.10 Group R-l occupancy school and college dormito- 
ries. Group R- 1 school and college dormitories shall prepare 
an FSP, or prepare and distribute a fire safety guide and notice, 
as prescribed by the commissioner by rule. 

408. 1 1 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.11.1 through 
408.11.3. 

408.11.1 Floor plan. The floor plan required by Section j 
404.3 . 1 (4) shall additionally include the following informa- § 
tion: 

1 . Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 

2. Exits from each tenant space. 

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant 
space provided with a secondary exit to the exterior or exit 
corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by busi- 
ness name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be con- 
spicuously posted on the exterior or exit corridor side of the 
door, be plainly legible and shall contrast with their back- 
ground. 

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be: 

1 . Kept free from the storage of any combustible materi- 
als. 



48 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



2. Kept separate from other tenant spaces and areas of 
the mall by maintaining any fire separation require- 
ment of the Building Code during the period of time 
that the space remains unoccupied or under recon- 
struction. 

3. Periodically inspected on at least a weekly basis to 
ensure that the space is being maintained in accor- 
dance with this section. Doors to spaces shall be 
secured from entry by keeping all doors locked at all 
times when the space is unoccupied. 

4. Kept free from rubbish and other combustible waste. 

408.12 Buildings with Class B or M fire alarm systems. 

Buildings or parts thereof equipped with a fire alarm system 
with voice communication of the type required in Class B or M 
occupancies, regardless of whether such system is required in 
such building or space, shall be operated and maintained in 
compliance with the requirements of Section 408.3. 

408.13 Buildings with Class R-l fire alarm systems. Build- 
ings or parts thereof equipped with a fire alarm system with 
voice communication of the type required in Group R-l occu- 
pancies, regardless of whether such system is required in such 
building or space, shall be operated and maintained in compli- 
ance with the requirements of Section 408.8.3. 

408.14 Fire emergency reporting. In a conspicuous location 
in every lobby or entrance hall of a commercial or public build- 
ing, the owner shall post a sign indicating the method of trans- 
mitting a fire alarm. Such signs shall conform to the following 
format and the owner shall insert all information necessary to 
complete the instructions contained therein: 

Fire alarm box at and . 

(Name of street) (Name of street) 

or 

To report a fire by telephone dial "9 11" or, depending upon the 
borough in which the property is located, insert one of the fol- 
lowing telephone numbers: 

Bronx properties (71 8) 999-3333 

Brooklyn properties (7 1 8) 999-4444 

Manhattan properties (212) 999-2222 

Queens properties (718) 999-5555 

Staten Island properties (7 1 8) 999-6666 

Exception: This section shall not apply to educational facil- 
ities where fire drills are conducted in accordance with Sec- 
tion FC 405. 

408.14.1 Fire emergency reporting signs. Signs required 
by this section shall be of such size and contain such letter- 
ing as the commissioner may prescribe by rule. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



49 



5(1 

2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 5 

FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES 



SECTION FC 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern buildings, structures 
and premises with respect to requirements designed to ensure 
safe and effective firefighting operations. 

501.2 Reserved. 

501.3 Design and installation documents. The commissioner 
may require that design and installation documents for pro- 
posed fire apparatus access roads, showing their location, 
dimensions and specifications, and design and installation doc- 
uments for private fire hydrant systems, including hydraulic 
calculations, be submitted to the department for review and 
approval prior to installation. 

501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access 
roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be 
installed, such protection shall be installed and made service- 
able prior to and during the time of construction except when 
approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Tem- 
porary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection 
when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehi- 
cles in accordance with Section 505.2. 



SECTION FC 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meanings shown herein. 

AREAWAY. A space below grade, adjacent to a building, open 
to the outdoors and enclosed by walls. 

CITYWIDE STANDARD KEY. A key of special or con- 
trolled design approved by the commissioner which serves to 
operate elevator emergency recall and emergency in-service 
operation service switches and other devices or locks as 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, this code or the rules. 

DEVELOPMENT. A development includes the construction 
of a new building on a zoning lot, the relocation of an existing 
building to another zoning lot, or the use of a tract of land for a 
new use. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that serves to 
provide access for fire apparatus from a public street to the 
frontage space of one or more buildings in a development. A 
fire apparatus access road includes any road that serves such 
purpose whether denominated as a fire lane, private street, pri- 
vate road, driveway or parking lot lane. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of the detection, alarm 
communications and control systems is displayed, and from 
which the system(s) can be manually controlled. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD KEY. A key of special 
or controlled design, also known as a "1620" key, for the use of 
department personnel and others specifically authorized by the 
commissioner, which serves to operate all switches, locks and 
other devices required to be operable by a citywide standard 
key. 

FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow 
the passage of fire apparatus. It may also serve as a secondary | 
means of access to a private road. 1 

FRONTAGE SPACE. A street or an open space outside of a 
building that is within 30 feet (9144 mm) of the main front 
entrance to the building and not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in 
any dimension. It shall be accessible from a public street or fire 
apparatus access road. It shall be designed and constructed to 
allow operation of department apparatus on the front side of the 
building and shall be maintained free of obstructions that may 
interfere with its use by the department. 

KEY BOX. A secure, tamperproof device with a lock operable 
only by a fire department standard key, and containing building 
entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an 
emergency. 

PRIVATE ROAD. A road or other passageway to two or more 
buildings or structures in a development that serves to provide 
access from a public street and which may serve as a fire appa- 
ratus access road. Private road does not include a public street. 

PUBLIC STREET. All streets mapped or dedicated for public 
use, including mapped streets, record streets, marginal streets 
and restricted use streets. 



SECTION FC 503 I 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this sec- 1 
tion. I 

503.1.1 Fire apparatus access roads. Buildings or struc- 
tures shall be accessible to department fire apparatus by way 
of a public street or an approved fire apparatus access road 
with an asphalt, concrete or other approved driving surface 
installed in accordance with the standards of the New York 
City Department of Transportation and capable of support- 
ing the imposed load of department apparatus weighing at 
least 75,000 pounds (34 050 kg) and the operational load of 
department aerial apparatus outrigger support [48,000 
pounds (21 792 kg) over a 2-foot (610 mm) by 2-foot (610 
mm) area]. When fire apparatus access roads are required 
by this section, such roads shall provide access from a pub- 
lic street to the frontage space of each building or structure 
in a development in accordance with this section. 

503.1.2 Additional access. The commissioner may require 
more than one means of fire apparatus access based on the 
potential for impairment of a single road by vehicle conges- 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



51 



FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES 



tion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or other fac- 
tors that could limit access. 

503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire apparatus access roads to 
buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall 
additionally comply with the applicable requirements of 
Chapter 23. 

503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads to one or 
more buildings in a development shall comply with the require- 
ments of this code and the standards established by the New 
York City Department of Transportation and shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 through 
503.2.7. 

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have 
an unobstructed width of not less than 38 feet (1 1 582 mm) 
and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 14 
feet (4267 mm). 

Exception: A fire apparatus access road may be less than 
38 feet (1 1 582 mm) in width provided that it satisfies the 
following requirements: 

1 . The fire apparatus access road has an unobstructed 
width of not less than 34 feet (10 363 mm) and sat- 
isfies the requirements of Section 26-21 of the 
Zoning Resolution; or 

2. The fire apparatus access road has an unobstructed 
width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) and satis- 
fies the requirements of Section 119-214 of the 
Zoning Resolution; or 

3 . It is not less than 30 feet (9 1 44 mm) wide, provides 
access to not more than 5 dwelling units, and all 
buildings to which the private road provides 
access are protected throughout by a sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

503.2.2 Authority. The commissioner may require an 
increase in the minimum access widths where circum- 
stances arising from site conditions or the design of the 



development render such widths inadequate for fire or other 
emergency response operations. 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall comply 
with the requirements of the New York City Department of 
Transportation and shall be designed and maintained to sup- 
port the imposed loads of fire apparatus, as set forth in Sec- 
tion 503.1.1, and shall be surfaced so as to provide 
all-weather driving capabilities. 

503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a 
fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the com- 
missioner. 

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads 
more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length, as measured from 
the curb line of the nearest public street which is not itself a 
dead-end, shall be provided with an approved turnaround 
area for fire apparatus in accordance with Table 503.2.5. 
Such roads more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) and up to and 
including 400 feet (121 920 mm) in length shall not require 
a turnaround if all buildings served by the road are protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. Dead-end fire apparatus 
roads shall not exceed 400 feet (121 920 mm) in length 
unless approved by the commissioner. 

TABLE 503.2.5 

REQUIREMENTS FOR DEAD-END 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 



LENGTH (feet) 


WIDTH (feet) b 


TURNAROUNDS REQUIRED 


0-150 


38 


None required 


> 150and = 400 a 


38 


90-foot hammerhead, or 
70-foot-diameter 
unobstructed cul-de-sac or 
other approved means. 


>400 


Only where approved by the commissioner 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. A turnaround may not be required if all buildings served by the road are pro- 
tected throughout by a sprinkler system. 

b. Except as otherwise provided in Section 503.2.1. 

c. See Figure 503.2.5 




-38"- 



a. 70-Foot-Diameter Cul-de-Sac 

b. 90-Foot Hammerhead 



90'- 



-38'- 



30' 



FIGURE 503.2.5 
DEAD-END FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD TURNAROUND 



52 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES 



503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or 
an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the 
bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance 
with the standards established by the New York City 
Department of Transportation. Bridges and elevated sur- 
faces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the 
imposed loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be 
posted at both entrances to bridges when required by the 
commissioner. Where elevated surfaces designed for emer- 
gency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not 
designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or 
both shall be installed and maintained when required by the 
commissioner. 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road 
shall not exceed 10 percent unless approved by the commis- 
sioner. 

503.3 Marking. Where required by the commissioner, 
approved signs shall be provided for fire apparatus access 
roads, in conspicuous locations, to identify such roads or pro- 
hibit the obstruction thereof. A posted sign shall not be 
defaced, obscured, removed, mutilated or otherwise rendered 
illegible. 

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire appa- 

Iratus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner. Vehi- 
cles shall not be parked on fire apparatus access roads, except 
in authorized parking locations. The minimum widths and 
clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained 
at all times. 

1 503.5 Required gates or barricades. The commissioner may 
require the installation and maintenance of gates or other 
approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, trails or 

«^ other accessways, excluding public streets. 

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, 
gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved man- 
ner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 
503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized 
by the owner and the commissioner. 

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to gov- 
ernment officials in conjunction with their official duties. 

503.6 Fire apparatus access road gates. The installation of 
gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by 
the commissioner. Gates and appurtenances shall not reduce 
the approved width of a fire apparatus access road. Where gates 
are installed, they shall have an approved means of emergency 
operation. The emergency operation of such gate shall be main- 
tained in good working order at all times. 

Gates securing a fire apparatus access road shall comply 
with the following requirements: 

1. The minimum gate width shall be not less than that 
approved for the fire apparatus access road. 

2. Gates shall be of the swinging or sliding type. 

3. Design and installation of manually operated gates shall 
allow for operation by one person. 

4. The gates shall be maintained in good working order at 
all times and replaced or repaired when defective. 



5. An approved opening device for emergency access by 
firefighters or other emergency response personnel shall 
be provided for electrically operated gates. 

6. Manually operated gates shall not be locked with a pad- 
lock or chain and padlock unless they are capable of 
being opened by standard tools such as bolt cutters. 

7. Only approved locking devices shall be used. 

503.7 Signs. Fire apparatus access roads subject to parking 
restrictions shall be marked with permanent NO PARK- 
ING—FIRE ACCESS ROAD signs complying with Figure 
503.7. Signs shall have a minimum dimension of 12 inches 
(305 mm) wide by 18 inches (457 mm) high and have red let- 
ters on a white reflective background. Signs shall be posted on 
the sides of the fire apparatus access road upon which parking 
is prohibited. 



NO 
PARKING 

FIRE ACCESS 
ROAD 

BY ORDER OF 

THE FIRE 
COMMISSIONER 



FIGURE 503.7 
FIRE ACCESS ROAD SIGN 

503.8 Public streets. Access to buildings on public streets 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 503.8.1 
through 503.8.2. 

503.8.1 Dead ends. Dead end public streets in excess of 1 50 
feet (45 720 mm) in length, as measured from the curb line 
of the nearest public street that is not a dead-end, shall be 
provided with an approved turnaround area for fire appara- 
tus that meets the requirements of Section 503.2. 

Exception: A turnaround shall not be required for dead 
end public streets more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) in 
length if all new buildings on such street are protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

503.8.2 Substandard width. Except as otherwise 
approved, buildings on public streets that have an unob- 
structed width of less than 38 feet (1 1 582 mm) shall be pro- 
tected throughout by a sprinkler system. 



SECTION FC 504 § 

ACCESS TO BUILDINGS AND ROOFS «■ 

504.1 Building access. Exterior doors and openings required 
by this code or the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, shall be maintained in a manner that affords access by 
firefighting personnel in accordance with the requirements of 
this section, Chapter 10, and the Building Code. An approved 
access walkway leading from fire apparatus access roads to 



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53 



FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES 



exterior openings shall be provided when required by the com- 
missioner. 

504.1.1 Frontage space obstructions. Obstructions, such 
as planters, fences and bollards, shall not be placed in the 
required frontage space unless they have been approved by 
the Commissioner of Buildings, the Commissioner of 
Transportation, or the commissioner, as applicable. 

504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exterior 
doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior 
approval of the New York City Department of Buildings. Exte- 
rior doors that have been rendered nonfunctional and that retain 
a functional door exterior appearance shall have a sign affixed 
to the exterior side of the door with the words THIS DOOR 
BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters having a principal 
stroke of not less than 0.75 inch (19. 1 mm) wide and at least 6 
inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting background. Required 
department access doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. 
Exit and exit access doors shall comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 10 and the construction codes, including the Build- 
ing Code. Access doors for high-piled combustible storage 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 2306.6. 1 . 

504.3 Stairway access to roof. Stairway access to the roof 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 10 and the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. Such stairway shall be 
marked at street and floor levels with a sign indicating that the 
stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs are used for roof 
gardens or for other lawful purposes, stairways shall be pro- 
vided as required for such occupancy classification. 

504.4 Rooftop access and obstructions. The rooftops of 
buildings 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less in height, except rooftops 
with a slope exceeding 20° from the horizontal, shall be main- 
tained in a manner that avoids or minimizes obstructions to 
access for firefighting operations. For purposes of this section 
only, "rooftop" shall include rooftops of building setbacks, and 
"obstruction" shall mean any fixture or other item that is not 
readily movable by a person without the use of tools or equip- 
ment, including air conditioning systems, billboards and other 
signs, cellular antenna equipment, cooling towers, fuel oil stor- 
age tanks, generators, heating systems, planters, solar panels, 
ventilation system ducts, intakes and exhausts, and window 
cleaning equipment, but shall not include nonmetallic 3 decking. 

504.4.1 Rooftop access. Access to building rooftops shall 
be provided as follows: 

1. For each 121inearfeet(3658mm)ofbuildingperime- 
ter accessible from the frontage space of the building 
and from any other exposure accessible to fire appara- 
tus, a minimum clearance of 6 feet (1829 mm) in 
width and 6 feet (1829 mm) in depth from any 
obstruction shall be provided at the parapet wall or 
other perimeter of the rooftop. Where such building 
perimeter is 24 linear feet (7315 mm) or greater, but 
less than 36 linear feet (10 973 mm), the required 
clearance openings shall be separated by a distance of 
not less than 12 linear feet (3658 mm). Where such 
building perimeter is 36 linear feet (10 973 mm) or 
greater, the required clearance openings may be con- 
tiguous, provided, however, that such contiguous 
openings shall not exceed 12 linear feet (3658 mm) 



and shall be separated from other required clearance 
openings by a distance of not less than 12 linear feet 
(3658 mm). Each exposure accessible by fire appara- 
tus may be treated separately for purposes of locating 
clearance openings and otherwise complying with the 
requirements of this provision. 

2. A minimum clearance of 6 feet (1829 mm) in all 
directions shall be provided from each door opening 
onto a rooftop from a dwelling unit, stairway, bulk- 
head, or other occupied space or means of egress, as 
measured from the door hinge. 

3. A minimum clearance of 3 feet (914 mm) in all direc- 
tions shall be provided from any fire escape or rooftop 
access ladder, as measured from each side of the lad- 
der or landing. 

504.4.2 Rooftop obstructions. Unobstructed space shall be 
provided on rooftops sufficient to allow firefighting opera- 
tions, as follows: 

1. A clear path of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) hori- 
zontal width and 9 feet (2743 mm) in height shall be 
provided from the front of the building to the rear of 
the building and from one side of the building to the 
other, except that a conduit or pipe in compliance with 
the requirements of this section may cross such path. 
Such clear path shall be accessible from each point of 
the rooftop access from which clearance is required 
pursuant to Section 504.4. 1 . 

2. To the maximum extent practicable, conduits, includ- 
ing cable trays, and piping, shall be installed on the 
rooftop side of the parapet wall. If such installation is 
not practicable, conduits and piping shall be installed 
along the periphery of the rooftop, in order to mini- 
mize rooftop obstructions. Steps or ramps con- 
structed of noncombustible 3 material and equipped 
with railings shall be provided in the clear paths for 
any conduits or piping installations that exceed 1 foot 
(305 mm) in height above the rooftop. All conduits 
and piping installations shall be color-coded 4 with 
continuous, durable and weatherproof reflective or 
luminescent markings as follows: 

2.1. High voltage wiring - Red. 

2.2. Low voltage wiring - Orange. 

2.3. Natural gas piping - Yellow. 

2.4. Other compressed gas piping - Yellow, la- 
beled at regular intervals with the type of gas. 

2.5. Fuel oil piping - Yellow with black stripes. 

504.4.3 Telecommunications installations. Telecommu- 
nications installations on building rooftops, including cellu- 
lar antenna installations, shall additionally comply with the 
following requirements: 

1. Transmitting antennas shall be identified by affixing 
to the antenna, the antenna mounting, or a conspicu- 
ous location near the antenna, continuous, durable 
and weatherproof reflective or luminescent markings 



54 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



FIRE OPERATIONS FEATURES 



and 3-inch (76.2 mm) lettering that reads, "TRANS- 
MITTER." 

2. A durable sign shall be conspicuously posted on or 
near any equipment closet, roof base station or similar 
telecommunications antenna installation, identifying 
the owner of the installation, providing a 24-hour/7 
day per week telephone number by which such owner 
can be contacted, and identifying the installation by 
number or other unique designation. 

504.4.4 Existing installations. Existing telecommunica- 
tions conduit and piping installations shall comply with the 
operational requirements for marking and signage set forth 
in this section within one year of the effective date of this 
code. 

504.5 Parking lots on developments. Parking lot lanes 
between rows of parking spaces shall have a width of at least 24 
feet (7315 mm). A minimum aisle space of at least 24 inches 
(610 mm) between vehicles shall be provided. 



SECTION FC 505 
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 

505.1 Address numbers. All buildings and structures shall 
have their lawful address numbers, building numbers or 
approved building identification placed at a location on or near 
a building that allows such building identification to be plainly 
discernible from the public street or frontage space. These 
numbers shall contrast with their background. Address num- 
bers shall be Arabic numerals or alphabet letters. Numbers 
shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum 
stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

505.1.1 Developments. Buildings within developments 
shall be identified in compliance with the requirements of 
Section 505.1. Where required by the commissioner, addi- 
tional signage shall be provided in new developments which 
is clearly visible at the intersection of the public street and 
any fire apparatus access road that provides access to build- 
ings in the development. The additional signage shall indi- 
cate the addresses of all buildings in the development served 
by the fire apparatus access road. 

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads within develop- 
ments shall be identified with approved signs in accordance 
with the requirements of the New York City Department of 
Transportation. Temporary signs shall be installed at each 
street intersection when construction of new roadways allows 
passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, 
weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by perma- 
nent signs. 



1 SECTION FC 506 

KEY BOXES 

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure 
or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where 
immediate access is necessary for life-saving or firefighting 

(purposes, the commissioner may require a key box operable by 
a fire department standard key or other approved key to be 
installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an 



approved type and shall contain keys to gain necessary access 

as required by the commissioner. I 

506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock operable by a fire depart- I 

ment standard key shall be installed on gates or similar bar- 1 

tiers when required by the commissioner. ■ 

506.2 Key box maintenance. The owner of the building shall 1 

immediately notify the commissioner and provide the new key i 
when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such lock shall 
be secured in the key box. 



SECTION FC 507 
HAZARDS TO EMERGENCY RESPONDERS 

507.1 Hoistway and shaftway protection. The doors and/or 
gates to hoistways, freight elevator shafts, trap doors and other 
means used to provide access to vertical openings, shall be kept 
closed and secured, or otherwise protected, except when being 
used to provide access, and shall be closed, secured or pro- 
tected, as applicable, at the end of each work day. 

507.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified 
as required by this section. 

507.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings 
accessible to the department and which open directly on a 
hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more 
floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (1 52 mm) high 
on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed 
so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the build- 
ing. 

507.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window 
openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the 
building shall be plainly marked with the word 
SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high 
on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed 
so as to be readily discernible. 

Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway 
openings which are readily discernible as openings onto 
a shaftway by the construction or arrangement. 

507.3 Pitfalls. Installations designed to disable, injure, maim § 
or kill intruders are prohibited. No person shall install and use 
firearms, sharp or pointed objects, razor wire, explosives, flam- 
mable or combustible liquid containers, or dispensers contain- 
ing highly toxic, toxic, irritant, piercing sounds or other 1 
hazardous materials in a manner which may passively or 
actively disable, injure, maim or kill a firefighter or other emer- | 
gency responders who enters a building or premises, forcibly 1 
or otherwise, for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a 1 
fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emergency 
assistance. 



SECTION FC 508 
FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

508.1 Required water supply. For premises requiring the 
installation of private fire hydrant systems or yard hydrant sys- 
tems, an approved water supply capable of supplying the 
required design capacity for fire protection shall be provided. 



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508.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of 
pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other approved 
fixed systems capable of providing the required design capac- 
ity. 

508.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service 
mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 24 and the requirements of the New York City 
Department of Environmental Protection. 

508.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private hydrant sys- 
tems and yard hydrant systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 22. 

508.2.3 Yard hydrant systems. Outdoor amusement and 
exhibition places, bulk plants or terminals, lumber yards, 
trailer camps, industrial parks, and similar occupancies 
shall be provided with a yard hydrant system installed in 
conformance with the requirements of the construction 
codes, including the Building Code, this section and Section 
914. Yard hydrants shall be installed such that the entire area 
may be reached by 250 feet (76.2 m) of hose from a yard 
hydrant or a street hydrant supplied from a direct connection 
to a city water main or other approved water supply. 

508.3 Design capacity. The design capacity of the water sup- 
ply shall be determined by an approved method. 

508.4 Water supply test. Upon completion of the installation 
of a private fire hydrant system and yard hydrant system, a flow 
test shall be conducted to verify that the system provides the 
minimum design capacity required by Section 508.3. Certifica- 
tion of the water supply test shall be submitted to the commis- 
sioner by a registered design professional. 

1508.5 Private fire hydrant systems. Private fire hydrant sys- 
tems shall comply with the requirements of Sections 508.5.1 
through 508.5.6. 

508.5.1 Where required. Where the front entrance of a 
building is more than 250 feet (76.2 m) from a hydrant on a 
public street, as measured by an approved route, private fire 
hydrants and mains shall be provided as required by the 
commissioner. 

508.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Private fire 
hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required 
by the commissioner. Private fire hydrant systems shall be 
maintained in good working order at all times and shall be 
repaired when defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and 
servicing shall comply with approved standards. 

508.5.2.1 Department flow tests. The department may 
periodically inspect and test private fire hydrant systems, 
at the risk of the owner, for proper operation and unob- 
structed flow of such hydrant system. 

508.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Pri- 
vate fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 
25 at the following intervals: 

1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually 
and after each operation; flow test and maintenance 
annually. 



2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, 
annually; flow test every 5 years. 

3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and 
maintenance after each use. 

508.5.4 Obstructions. Posts, fences, vegetation, rubbish 
containers, vehicles and other items shall not be installed, 
planted, placed, parked or stored near fire hydrants, fire 
department inlet connections or fire protection system con- 
trol valves in a manner that would obscure the location of 
such fire hydrants, connections or valves, or that would hin- 
der immediate access thereto by firefighting personnel. 

508.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A 3-foot (914 mm) 
radius clear space shall be maintained around the circumfer- 
ence of fire hydrants to allow unobstructed operation of the 
hydrant operating nut, except as otherwise required or 
approved. 

508.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are sub- 
ject to impact by motor vehicles, posts that comply with the 
requirements of the New York City Department of Environ- 
mental Protection shall be installed. Notwithstanding the 
requirements of Section 508.5.5, these posts may be 
installed no less than 2 feet (610 mm) from the hydrant if 
they do not obstruct the use of a 24-inch (610-mm) wrench 
on the hydrant operating nut. 



SECTION FC 509 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

509.1 Installation and maintenance. Where required by this 
code or the construction codes, including the Building Code, a 
fire command center for department operations shall be pro- 
vided. The location and accessibility of the fire command cen- 
ter shall be approved by the department. The fire command 
center shall be installed according to the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. A layout of the fire command 
center and all operational features shall be submitted for 
approval prior to installation. The fire command center shall be 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 72. 



SECTION FC 510 1 

FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS TO EQUIPMENT 

510.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be iden- 
tified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for 
air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other 
fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identi- 
fied for the use of the department. Approved signs required to 
identify fire protection equipment and equipment location, 
shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently 
installed and conspicuously posted. | 

510.2 Safe access. Fire protection devices, equipment and sys- 
tems, including fire detection systems and fire extinguishing 
systems, shall be readily accessible for inspection, operation 
and maintenance. Sprinkler and standpipe system control 
valves located at a height of 7 feet (2 1 34 mm) or more above the 
floor shall be provided with permanent ladders, chains and 
wheels, or other approved means to provide ready access. 



56 



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510.3 Natural gas shutoff tools. Natural gas utilities shall pro- 
vide the department with suitable tools for the operation of out- 
door gas service line valves for a building or structure or other 
outdoor emergency shutoff device or equipment. The number 
of such tools required to supply the department's needs shall be 
determined by the commissioner. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



57 



58 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 6 

BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



SECTION FC 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, 
operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances, devices, 
equipment and systems, emergency power systems, electrical 
systems and equipment, refrigerating systems, elevator recall, 
stationary lead-acid battery systems and commercial cooking 
exhaust hoods. 

601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6. 

601.3 General. Fuel-fired appliances, devices, equipment and 
systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical sys- 
tems and equipment, refrigerating systems, elevator recall, sta- 
tionary lead-acid battery systems and commercial cooking 
exhaust hoods shall be designed, installed, operated and main- 
tained in accordance with this chapter. 



SECTION FC 602 
DEFINITIONS 

602.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meanings shown herein. 

BATTERY, LEAD ACID. A group of electrochemical cells 
interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a 
suitably connected electrical load. The number of cells con- 
nected in series determines the nominal voltage rating of the 
battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge capacity 
of the entire battery. 

BATTERY, VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA). 

A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a 
valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pres- 
sure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set 
amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is 
immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batter- 
ies) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled bat- 
teries). 

BATTERY, VENTED (FLOODED) LEAD-ACID. A 
lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes 
immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries 
have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are 
equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape 
of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner 
such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will 
not ignite the gases inside the cell. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A sys- 
tem which consists of three interconnected subsystems: 

1. A lead-acid battery. 

2. A battery charger. 



3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters, and asso- 
ciated electrical equipment as required for a particular 
application. 

CERTIFICATE OF QUALIFICATION. A written state- 
ment issued by the commissioner certifying that the person to 
whom it is issued has passed an examination as to his or her 
qualifications to direct, control and supervise the operation of a 
refrigerating system, for which such certificate is required by 
this code or the rules. 

CITYWIDE-STANDARD KEY. See Section 502.1. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances 
used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or 
cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, 
smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local 
exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances shall include deep 
fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; steam -jacketed 
kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers (charbroilers); 
ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appliances. For the 
purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall 
include any building, structure or portion thereof used for the 
preparation and serving of food, other than commercial cook- 
ing appliances in carts or other mobile stands operated by street 
vendors. 

HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, 
impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and similar 
contaminants before they enter a duct system. 

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease 
vapors and smoke. 

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrig- 
erating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a 
higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a 
change of state. 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed 
refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the 
purpose of extracting then expelling heat. 



SECTION FC 603 
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT 

603.1 Installation. Nonportable fuel-fired appliances, 
devices, equipment and systems shall be designed, installed, 
operated and maintained in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Fuel Gas Code and the Mechanical Code. 

603.1.1 Manufacturer's instructions. In addition to the 
requirements of this code and other applicable laws, rules 
and regulations, the installation shall be made in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. Where it becomes 
necessary to change, modify, or alter a manufacturer's 
instructions in any way, written approval shall first be 
obtained from the manufacturer. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



59 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installa- 
tion of fuel-fired appliances, devices, equipment and sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Fuel Gas Code and the Mechanical Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment used in connection with oil-burning 
equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance 
with Section 605 and the Electrical Code. 

603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall 
be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by 
the burner manufacturer and approved by the Department of 
Buildings. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste 
crankcase oil shall not be used, except when such waste oil 
is mixed with number six fuel oil in bulk or waste oil recov- 
ery plants, the resultant mixture meets the minimum specifi- 
cations for number six fuel oil set forth in the Building 
Code, and the use of such waste oil complies with all laws, 
rules and regulations relating to smoke and other emissions 
and is approved by the Department of Environmental Pro- 
tection. 

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible 
for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing 
motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regu- 
lators, and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning 
and lubricating parts. 

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After instal- 
lation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combus- 
tion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that 
the burner is in proper operating condition and that all 
accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function 
properly in accordance with the requirements of the Depart- 
ment of Buildings and the Department of Environmental 
Protection. 

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial 
oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies 
of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling 
valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burn- 
ing equipment and another at an approved location that 
will be accessible in case of emergency. 

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installa- 
tion, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in 
the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall 
also furnish the owner or operator with the name and 
telephone number of persons to contact for technical 
information or assistance and routine or emergency ser- 
vices. 

603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired 
appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall 
be in accordance with the Electrical Code. Clearances 
between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the 
Building Code and the Mechanical Code. 

603.1.8 Supervision of operation. Every stationary 
oil-fired device, equipment or system that is not fully auto- 
matic or requires preheating of the oil shall be operated by 
or under the personal supervision of a person holding a cer- 
tificate of fitness or a person holding a high-pressure 4 boiler 



operating engineer's license issued by the Department of 
Buildings. In addition to providing personal supervision, 
such person shall be present at the device, equipment or sys- 
tem during startup. A stationary oil-fired device, equipment 
or system that is subject to annual inspection pursuant to 
Section 28-303.1 of the Building Code may be operated 
under the general supervision of a certificate of fitness 
holder or a high-pressure 4 boiler operating engineer license 
holder. 

603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code. 
Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accor- 
dance with the construction codes 1 , including the Building 
Code and the Mechanical Code. 

603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage and piping 
systems shall be installed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Mechanical Code. Fuel oil storage shall be 
subject to the permit requirements set forth in Section 105.6. 

603.4 Reserved. 

603.5 Heating appliances and equipment. Heating appli- 
ances and equipment shall be listed and shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. 

603.5.1 Protection of heating element. The heating ele- 
ment or combustion chamber shall have a permanent device 
to prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

603.5.2 Heating appliance and equipment installation. 

Heating appliances and equipment shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the Elec- 
trical Code, and the construction codes, including the Build- 
ing Code, the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code. 

603.6 Chimney installation. Chimneys, smokestacks or simi- 
lar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and 
the incinerators, stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which 
such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to 
create a fire hazard. 

603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon 
inspection, are found to have open mortar joints which will < 
permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building or 
structure, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be 
repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Building Code 
and the Mechanical Code, and appropriate for the intended 
class of chimney service. 

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are cor- 
roded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed 
at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be 
removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled 
for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and 
are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



60 



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BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built 
chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly sup- 
ported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors 
that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall 
be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.6 Incinerator requirements. Incinerators shall be 
maintained and operated in accordance with Sections 
603.6.6.1 and 603.6.6.2. 

603.6.6.1 Spark arrestor. Incinerators shall be 
equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks. 

603.6.6.2 Time of burning. Burning shall take place 
only during approved hours. 

603.6.7 Discontinuance. The commissioner may require 
the operation of an incinerator or other device connected to 
a chimney to be discontinued immediately upon a determi- 
nation that the use of the incinerator or other device consti- 
tutes an undue fire hazard because of conditions in the 
surrounding environment. 

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appliances 
and equipment. The commissioner may order that measures 
be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, 
furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing appli- 
ance, device, equipment or system found to be defective or in 
violation of code requirements for existing appliances, devices, 
equipment or systems after giving notice to this effect to any 
person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. 
The commissioner may take measures to prevent the operation 
of any appliance, device, equipment or system without notice 
upon a determination of the existence of an immediate fire haz- 
ard or imminent peril to public safety. The defective appliance, 
device, equipment or system shall remain out of service until 
all necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 

603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of 
this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the 
utilization of any appliance, device, equipment or system 
(the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered 
discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7), unless 
written authority to resume operation is given by the depart- 
ment. Removing or breaking the means by which operation 
of the appliance, device, equipment or system is prevented 
shall be a violation of this code. 

603.8 Reserved. 

603.9 Gas meters. Aboveground gas meters, regulators and 
piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier com- 
plying with the requirements of Section 3 1 2 or otherwise pro- 
tected in an approved manner. 



SECTION FC 604 
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEMS 

604.1 Installation. Emergency power systems shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance 
with the Electrical Code and the construction codes, including 
the Building Code. 



604.2 Where required. Emergency power systems shall be 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 1 10 and NFPA 1 1 1 such 
that the system is capable of supplying service within the time 
specified for the type and duration of emergency power 
required by the Electrical Code and the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. 

604.3 Maintenance. Emergency power systems shall be main- ^ 
tained such that the system is capable of supplying service 
within the time specified for the type and duration of emer- I 
gency power required by the Electrical Code and the construe- j 
tion codes, including the Building Code. 

604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and other mainte- I 
nance of emergency power systems shall be conducted in 
accordance with an approved schedule established upon 
completion and approval of the system installation. 

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, 
testing and other maintenance of emergency power systems «■ 
shall include the date of service, name of the servicing tech- 
nician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed 
description of any conditions requiring correction and what 
corrective action was taken. Such records shall be kept on 
the premises served by the emergency power system and be 
available for inspection by any representative of the depart- I 
ment. ■ 

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency power system *s 
transfer switches shall be included in the maintenance ^ 
schedule required by Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches 
shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. 
Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch 
contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of 
contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be 
replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

604.4 Operational inspections and testing. Emergency 
power systems, including all appurtenant components, shall be 
inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 
and NFPA 111. 

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for 
standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be 
recorded and may substitute for scheduled testing of the 1 
emergency power system, provi ded that appropriate records | 
are maintained of such use. 1 

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch 
shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch 
from the normal position to the alternate position and then 
returning back to the normal position. 1 

604.5 Supervision. Inspection, testing and other maintenance 
shall be conducted under the personal supervision of a person 
who possesses the required knowledge and training to conduct 
such maintenance, and who has at least one of the following 
qualifications: 

1 . An electrician licensed by the Department of Buildings. 

2. An electrician holding a special license issued by the 
Department of Buildings. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



61 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



3. A person holding a stationary engineer license, or 
high-pressure boiler operating engineer's license, issued 
by the Department of Buildings. 

4. A person holding a certificate of qualification for refrig- 
erating system operating engineer. 

5. A person holding a certificate of fitness as fire safety 
director. 

6. A registered design professional. 



SECTION FC 605 
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS 

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Defective devices, 
equipment or systems shall not be used and the hazardous con- 
ditions shall be corrected or the device, equipment or system 
shall be removed from the premises. Electrical wiring, devices 
and other equipment that is damaged or otherwise constitutes 
an electrical or fire hazard shall not be used, and the hazardous 
condition shall be corrected or the equipment removed from 
the premises. 

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service 
equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical 
panelboards. 

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in 
depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in 
front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical ser- 
vice equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working 
space shall not be less than the width of the equipment. No stor- 
age of any materials shall be located within the designated 
working space. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where other dimensions are required or allowed by 
the Electrical Code. 

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas 
which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches 
(559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm). 

605.3. 1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms 
shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stat- 
ing ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. 
The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch 
circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be 
legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless 
such purpose is clearly evident. 

605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adaptors, such as cube 
adaptors, unfused plug strips or any other device not comply- 
ing with the requirements of the Electrical Code shall be pro- 
hibited. 

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be 
of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with 
overcurrent protection, and shall be listed. 

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be 
directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall not 
extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor 



coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical dam- 
age. 

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords 
shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords 
and flexible cords shall not be affixed to buildings or structures, 
extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or 
floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmen- 
tal damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used 
only with portable devices. 

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged 
directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug 
adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, 
shall serve only one portable device. 

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords 
shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appli- 
ance supplied by the cord. 

605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained 
in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage. 

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded 
when serving grounded portable devices. 

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and 
open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall 
be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 

605.7 Electrical devices and equipment. Electrical devices 
and equipment shall be listed or labeled and installed in accor- 
dance with the construction codes and the Electrical Code. 

605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained 
free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and 
debris. 

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical 
power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to 
exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the 
applicable provisions of the Electrical Code. 

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations is allowed during periods of construc- 
tion, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, struc- 
tures, equipment or similar activities. 

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring 
attached to a building or structure shall be attached in an 
approved manner. 



SECTION FC 606 
REFRIGERATING SYSTEMS 

606.1 General. Refrigerating systems shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this code 
and the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code. 

606.1.1 Supervision. It shall be unlawful to operate any 
refrigerating system for which a permit is required and 
which is a system described in Table 606.1.1, unless such 
operation is under either the personal supervision or general 
supervision, as set forth in Table 606.1.1, of a person who 
has obtained a certificate of qualification for refrigerating 
system operating engineer. For purposes of this section, per- 
sonal supervision shall mean that such person is present in 



62 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



the building at all times while the system is in operation and 
that the operation of such system is under his or her personal 
direction and control, and general supervision shall mean 
that such person is responsible at all times for the safe opera- 
tion of such system when such system is in operation and 
that such system is operated under his or her general direc- 
tion and control. Persons providing general or personal 
supervision as required by this section shall register their 
work location with the department. 

606.1.2 Operator inspection after repairs. After any 
repairs are made to a refrigerating system the operation of 
which requires supervision by a certificate of qualification 
holder, the certificate of qualification holder shall check the 
repairs, together with the functioning of all control devices 
and the positioning of all valves. Such certificate of qualifi- 
cation holder shall also be present when the system is 
restarted after repairs. 

606.1.3 Operator logbook. A logbook or other form of 
approved recordkeeping shall be maintained for all refriger- 
ating systems whose operation requires either personal or 
general supervision by a certificate of qualification holder. 
For systems requiring personal supervision the logbook 
shall, at a minimum, contain an entry for each shift the sys- 
tem is in operation. For systems requiring general supervi- 
sion the logbook shall, at a minimum, contain an entry for 
each day during which the system is in operation. 

606.1.3.1 Logbook entries. The logbook shall provide 
information relevant to the operation of the system, 
including any operating problems or deficiencies and 
required periodic tests. The signature of the certificate of 
qualification holder shall appear next to each entry. 

606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered, and 
reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the con- 
struction codes, including the Mechanical Code. 

606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be classi- 
fied in accordance with the construction codes, including the 
Mechanical Code. 

606.4 Change in refrigerant type. Any change in the type of 
refrigerant in a refrigerating system shall be made in accor- 
dance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical 
Code. 

606.5 Access. Refrigerating systems having a refrigerant cir- 
cuit containing more than 200 pounds (91 kg) of Group Al or 
30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be acces- 
sible to the department at all times as required by the commis- 
sioner. Refrigerating systems requiring a permit shall be 
accessible at all times, and shall, where practicable, be made 
accessible for department inspection without the use of porta- 
ble ladders or other portable equipment. 

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigerating equipment and 
systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 200 
pounds (91 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other 



1 



group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in 
accordance with Section 606.6. 1 . A written record of required 
testing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency 
devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted 
by a person holding a certificate of qualification. I 

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices 
or systems shall be tested at least monthly in accordance 1 
with the manufacturer's instructions. «■ 

1 . Treatment and flaring systems. 

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation 
of emergency refrigerating system control boxes. 

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate 
emergency ventilation systems. 

4. Detection and alarm systems. 

606.7 Emergency signs. Emergency signs shall be provided in 1 
accordance with the construction codes, including the I 
Mechanical Code. I 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a 
refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm as 
required by the construction codes, including the Mechanical 1 
Code for the refrigerant classification. I 

606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical 
equipment and appliances located in the machinery room and 
the emergency ventilation system shall be provided in accor- 1 
dance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical I 
Code. 

606.9.1 Reserved. I« 

606.9.2 Reserved. UN 

606.9.3 Emergency control box. Emergency control boxes 
shall be provided for refrigerating systems required to be 
equipped with a treatment system, flaring system or ammo- 
nia diffusion system. 

606.9.3.1 Location. Emergency control boxes shall be 
located outside of the building at an approved accessible 
location. All portions of the emergency control box shall 
be 6 feet (1829 mm) or less above the adjoining grade. 

606.9.3.2 Construction. Emergency control boxes shall 
be of iron or steel not less than 0.055 inch (1.4 mm) in 
thickness and provided with a hinged cover and lock. 

606.9.3.3 Operating procedure. Valves and switches 
shall be identified in an approved manner as to the 
sequential procedure to be followed in the event of an 
emergency. 

606.9.3.4 Identification. Emergency control boxes shall 
be provided with a permanent label on the outside cover 
reading: FIRE DEPARTMENT USE ONLY— REFRIG- 
ERANT CONTROL BOX, and including the name of 
the refrigerant in the system. Hazard identification in 
accordance with NFPA 704 shall be posted inside and 
outside of the control box. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



63 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 





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64 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



606.9.3.5 Instructions. Written instructions and infor- 
mation shall be provided and located in the emergency 
control box designating the following information: 

1. Instructions for shutting down and securing the 
operation of the system in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

2. The name, address and emergency telephone num- 
bers to obtain emergency service. 

3. The location and operation of emergency dis- 
charge systems. 

606.10 Storage, handling and use. Flammable liquids, com- 
bustible liquids, combustible materials and combustible waste, 
except for quantities of combustible liquids below permit 
amounts, spare parts, tools, and incidental materials necessary 
for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the sys- 
tem, shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigerating 
systems. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrig- 
erant oils shall be as required by Chapters 27, 30, 32 and 34 and 
the Mechanical Code. 

606.1 1 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, 
fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigerating systems con- 
taining more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of Group A2 or B2 refrig- 
erants, as classified in the Mechanical Code, shall be provided 
with an approved discharge system as required by Sections 
606.11.1, 606.11.2 and 606.11.3. Discharge piping and 
devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rup- 
ture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe 
in the event of the fusible plug or rupture member functions. 
The location for the relief valve discharge from systems con- 
taining Group A3 or B3 refrigerants shall be approved. 

606.11.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater 
than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere only through an approved treatment system in accor- 
dance with Section 606.11.4 or a flaring system in 
accordance with Section 606.11.5. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density less than the den- 
sity of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere provided that the point of discharge is located 
outside of the structure and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 

606.11.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems 
containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge 
vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treat- 
ment system in accordance with Section 606.11.4 or a flar- 
ing system in accordance with Section 606.11.5. 

606.11.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing 
ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere through an approved treatment system in accordance 
with Section 606. 1 1 .4, a flaring system in accordance with 
Section 606.1 1.5, or through an approved ammonia diffu- 



sion system in accordance with Section 606.11.6, or by 
other approved means. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing 
less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for 
which the ammonia circuit is located entirely out- 
doors. 

2. When the commissioner determines, on review of i 
an engineering analysis prepared in accordance 
with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environ- 
mental hazard would not result from discharging 
ammonia directly to the atmosphere. 

606.11.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be 
designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of 
the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH 
at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 37. 

606. 1 1 .5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration 
of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the 
entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration 
shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration 
shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be 
designed to prevent blowback, and shall not expose struc- 
tures or materials to threat of fire. Emergency power shall 1 
have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the 
required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the 
system. 

606.11.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffu- 
sion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of 
water for each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 kg 
of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest 
relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water 
shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from 
the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the 
bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) 
below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the 
volume of water and ammonia without overflowing. 

606.12 Discharge location for refrigerating system machin- 
ery room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation 
systems serving refrigerating machinery rooms capable of 
exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH 
shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce 
the discharge concentrations of flammable, toxic or highly 
toxic refrigerants to those values or lower. 

606.13 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The commis- 
sioner shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes 
reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accor- 
dance with Section 2703.3. 1 . 

606.14 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant 
quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such 
records shall be available for inspection by any representative 1 
of the department. B 



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606.15 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups 
1 A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the Mechanical Code, are 

used, refrigerating system machinery rooms shall conform to 
the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification 
1 requirements of the Electrical Code. 

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided 
with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the 
Mechanical Code. 

606.16 Use of Group A3 and B3 refrigerants. Nothing con- 
tained in this section shall be construed to authorize the use of 
Group A3 or B3 refrigerants, as classified in the Mechanical 
Code, if otherwise prohibited by the construction codes, 
including the Mechanical Code. 



SECTION FC 607 
ELEVATORS IN READINESS 



1607.1 Phase I emergency recall and Phase II emergency 
in-service operation. Elevators intended to serve the needs of 
emergency personnel for firefighting or rescue purposes shall 
be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase 

III emergency in-car operation in accordance with the Building 
Code. 

1607.2 Emergency signs. All required signage for elevators 
shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. 

607.3 Elevator keys. Keys for the elevator car doors and 
firefighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for 

■ immediate use by the department. Firefighter service key 
switches shall be operable by citywide-standard key. 

607.4 Elevators in readiness. Elevators in every building 75 
feet (22 860 mm) or more in height shall be kept ready for 
immediate use by the department during all hours of the night 
and day including holidays and weekends. There shall be a 
competent building attendant available to operate such eleva- 
tors, except that no attendant shall be required for buildings 
between 75 and 1 50 feet (22 860 and 45 720 mm) in height hav- 
ing elevators with Phase I emergency recall and Phase II emer- 
gency in-service operation. 

607.5 Emergency elevator operation and maintenance. All 
elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall and Phase II 
emergency in-service operation shall be maintained in proper 
working order such that the emergency elevator operations are 
operable at all times. All elevators with Phase I emergency 
recall shall be subjected, at least monthly, to a Phase I recall 
test. All elevators with Phase II emergency in-service operation 
shall be subjected, at least monthly, to a minimum of a 
one-floor operation II test. A written record of the operational 
status of the elevator shall be made and kept on the premises 
and made available for inspection by any representatives of the 
department. 



SECTION FC 608 
STATIONARY LEAD-ACID BATTERY SYSTEMS 

608.1 Scope. Stationary lead-acid battery systems using 
vented (flooded) lead-acid batteries having an electrolyte 



capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) used for facility 
standby power, emergency power, or uninterrupted power sup- 
plies shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in 
accordance with this section. Valve-regulated lead- acid batter- 
ies are not subject to the requirements of this section, but shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 609. 

608.2 Safety venting. Batteries shall be provided with safety 
venting caps. 

608.3 Room design and construction. Enclosure of station- 
ary lead-acid system rooms shall comply with the requirements 1 
of the construction codes, including the Building Code. The 1 
battery systems are permitted to be in the same room with the 
equipment they support. 

608.4 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method 
and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of 
electrolyte shall be provided. The method and materials shall 
be capable of controlling and neutralizing a spill from the larg- 
est lead-acid battery to a pH between 7.0 and 9.0. 

608.5 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code, 1 
and the following: 1 

1. The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the 
maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of 
the total volume of the room; or 

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not 
less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 
cfm/ft 2 ) [(0.005 lm 3 /(s-m 2 )] of floor area of the room. 

608.6 Signs. Doors into rooms or buildings containing station- 
ary lead-acid battery systems shall be provided with approved 
signs. The signs shall state that the room contains lead-acid bat- 
tery systems, that the battery room contains energized electri- 
cal circuits, and that the battery electrolyte solutions are 
corrosive liquids. 

608.7 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the Building Code. 1 

608.8 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be installed in battery rooms in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Building Code. I 



SECTION FC 609 

VALVE-REGULATED LEAD-ACID (VRLA) BATTERY 
SYSTEMS 

609.1 Scope. Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery sys- 
tems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons 
(189 L) used for facility standby power, emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supply (UPS), shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

609.2 Safety vents. VRLA batteries shall be equipped with 
self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents. 

609.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA battery systems shall be pro- 
vided with a listed device or other approved method to pre- 
clude, detect and control thermal runaway. 



66 



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609.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of VRLA 
battery system rooms shall comply with the requirements of 
the Building Code. The battery systems are permitted to be in 
the same room with the equipment they support. When VRLA 
battery systems are installed in a separate equipment room 
accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be allowed 
to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance. When a 
VRLA battery system is situated in an occupied work center, it 
shall be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure 
to prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 

609.5 Neutralization. An approved manual method and mate- 
rials for the neutralization of a release of electrolyte shall be 
provided. The method and materials shall be capable of con- 
trolling and neutralizing a release of 3 percent of the capacity of 
the largest VRLA cell or block in the room to a pH between 7.0 
and 9.0. 

609.6 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided to limit 
the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the 
total volume of the room during the worst-case event of simul- 
taneous "boost" charging of all batteries in the room. Where 
calculations are not provided to substantiate the ventilation 
rate, continuous ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot 
per minute per square foot (1 ft 3 /min/ft 2 ) [(0.0051 m 3 /(s-m 2 )] of 
floor area of the room shall be provided. The ventilation shall 
be either mechanically or naturally induced. 

609.7 Cabinet ventilation. Where VRLA batteries are 
installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be vented. The cabi- 
net ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of 
hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during 
the worst-case event of simultaneous "boost" charging of all 
batteries in the cabinet. Where calculations are not provided to 
substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation at a rate 
of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 
ft 3 /min/ft 2 ) [0.005 lm 3 /(s-m 2 )] of floor area covered by the cabi- 
net shall be provided. The ventilation shall be either mechani- 
cally or naturally induced. The room in which the cabinet is 
installed shall also be ventilated as required in Section 609.6. 

609.8 Signs. Doors into electrical equipment rooms containing 
VRLA battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. 
The signs shall state that the room contains lead-acid battery 
systems and contains energized electrical circuits. Where 
VRLA batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work 
centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the equipment that they support. The cabinets 
shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and 
model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and 
current) of the contained battery system. Within the cabinet 
there shall be signs that indicate the relevant electrical, chemi- 
cal and fire hazards. 

609.9 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismi- 
cally braced in accordance with the Building Code. 

609.10 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in rooms containing VRLA 
battery systems in accordance with the Building Code. 



SECTION FC 610 
COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST HOODS 

610.1 General. Commercial cooking exhaust hoods shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Building Code and 
the Mechanical Code. Type 1 hoods shall be operated and 
maintained in accordance with Chapter 9 of this code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



67 



68 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION FC 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the maintenance of 
fire-resistance-rated construction. 

701.2 General. Fire-resistance-rated construction shall be 
maintained in accordance with this chapter. 



SECTION FC 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chapter, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown in Chapter 2 or elsewhere in 
this code. 



SECTION FC 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of 
fire-resistance-rated construction (including walls, fire stops, 
shaft enclosures, partitions and floors) shall be maintained. 
Such elements shall be properly repaired, restored or replaced 
when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Openings 
made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, 
ducts, air transfer openings, and holes made for any reason 
shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting 
the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self-closing or 
automatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the 
fire protection requirements for the assembly. 

703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required 
fireblocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed 
spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integ- 
rity of the construction. 

703.1.2 Smoke barriers. Required smoke barrier partitions 
shall be maintained to prevent the passage of smoke and all 
openings protected with approved smoke barrier doors or 
leakage-rated (smoke) dampers. 

703.2 Maintenance of openings. Fire doors and fire windows 
shall be maintained in good working order in accordance with 
NFPA 80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be 
blocked or obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible 
links shall be replaced promptly whenever fused, damaged or 
otherwise rendered inoperable. Fire door assemblies shall not 
be modified. 

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the commissioner, a sign 
shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire door in 
letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as follows: 

1. For doors designed to normally be kept open: FIRE 
DOOR— DO NOT BLOCK. 



2. For doors designed to normally be kept closed: FIRE 
DOOR— KEEP CLOSED. 

703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open 
devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall 
be maintained. During the period that such device is out of 
service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the 
closed position. 

703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close 
from the full-open position and latch automatically. The 
door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the 
door from any partially open position. 

703.3 Ceilings. The hanging of decorative material, merchan- 
dise displayed for sale or other display items from acoustical 
ceiling systems that are part of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly shall be prohibited. 

703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire 
doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper 
operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained 
and be made available for inspection by any representative of 
the department. 



SECTION FC 704 
FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 

704.1 Enclosures. Interior vertical shafts, including stairways, 
elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect two 
or more stories of a building shall be enclosed or protected as 
specified in the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. When openings are required to be protected by the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code, openings into 
such shafts shall be maintained self-closing or automatic-clos- 
ing by smoke detection. Existing fusible-link-type automatic 
door-closing devices are permitted if the fusible link rating 
does not exceed 135°F (57°C). 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



69 



70 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FURNISHINGS, DECORATIONS AND SCENERY 



SECTION FC 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern furnishings, decorative 
vegetation, decorations and scenery in buildings and struc- 
tures. 

801.2 General. The furnishings, decorative vegetation, deco- 
rations and scenery governed by this chapter shall be designed, 
stored, handled and used in accordance with this chapter. 

801.3 Flame-retardant treatments. When a material or item 
is treated with a flame-retardant chemical to meet the require- 
ments of this chapter for a flame-resistant material, such chem- 
ical and its method of application shall be approved. 
Flame-retardant treatments shall be maintained so as to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under conditions encoun- 
tered in actual use. 

801.4 Fire-retardant coating. When a material or item is 
coated with a fire-retardant coating to meet the requirements of 
this chapter for a flame-resistant material, such coating and its 
method of application shall be approved. Flame-retardant coat- 
ings shall be maintained so as to retain the effectiveness of the 
coating under conditions encountered in actual use. 

801.5 Prohibited decorative vegetation, decorations and 
scenery. It shall be unlawful in Group A, E, 1-1, 1-2 nursing 
homes and hospitals, 1-3 and 1-4 day care facility occupancies 
to store or use decorative vegetation, decorations or scenery 
that consists of or is coated with pyroxylin or similarly hazard- 
ous base. 

801.6 Obstructions. The required width of any portion of a 
means of egress shall not be obstructed by any furnishing, dec- 
orative vegetation, decoration or scenery nor shall such fur- 
nishing, decorative vegetation, decoration or scenery obstruct 
any exit or the visibility thereof. 

801.7 Supervision. When a material or item is treated with a 
flame-retardant 4 chemical to meet the requirements of this 
chapter for a flame-resistant material, the application of the 
chemical shall be conducted by or under the personal supervi- 
sion of a certificate of fitness holder. 

801.8 Certificate of approval. Any flame-retardant chemical 
used to render a material flame-resistant to meet the require- 
ments of this chapter shall be of a type for which a certificate of 
approval has been issued in accordance with Section FC 1 1 2 
and the rules. 



SECTION FC 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and used elsewhere in this code, have the mean- 
ings shown herein. * 

CONIFER. Any tree, plant or shrub containing pitch, includ- 
ing hemlock, balsam, pine and fir. 



DECORATION. Any item that is used for aesthetic or artistic 
enhancement of interior space, including draperies, hangings, 
artwork and decorative greens. 

FIRE-RETARDANT COATING. An approved coating that, 
when applied to the surface of scenery in an approved manner, 
imparts flame resistance and reduces flame spread. 

FLAME-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Material that meets the 
criteria for flame-resistance as set forth in NFPA 701, either 
because it is inherently flame-resistant or because it has been 
subjected to a flame-retardant treatment. 

FLAME-RETARDANT TREATMENT. An approved 
chemical that, when applied to a material in an approved man- 
ner, imparts flame resistance to a material. 

FURNISHING. Furniture or items other than structural ele- 
ments, building service equipment or interior finishes that are 
installed or placed in a building for the human comfort or other 
use of the occupants. 

INTERIOR FINISH. Construction materials that form the 
exposed interior surfaces of a building and that are part of or 
affixed to walls, fixed or folding partitions, ceilings, and other 
construction elements. 

NATURAL DECORATIVE GREEN. A bough of a natural 
tree or part thereof. 

NATURAL TREE. Any live tree, plant or shrub, including 
conifer, that is rooted in soil. 

SCENERY. Any or all of those devices ordinarily used on a 
stage in the presentation of a theatrical, artistic, musical or 
other similar live performance, such as back drops, side tabs, 
teasers, borders or scrim, rigid flats, set pieces, and all proper- 
ties, except costumes. 



SECTION FC 803 
FURNISHINGS 



803.1 Reserved. 



803.2 Group A occupancies. The requirements in Sections 
803.2. 1 and 803.2.2 shall apply to Group A occupancies. 

803.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materials and 
unprotected materials containing foam plastic used for dec- 
orative purposes or exhibit booths shall have a maximum 
heat release rate of 1 00 kilowatts (kW) when tested in accor- 
dance with UL 1975, except individual foam plastic items 1 
or items containing foam plastic where the foam does not 
exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. 

803.2.2 Motion picture screens. Motion picture screens 
and supporting construction shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 306.3. 

803.3 Group E occupancy educational facilities. The 
requirements in Sections 803.3.1 and 803.3.2 shall apply to 
Group E occupancy educational facilities. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



71 



INTERIOR FURNISHINGS, DECORATIONS AND SCENERY 



803.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and 
personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected throughout by a sprinkler sys- 
tem, provided the minimum required egress width 
is maintained. 

2. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum 
required egress width is maintained. 

803.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and educational materials shall 
be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 20 per- 
cent of the wall area. 

803.4 Group 1-4 occupancy day care facilities. The require- 
ments in Sections 803.4.1 and 803.4.2 shall apply to Group 1-4 
day care facilities. 

803.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and 
personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected throughout by a sprinkler sys- 
tem, provided the minimum required egress width 
is maintained. 

2. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum 
required egress width is maintained. 

803.4.2 Artwork. Artwork and educational materials shall 
be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent 
of the wall area. 

803.5 Group 1-2 occupancy nursing homes and hospitals. 

The requirements in Sections 803.5.1 through 803.5.4 shall 
apply to Group 1-2 nursing homes and hospitals. 

803.5.1 Upholstered furniture. New or used upholstered 
furniture placed in a Group 1-2 nursing home or hospital on 
or after the effective date of this code shall be shown to resist 
ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in 
accordance with NFPA 261 and shall have a char length not 
exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Upholstered furniture owned by the patient in 
sleeping rooms of a nursing home, provided that a 
smoke detector is installed in such rooms in accor- 
dance with the construction codes, including the 
Building Code. 

2 . Upholstered furniture i n rooms or spaces protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

803.5.2 Upholstered furniture heat release rate. New or 

used upholstered furniture placed in a Group 1-2 nursing 
home or hospital on or after the effective date of this code 
shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 1537 or NFPA 266. 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 250 kW, except 
upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 5 minutes of the test 



shall not exceed 40 megajoules (mJ), except 1 
upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected 6 
throughout by a sprinkler system. I 

803.5.3 Mattresses, heat-release rate. New or used mat- 1 
tresses placed in a Group 1-2 occupancy nursing home or 1 
hospital on or after the effective date of this code shall have 1 
limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1590 or NFPA 267. 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW, except mattresses in rooms or spaces I 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system. 1 

2. The total energy released by the mattress during the 
first 5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 mJ, 
except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected I 
throughout by a sprinkler system. I 

803.5.4 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the 
label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with 
the requirements of Sections 803.5.1 and 803.5.2. 

803.6 Group 1-1 occupancy board and care facilities. The 

requirements in Sections 803.6.1 through 803.6.3 shall apply 
to Group 1-1 occupancy board and care facilities. I 

803.6.1 Upholstered furniture. New or used upholstered 
furniture placed in a Group 1-1 board and care facility on or 
after the effective date of this code shall meet the require- 
ments for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260, 
except upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

803.6.2 Mattresses. New or used mattresses placed in a 1 
Group 1-1 board and care facility on or after the effective I 
date of this code shall have a char length not exceeding 2 1 
inches (51 mm) where tested in accordance with DOC 16 
CFR Part 1632, except upholstered furniture in rooms or 1 
spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler system. I 

803.6.3 Mattresses, heat-release rate. New or used mat- I 
tresses placed in a Group 1-1 occupancy board and care I 
facility on or after the effective date of this code shall have 1 
limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1590 or NFPA 267. «= 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW, except mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by a sprinkler system. 

2. The total energy released by the mattress during the 
first 5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 mJ, 
except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

803.7 Group 1-3 occupancy detention and correction facili- 
ties. The requirements in Sections 803.7.1 through 803.7.6 
shall apply to Group 1-3 occupancy detention and correction 
facilities. 

803.7.1 Upholstered furniture classification. New or used 
upholstered furniture placed in a Group 1-3 occupancy 
detention and correction facility on or after the effective 
date of this code shall meet the requirements for Class I 
where tested in accordance with NFPA 260, except uphol- 
stered furniture in rooms or spaces protected throughout by 
a sprinkler system. 



72 



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INTERIOR FURNISHINGS, DECORATIONS AND SCENERY 



803.7.2 Upholstered furniture heat release rate. New or 
used upholstered furniture placed in a Group 1-3 occupancy 
detention and correction facility on or after the effective 
date of this code shall have limited rates of heat release, as 
follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 250 kW. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In Use Condition I, II and III occupancies, as 
defined in the Building Code, upholstered fur- 
niture in rooms or spaces protected by approved 
smoke detectors that initiate, without delay, an 
alarm that is audible in that room or space. 

2. Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces pro- 
tected throughout by a sprinkler system. 

2. The total energy released by the single upholstered 
furniture item during the first 5 minutes of the test 
shall not exceed 40 mJ, except upholstered furniture 
in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a 
sprinkler system. 

803.7.3 Mattresses, char length. New or used mattresses 
placed in a Group 1-3 occupancy detention and correction 
facility on or after the effective date of this code shall have a 
char length not exceeding 2 inches (5 1 mm) when tested in 
accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632, except mattresses 
in rooms or spaces protected throughout by a sprinkler sys- 
tem. 

803.7.4 Mattresses, heat release rate. New or used mat- 
tresses placed in a Group 1-3 occupancy detention and cor- 
rectional facility on or after the effective date of this code 
shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 1590 or NFPA 267, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW, except mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system. 

2. The total energy released by the mattress during the 
first 5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 mJ, 
except mattresses in rooms or spaces protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

803.7.5 Wastebaskets. Wastebaskets and other waste con- 
tainers shall be of noncombustible or other approved mate- 
rials. 

803.7.6 Wastebasket lids. Waste containers with a capacity 
of more than 20 gallons (76 L) shall be provided with a lid of 
noncombustible or other approved material. 



SECTION FC 804 
DECORATIVE VEGETATION 

804.1 Natural trees and cut natural trees. Natural trees and 
cut natural trees shall be stored, sold, displayed and maintained 
in accordance with Sections 804. 1 . 1 through 804. 1 .6. 

804.1.1 Indoor display of cut natural trees. Cut natural 
trees may be displayed in a building, except in Group A, B, 
E, 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, M, R-l and R-2 occupancies and any 



building or structure used for a public gathering. Notwith- 
standing the foregoing occupancy restrictions, cut natural 
trees may be displayed in houses of worship and dwelling 
units in Group R-2 apartment house occupancies. 

804.1.2 Indoor storage of cut natural trees. It shall be 
unlawful to store cut natural trees in any building, except in 
connection with a display permitted under Section 804. 1.1. 

804.1.3 Indoor storage and display of natural trees. Nat- 
ural trees, except conifers, may be stored and displayed in a 
building, provided they are maintained in a healthy condi- 
tion and are not allowed to become dry. It shall be unlawful 
to store or display natural trees that are conifers in any build- 
ing- i 

804.1.4 Support devices. Cut natural trees for display in 
any building shall have the trunk bottoms cut off at least 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in 
a support device. The support device shall be of a type that is 
stable, holds the tree in an upright position and meets all of 
the following criteria: 

1 . The device shall hold the tree securely and be of ade- 
quate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 

2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum 
2-day supply of water. 

3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm). The water level shall be main- 
tained above the fresh cut and checked at least once 
daily. 

804.1.5 Dryness. Natural trees and cut natural trees shall be 
removed from the building whenever the needles or leaves 
fall off readily when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles 
are brittle and break when bent between the thumb and 
index finger. Trees shall be checked daily for dryness. 

804.1.6 Retail sale of cut natural trees. Merchants of cut 
natural trees, including Christmas trees, shall, at the time of 
retail sale of each such tree, attach to the tree a printed tag 
containing appropriate instructions for its safe and lawful 
display and disposal. 

804.2 Reserved. 

804.3 Open flames. Candles and other open flames shall not be 
used or maintained on or near decorative vegetation. Natural 
cut trees shall be kept a distance at least equal to the height of 
the tree from heat vents and any open-flame or heat-producing 
devices. 

804.3.1 Electrical fixtures and wiring. It shall be unlawful 
to use, allow or maintain unlisted electrical lighting, wiring 
or other items on decorative vegetation. 

804.4 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation, 
including artificial trees, shall be flame resistant or flame retar- 
dant. Such flame resistance or flame retardance shall be certi- 
fied by a testing laboratory, or by the manufacturer in an 
approved manner. Documentation of such certification shall be 
submitted to the department upon request and as required by 
the rules. 

804.4.1 Electrical fixtures and wiring. It shall be unlawful 
to use, allow or maintain unlisted electrical lighting, wiring 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



73 



INTERIOR FURNISHINGS, DECORATIONS AND SCENERY 



or otheritems on decorative vegetation. The use of electrical 
wiring and lighting on metal artificial trees is prohibited. 

804.5 Natural decorative greens. Natural decorative greens 
shall be stored and displayed in a building in accordance with 
Sections 804.5.1 through 804.5.4. 

804.5.1 Storage. It shall be unlawful to store natural deco- 
rative greens in any building, except merchandise for sale or 
displayed for sale which does not contain conifers. 

804.5.2 Display. Natural decorative greens may be dis- 
played in buildings on a temporary basis. The display of nat- 
ural decorative greens in Group A, E, I, and M occupancies, 
in common areas of Group R-l , R-2 and B occupancies, and 
any building or structure used for a public gathering, except 
display of works of art in museums and houses of worship, 
shall comply with the restrictions set forth in Section 
804.5.3. 

804.5.3 Restrictions on display. It shall be unlawful to dis- 
play in any building natural decorative greens that: 

1 . Contain pitch, such as hemlock, balsam, pine or Span- 
ish moss. 

2. Are displayed at a location less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
from stuffed furniture, rugs, or other combustible 
material or contain combustible decorations. 

3. Are on a combustible framework or displayed in con- 
junction with combustible material unless such mate- 
rial is flame resistant. 

804.5.4 Dryness. Any natural decorative green shall be 
removed from the building at the first sign of deterioration 
or dryness. Natural decorative greens shall be checked at 
least daily for dryness. 



and made available to department representatives in accor- 
dance with the rules. 

805.2 Scenery. All scenery in Group A occupancies shall be 
made of noncombustible materials, materials having a Class A 
flame-spread rating, or materials that have been rendered flame 
resistant by the application of a fire-retardant coating, except 
that the commissioner may authorize the use of scenery not 
complying with any of the above requirements where provision 
is made to ensure an equivalent level of fire safety. 

805.2.1 Foam plastics. Foam plastic materials used for 
scenery shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kilo- 
watts (kW) when tested in accordance with UL 1 975, except 
individual foam plastic items or items containing foam plas- 
tic where the foam plastic does not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) 
in weight. 



SECTION FC 806 
INTERIOR FINISH 

806.1 General. The quantity and type of interior finishes shall 
comply with the requirements of Chapter 8 of the Building 
Code. 



I 



SECTION FC 805 
DECORATIONS AND SCENERY 

805.1 Decorations. Except as otherwise specifically provided 
for in this chapter, in Group A, E, I and M occupancies, com- 
mon areas in Group R-l, R-2 and B occupancies, and any 
building or structure used as a place for public gathering, cur- 
tains, draperies, hangings and decorations shall be flame resis- 
tant in accordance with Section 805.1.3 and NFPA 701. In 
Groups 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies, decorations shall be flame 
resistant unless the decorations are so limited in number or size 
that the hazard of fire or fire spread is not present. This section 
shall not apply to decorations being displayed solely for sale in 
any building or as a work of ait in any museum or art gallery. 

805.1.1 Reserved. 

805.1.2 Flame-resistant materials. The type and quantity 
of interior trim allowed shall be as set forth in Section 805 of 
the Building Code. The quantity of decorations when com- 
bined with combustible trim shall not exceed 10 percent of 
the aggregate area of walls and ceilings. 

805.1.3 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required 
to be flame resistant, decorations shall be capable of passing 
Test 1 or 2, as described in NFPA 701. Certification of com- 
pliance shall be prepared by a certificate of fitness holder 



74 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION FC 901 

GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installation, 
operation and maintenance, including inspection and testing, 
of fire protection devices, equipment and systems, and other 
fire protection measures for the control and extinguishment of 
fire. 

901.1.1 General. Fire protection systems shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this 
chapter and the reference standards set forth in Table 901 .6. 1 . 

901.2 Design and installation documents. The commissioner 
may require design and installation documents and calcula- 
tions to be submitted for review for all fire protection systems. 
Design and installation documents required or regulated by 
this code or the rules shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to installation, and shall certify that the design complies 
with the requirements of this code and the rules. 

901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6. 

901.4 Design and installation. Fire protection systems shall 
be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 901.4.1 
through 901.4.5. 

901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection 
systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with 
the construction codes, including the Building Code, and, as 
applicable, this code and the rules, and the applicable refer- 
enced standards listed in this code. Required systems shall 
be extended or altered as necessary to maintain and continue 
protection whenever the building or structure is altered. 
Alterations to fire protection systems shall be performed in 
compliance with the requirements of this code, the rules, 
and the construction codes, as applicable. Buildings and 
structures shall be provided with such fire hose, portable fire 
extinguishers and other means of preventing and extin- 
guishing fires as the commissioner may direct. 

901.4.2 Fire protection systems not required by code. 
Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required 
by this code, the rules or the construction codes, including 
the Building Code, may be installed to provide partial or 
complete protection of a building or structure, provided 
such system meets the requirements of this code, the rules 
and the construction codes, including the Building Code, as 
applicable. Where the design and installation of such fire 
protection system is governed by this code or the rales, the 
commissioner may modify such requirements, consistent 
with the interests of fire safety, upon a determination that 
such modification will promote public safety by encourag- 
ing the installation of such systems. 

901.4.3 Additional fire protection systems. Where the 
material or operation to be conducted in a particular occu- 
pancy gives rise to special hazards in addition to the normal 
hazards of the occupancy, or where the commissioner deter- 



mines that access to the occupancy would unduly delay the 
ability of firefighting personnel to respond to the hazard, the 
commissioner may require additional safeguards. Such 
safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, 
fire extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable 
or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the construction codes, includ- 
ing the Building Code. 

901.4.4 Prohibition of deceptive equipment. It shall be 1 
unlawful to install or maintain any device that has the physi- I 
cal appearance of fire protection equipment but that does ^ 
not perform the fire protection function, in any building, 1 
structure or premises where it may be confused with actual I 
fire protection equipment. i 

901.4.5 Certificate of approval. The following fire protec- 
tion devices, equipment and systems shall be of a type for 
which a certificate of approval has been issued in accor- 
dance with this code, or which was approved by the Depart- 
ment of Buildings or the Board of Standards and Appeals 
prior to the effective date of this section, unless such 
approval by the Department of Buildings or the Board of 
Standards and Appeals is amended or repealed by the com- 
missioner: 

1 . Pre-engineered non- water fire extinguishing systems, 
including systems installed in connection with com- 
mercial cooking systems. 

2. Prefabricated hoods and grease filters installed in 
connection with commercial cooking systems. 

3. Fire department Siamese connections, standpipe sys- 
tem hose outlets and pressure reducing valves. 

4. Fire alarm system control panels. 

901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and 
alarm systems, fire extinguishing systems, private fire hydrant I 
systems, yard hydrant systems, standpipe systems, fire pump I 
systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection 
systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to accep- 
tance tests as set forth in the installation standards specified in 
this code. Where required by the construction codes, including 
the Building Code, this code or the rules, such tests shall be 
conducted, at the owner's risk, by his or her representative 
before a representative of the department. 

901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until any required fire detec- 
tion system, fire alarm system, standpipe system and fire 1 
extinguishing systems have been tested and approved. § 

901.6 Maintenance. Fire protection systems shall be main- 
tained in good working order at all times. Any fire protection 
system that is not in good working order shall be repaired or 
replaced as necessary to restore such system to good working 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



■ order, or, where authorized by the Building Code, removed 
from the premises. 

901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be 
inspected, tested, serviced and otherwise maintained in 
accordance with this section, the rules and the referenced 
standards listed in Table 901.6.1. Where required by this 
section, such inspection, testing and maintenance shall 
additionally comply with the rules. Where applicable, the 
requirements of the reference standards listed in Table 
901 .6.1 shall be in addition to those requirements specified 
in the rules. 

TABLE 901.6.1 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS 



SYSTEM 


STANDARD 


Portable fire extinguishers 


NFPA10 


Low, medium and high expansion foam 
systems 


NFPAllandNFPA25 


Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system 


NFPA 12 


Halon 1301 fire extinguishing systems 


NFPA 12A 


Foam water sprinkler and spray systems 


NFPA 16 and NFPA 25 


Dry chemical fire extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17 


Wet chemical fire extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17 A 


Water based fire protection systems 


NFPA 25 


Fire alarm systems 


NFPA 72 


Water mist fire extinguishing systems 


NFPA 750 


Clean agent fire extinguishing systems 


NFPA 2001 



901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests, 
servicing and other maintenance required by this code, the 
rules or the referenced standards shall be maintained on the 
premises for a minimum of 3 years and made available for 
inspection by any department representative. 

901.6.2.1 Standpipe and sprinkler systems. In addi- 
tion to those records required by NFPA 25, an approved 
card bearing the dates of each inspection, certificate of 
fitness number and signature of the certificate of fitness 
holder shall be posted on the premises near the main 
water supply control valve. A detailed inspection report 
relative to conditions of water supply, gravity and pres- 
sure tanks and levels therein, valves, risers, piping, sprin- 
kler heads, hose valves, hose and nozzles, Siamese 
connections, alarms, fire pumps, obstructions, and con- 
ditions of all other system equipment and appurtenances 
shall be completed monthly by the certificate of fitness 
holder. All defects or violations shall be noted on the 
inspection report. 

901.6.3 Supervision. Inspection, testing, servicing and 
other maintenance of the following fire protection systems 
shall be performed under the personal supervision of a per- 
son holding a certificate of fitness. 

1. Sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Buildings classified in Group R-3 
occupancies. 



2. Standpipe systems. 

3. Foam fire extinguishing systems. 

4. Fire alarm systems. 

5. Private fire hydrant systems. 

6. Yard hydrant systems. 

901.6.3.1 Servicing of portable fire extinguishers. It 
shall be unlawful for any person engaged in the business 
of servicing portable fire extinguishers to service porta- 
ble fire extinguishers without a portable fire extinguisher 
servicing company certificate. Any person that services 
portable fire extinguishers shall hold a certificate of fit- 
ness, except that a person training for such certificate of 
fitness may service portable fire extinguishers under the 
personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. 
Nothing in this section shall preclude portable fire 
extinguishers that are maintained on a premises for use at 
such premises from being serviced by the owner or occu- 
pant of the premises, or an employee of such owner or 
occupant, who possesses a certificate of fitness for porta- 
ble fire extinguisher servicing and the tools, materials, 
equipment and facility necessary to perform such ser- 
vices. 

901.6.3.2 Portable fire extinguisher sales. It shall be 
unlawful for any person to engage in the business of sell- 
ing portable fire extinguishers door to door to owners of 
buildings or businesses for use on their premises without 
a portable fire extinguisher sales company certificate. 

Exception: Sale to owners of Group R-2 and R-3 
occupancy buildings. 

901.6.3.3 Commercial cooking exhaust systems. It 
shall be unlawful for any person engaged in the business 
of inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking exhaust 
systems as required by the provisions of this code to per- 
form such service without a commercial cooking exhaust 
system servicing company certificate. The inspection 
and cleaning of commercial cooking exhaust systems 
required by Section 904. 1 1 shall be performed by a per- 
son holding a certificate of fitness. Nothing in this sec- 
tion shall preclude commercial cooking exhaust systems 
from being inspected and cleaned by the owner or occu- 
pant of the premises, or an employee of such owner or 
occupant, who possesses a certificate of fitness for 
inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking exhaust 
systems and the tools, materials, and equipment neces- 
sary to perform such services in accordance with this 
section. 

901.6.3.4 Smoke detector cleaning and testing. The 
cleaning and testing for smoke entry and sensitivity of 
smoke detectors installed in a defined fire alarm system 
shall be performed by a person holding a certificate of fit- 
ness for smoke detector maintenance. Such work shall be 
performed under the supervision and by employees of a 
person holding a smoke detector maintenance company 
certificate, except that such smoke detector cleaning and 
testing may be performed by an owner or occupant of the 
premises, or an employee of such owner or occupant, 
who possesses a certificate of fitness for smoke detector 



76 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



maintenance, and possesses the tools, instruments or 
other equipment necessary to perform such services in 
accordance this code and the rules. All other smoke 
detector maintenance shall be performed by a person 
possessing the requisite qualifications and experience, 
and any applicable license or certificate. 

901.6.3.5 Central station fire alarm monitoring. It 

shall be unlawful for any person to operate a central sta- 
tion that monitors fire alarm systems and maintain trans- 
mitters in protected premises without a certificate of 
operation. 

901.7 Out-of-service 4 systems. Where a required fire protec- 
tion system is out of service, the department shall be notified 
immediately and unless otherwise directed by the commis- 
sioner, either the building shall be evacuated or a fire watch 
shall be maintained by one or more persons holding a certifi- 
cate of fitness for fire guard. Any other actions as the commis- 
sioner may direct in addition to or in lieu of such measures shall 
also be undertaken, until the fire protection system has been 
returned to service. Where utilized, fire guards shall be pro- 
vided with at least one approved means for notification of the 
department and their only duty shall be to perform constant 
patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires. 

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner 
shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the 
requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific 
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment 
coordinator. 

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a 
system, or portion thereof, is out of service. 

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each 
fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm 
control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command cen- 
ter, indicating which system, or part thereof, is out of ser- 
vice. The commissioner shall specify where the tag is to be 
placed. 

901.7.4 Planned removal from service. The certificate of 
fitness holder and the impairment coordinator shall be made 
aware of and authorize the placing of systems out of service. 
Before authorizing such action the impairment coordinator 

shall: 

1 . Determine the extent and expected duration of the 
out-of-service 4 condition. 

2. Inspect the areas or buildings involved and assess the 
increased risks. 

3. Make appropriate recommendations to the owner. 

4. Notify the department and the responsible person des- 
ignated by the owner to issue hot work authorizations 
in accordance with Chapter 26. 

5. Notify the central station and insurance carrier. 

6. Notify the occupants in the affected areas. 

7. Place out-of-service 4 tags at all required and appropri- 
ate locations. 

8. Maintain system in service until work is ready to 
begin. 



901.7.5 Unplanned out of service condition. The certifi- 
cate of fitness holder, impairment coordinator, and/or other 
person responsible for inspecting, maintaining or supervis- 
ing the operation of a fire protection system who observes a 
serious defect such as an empty tank, break or major leak in 
system water piping, inoperative or shut water supply 
valves, defective Siamese connections, or complete or par- 
tial shut down of sprinkler and/or standpipe systems, other 
than a shutdown for scheduled inspection, testing or mainte- 
nance, shall immediately report such condition to the owner 
of the building, and to the department. When a system fails 
or otherwise goes out of service, the certificate of fitness 
holder or the impairment coordinator shall take the actions 
set forth in Section 901.7.4, and such other actions neces- 
sary or appropriate to protect the occupants of the building 
and minimize property damage. When the certificate of fit- 
ness holder or other such person observes a minor defect or 
other condition not presenting a serious safety hazard, he or 
she shall report the defect or condition to the owner, and if 
the defect or condition is not corrected within 30 days, shall 
report it in writing to the department. 

90 1 .7.6 Restoring systems to service. When an out-of-ser- 1 
vice 4 device, equipment or system is restored to normal I 
working order, the impairment coordinator shall: 

1 . Conduct necessary inspections and tests to verify that 
the affected systems are operational. 

2. Reserved. 

3. Notify the department. 

4. Notify the owner, central station, insurance carrier 
and occupants in the affected areas. 

5. Remove the out-of-service 4 tags. 

901.8 Tampering with or rendering equipment inoperable. 

Fire protection systems and related apparatus shall not be tam- 
pered with or rendered inoperable, except as set forth in Sec- 
tion 107.4. 



SECTION FC 902 1 

DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meanings shown herein. 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm sys- 
tem component, such as a bell, horn, speaker, light, text display 
or vibration device that issues an audible, tactile, and/or visual 1 
alert. I 

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requir- 
ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator 
lamps, alphanumeric displays, or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, any 1 
device, equipment or system that initiates system function as a 1 
result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



77 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



rise, or combustion products, without the necessity for human 
intervention. 

CENTRAL STATION. A facility that receives alarm signals 
from a protected premises and retransmits or otherwise reports 
such alarm signals to the department. 

CERTIFICATE OF OPERATION. A written statement 
issued by the commissioner approving the operation of a cen- 
tral station, for which such certificate is required by this code or 
the rules, or the construction codes. 

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile, or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING EXHAUST SYSTEM SER- 
VICING COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued 
by the commissioner to a person engaged in the business of 
inspecting and cleaning commercial cooking equipment 
exhaust systems, which authorizes such person to inspect and 
clean commercial cooking equipment exhaust systems, for 
which such certificate is required by this code or the rules. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM. A system consist- 
ing of commercial cooking equipment, exhaust hood, filters, 
exhaust duct system, fire extinguishing system and other 
related appurtenances designed to capture grease-laden cook- 
ing vapors and exhaust them safely to the outdoors. 

DEFINED FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A fire alarm system or 
any sub-system thereof that automatically transmits signals to 
the department or a central station and that is installed in pre- 
mises which are required to have a fire alarm system. 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of an emergency condition involving a 
release of hazardous materials or other hazardous material 
incident. 

IFIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. A manually operated 
device used to initiate an alarm signal. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that 
receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices 
and is capable of supplying power to detection devices and 
transponder(s) of off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit 
is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification 
appliances and transfer of condition to relays of devices. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 
matic fire detector, water-flow switch, or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

IFIRE ALARM SYSTEM. Any system, including any inter- 
connected fire alarm sub-system, of components and circuits 
arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or 
es> supervisory signal-initiating devices. 

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded 
by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls, or fire-resis- 
tance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to 
detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

IFIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of 
devices and equipment which detects a fire and discharges an 



approved fire extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 
Such term includes automatic systems and, where such sys- 
tems are authorized by this code or the Building Code, manu- 
ally activated systems. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equip- 
ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a 
fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or 
manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof, including fire extinguishing systems, fire alarm sys- 
tems, sprinkler systems and standpipe systems. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible 
for ensuring that proper safety precautions are taken when a 1 
fire protection system is out of service. I 

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates 
transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke 
detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such 
that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm 
device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire 
alarm box. 

OUT-OF-SERVICE 4 SYSTEM. A fire protection system that 
is not fully functional; or whose operation is impaired or is oth- 
erwise not in good working order. 

PORTABLE COOKING EQUIPMENT. Commercial cook- 
ing equipment, provided with or installed with wheels. 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SALES COMPANY 
CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a 
person engaged in the business of selling portable fire 
extinguishers door to door to owners of buildings or business 
for use on their premises, which authorizes such person to 
engage in such business and supervise such sales. 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER SERVICING COM- 
PANY CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commis- 
sioner to a person engaged in the business of servicing portable 
fire extinguishers, which authorizes such person to engage in 
such business and supervise the provision of such servicing by 
certificate of fitness holders. 

PRES1GNAL SYSTEM. A fire alarm system having a feature 
that allows initial fire alarm signals to sound in a constantly 
attended central location and for which a human action is sub- 
sequently required to achieve a general alarm, or a feature that 
allows the control equipment to delay the general alarm by 
more than one minute after the start of the alarm processing. 

PROTECTED PREMISES. A building, occupancy or struc- 
ture located in the city that is equipped with a fire alarm system 
that transmits an alarm signal to the department or a central sta- 
tion that monitors such system for the purposes of reporting fire 
alarms to the department, whether or not the installation of 
such system on the premises is required by law. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, the control equipment, and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 



78 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke and not connected to a system. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or 
invisible particles of combustion. 

SMOKE DETECTOR MAINTENANCE COMPANY 
CERTIFICATE. A certificate issued by the commissioner to a 
person engaged in the business of performing smoke detector 
cleaning and testing, which authorizes such person to engage in 
such business and supervise the performance of such cleaning 
and testing by certificate of fitness holders. 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A fire extinguishing system, other 
than a mist fire extinguishing system, that utilizes water as the 
extinguishing agent. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM. Piping installed in a building or 
structure that serves to transfer water from a water supply to 
hose connections at one or more locations in a building or 
structure used for firefighting purposes. 

STANDPIPE, MULTI-ZONE. A standpipe system that is 
vertically subdivided as required by the construction codes, 
including the Building Code, into zones to limit the maximum 
operating pressure in the system. Each zone will have its own 
individual automatic water supply. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need for 
action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, fire 
extinguishing systems or equipment, fire alarm systems or the 
maintenance features of related systems. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An ini- 
tiating device, such as a valve supervisory switch, water level 
indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler 
system, that triggers a supervisory signal. 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm sys- 
tem or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or com- 
ponent. 

UNNECESSARY ALARM. An alarm signal transmitted by a 
fire alarm system which functioned as designed, but for which 
a department response proved unnecessary. An example of an 
unnecessary alarm is an alarm triggered by smoke from a lit 
cigarette in a non-smoking area, when the presence of such 
smoke does not implicate fire safety concerns. 

UNWARRANTED ALARM. An alarm signal transmitted by 
a fire alarm system which failed to function as designed as a 
result of improper installation, improper maintenance, mal- 
function, or other factor. Examples of unwarranted alarms are 
alarms resulting from improper smoke detector placement, 
improper detector setting for installed location, lack of system 
maintenance, and control panel malfunction. 



SECTION FC 903 
SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

903.1 General. Sprinkler systems shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. 

903.2 Where required. Sprinkler systems shall be provided in 
buildings, structures, premises, or parts thereof, when required 
by the construction codes, including the Building Code, this 
code or the rules. 



903.2.1 through and including 903.2.10 Reserved. ■ 

903.2.11 During construction. Sprinkler systems required 4» 
during construction, alteration and demolition operations 
shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the I 
Building Code and Section 1414. 1 

903.2.12 Reserved. <BJ 

903.2.13 Other required fire extinguishing systems. In 
addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provi- 
sions indicated in Table 903.2.13 also require the installa- 
tion of a fire extinguishing system for certain buildings and § 
areas. 

TABLE 903.2.13 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


1208.2 


Dry cleaning plants 


1208.3 


Dry cleaning machines 


1504.1 


Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R 


1504.6 


Spray booths and rooms 


1505.1 


Dip-tank rooms 


1505.6.1 


Dip tanks 


1505.8.4 


Hardening and tempering tanks 


1803.10 


HPM facilities 


1803.10.1.1 


HPM work station exhaust 


1803.10.2 


HPM gas cabinets 


1803.10.3 


HPM corridors 


1803.10.4 


HPM exhaust 


1803.10.4.1 


HPM noncombustible ducts 


1803.10.4.2 


HPM combustible ducts 


2106.1 


Class A and B furnaces 


2106.2 


Class C and D furnaces 


Table 2306.2 


Storage fire protection 


2306.4 


Storage 


2703.8.4.1 


Gas rooms 


2703.8.5.3 


Exhausted enclosures 


2704.5 


Indoor storage of hazardous materials 


2705.1.8 


Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials 


2804.4.1 


Aerosol warehouses 


2904.5 


Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose 
combustible fibers 


3306.5.2.1 


Storage of smokeless propellant 


3306.5.2.3 


Storage of small arms ammunition and primers 


3404.3.7.5.1 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms 


3404.3.8.4 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage 
warehouses 



(continued) 



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TABLE 903.2.13— continued 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 



3405.3.7.3 


Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or 
H-3 areas 


3704.1.2 


Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.1.3 


Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.2.2.6 


Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas 


3704.3.3 


Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas 


4106.2.2 


Exhausted enclosures or gas cabinets for silane gas 


4204.1.1 


Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets 


4204.1.3 


Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults 


4204.2 


Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing 


Building 
Code 


Sprinkler requirements as set forth in the 
construction codes, including the Building Code 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m 3 . 

903.3 Installation requirements. Except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, sprinkler systems shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with the construction codes, including 
the Building Code. 

903.4 Sprinkler system monitoring and alarms. All valves 
controlling the water supply for sprinkler systems, pumps, 
tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures, and 
water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electri- 
cally supervised by the fire alarm system. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinkler systems protecting Group R-3 occupancies. 

2. Reserved. 

► 3 . Sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 

13R where a common supply main is used to supply 

► both domestic water and the sprinkler system, and a 
separate shutoff valve for the sprinkler system is not 
provided, except where the Building Code requires 
such sprinkler system to be supervised. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump 
engines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

903.5 Maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be periodically 
inspected, tested, serviced and otherwise maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 901.6 and the rules. Except as otherwise 
provided in Sections 903.5.1 through 903.5.3, sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be inspected and otherwise maintained as follows: 

1. Sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a 
month by a person holding a certificate of fitness, 
employed by the owner, to ensure that all parts of the sys- 



tem are in perfect working order, and that the department 
connections, if any, are ready for immediate use by the 
department. A detailed record of each inspection shall be 
kept for examination by any representative of the depart- 
ment. 

2. There shall be one or more employees instructed in the 
maintenance of sprinkler systems. 

3 . There shall be kept available at all times in the premises a 
supply of at least 6 extra sprinkler heads to replace 
promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers. 

4. Fire department connections shall be hydrostatically 
tested at least once every 5 years, in accordance with 
Section 912.6. 

903.5.1 Sprinkler systems in converted dwellings and 
single room occupancies. In any converted dwelling or ten- 
ement used in whole or in part for single room occupancy, 
regardless of occupancy classification, in which a sprinkler 
system has been installed pursuant to the requirements of 
the Multiple Dwelling Law, such sprinkler system shall be 
inspected and otherwise maintained as follows: 

1 . Sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a 
month by a person employed by the owner, holding a 
certificate of fitness issued by the department, a fire 
suppression contractor license issued by the Depart- 
ment of Buildings, or, for a sprinkler system with not 
more than 30 sprinkler heads, holding a master 
plumber license issued by the Department of Build- 
ings, to ensure that all parts of the system are in per- 
fect working order, and that the department 
connections, if any, are ready for immediate use by 
the department. Such inspection shall include a check 
of all control valves on the system, including the main 
supply control valve, making certain the valves are 
fully open and sealed in such open position; a check of 
the static pressure in the sprinkler system from a pres- 
sure gauge, if installed, located at or near the inspec- 
tor' s test connection, making certain the system 
design pressure is being maintained; a check that all 
sprinkler heads are in place; and such other require- 
ments as the commissioner may prescribe. A detailed 
record of each inspection shall be kept for examina- 
tion by any representative of the department. 

2. There shall be one or more employees instructed in 
the location and status of the sprinkler system control 
valves. 

3. There shall be kept available at all times in the pre- 
mises a supply of at least 6 extra sprinkler heads, to 
replace promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers, 
except that a supply of at least 3 extra sprinkler heads 
shall be kept available for any sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with NFPA 13R as modified 
by the Building Code. 

4. Fire department connections shall be hydrostatically 
tested at least once every 5 years in accordance with 
Section 912.6. 

5. Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once 
every year, a flow test of the sprinkler system shall be 



80 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



conducted. Such test shall be conducted at the 
owner's risk by his or her representative, who shall be 
a licensed master plumber or licensed master fire sup- 
pression contractor. At least one such flow test shall 
be conducted before a representative of the depart- 
ment at least once every 5 years. A report of each test, 
on an approved form, shall be certified by such 
licensed master plumber or licensed master fire sup- 
pression contractor and shall be kept for not less than 
5 years and made available for inspection by any rep- 
resentative of the department. 

6. The owner or managing agent of any building subject 
to the requirements of this section shall maintain a 
record of each inspection and test and a listing of all 
outstanding violations issued pursuant to this section. 
Such records and listing shall be made available for 
inspection by occupants of such residential buildings 
during regular business hours. 

903.5.2 Sprinkler systems in other R-2 occupancies. 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 903.5.1, in Group 
R-2 occupancies, sprinkler system shall be inspected and 
otherwise maintained as follows: 

1. Sprinkler systems shall be inspected at least once a 
month by a person employed by the owner, holding a 
certificate of fitness issued by the department, a fire 
suppression contractor license issued by the New 
York City Department of Buildings, or, for a sprinkler 
system with not more than 30 sprinkler heads, holding 
a master plumber license issued by the New York City 
Department of Buildings, to ensure that all parts of the 
system are in perfect working order, and that the 
department connections, if any, are ready for immedi- 
ate use by the department. Such inspection shall 
include a check of all control valves on the system, 
including the main supply control valve, making cer- 
tain the valves are fully open and sealed in such open 
position; a check of the static pressure in the sprinkler 
system from a pressure gauge, if installed, located at 
or near the inspector' s test connection, making certain 
the system design pressure is being maintained; a 
check that all sprinkler heads are in place; and such 
other requirements as the commissioner may pre- 
scribe. A detailed record of each inspection shall be 
kept for examination by any representative of the 
department. 

2. There shall be one or more employees instructed in 
the location and status of the sprinkler system control 
valves. 

3. There shall be kept available at all times in the pre- 
mises a supply of at least 6 extra sprinkler heads, to 
replace promptly any fused or damaged sprinklers, 
except that a supply of at least 3 extra sprinkler heads 
shall be kept available for any sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with NFPA 13R as modified 
by the Building Code. 

4. Fire department connections shall be hydrostatically 
tested at least once every 5 years in accordance with 
Section 912.6. 



5. Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once 
every year, a flow test of the sprinkler system shall be 
conducted; provided, however, that where there is a 
pressure gauge installed at or near the inspector' s test 
location that is checked during the required monthly 
inspection described in Section 903.5.2(1) to make 
certain the system design pressure is being main- 
tained, a flow test of the sprinkler system shall be con- 
ducted upon order of the commissioner, but at least 
once every 30 months. Such test shall be conducted at 
the owner's risk by his or her representative, who 
shall be a licensed master plumber or licensed master 
fire suppression contractor. At least one such test 
shall be conducted before a representative of the 
department at least once every 5 years. A report of 
each test, on a form prepared by the department, shall 
be certified by such licensed master plumber or 
licensed master fire suppression contractor and shall 
be kept for not less than 5 years and made available 
for inspection by any representative of the depart- 
ment. 

6. The owner or managing agent of any building subject 
to the requirements of this section shall maintain a 
record of each inspection and test and a listing of all 
outstanding violations issued pursuant to this section. 
Such records and listing shall be made available for 
inspection by occupants of such residential buildings 
during regular business hours. 

903.5.3 Sprinkler systems in Group R-3 occupancies. 

Sprinkler systems in buildings classified in Group R-3 
occupancies shall be maintained in perfect working order. 

903.6 Dry pipe sprinkler system valves. In addition to the 
maintenance requirements set forth in Section 903.5, any dry 
pipe valve installed in a sprinkler system shall be trip tested at 
least once every 5 years and whenever the system is altered. 
Such trip test shall be conducted at the owner's risk, with the 
control valve fully open and the quick-opening device, if pro- 
vided, in service, by a licensed master fire suppression contrac- 
tor before a representative of the department. 



SECTION FC 904 
FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

904.1 General. Fire extinguishing systems shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this sec- 
tion, Section 901 and the applicable referenced standards, 
including performing all required inspections, testing and ser- 
vicing. 

904.1.1 Installation acceptance testing. Fire extinguish- 
ing systems shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained 
in the installation standards set forth in this code and the 
rules. When a discharge test is not required by the installa- 
tion standard, the commissioner may require such test when 
there is evidence that the system will not provide the neces- 
sary level of protection. Such tests shall be conducted at the 
owner's risk by his or her representative before a representa- 
tive of the department. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



81 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



91)4.1.2 Additional safeguards. If an area is protected by a 
fire extinguishing system which uses an extinguishing agent 
that will make the protected area hazardous by its discharge 
or thermal decomposition, suitable safeguards shall be pro- 
vided to ensure prompt evacuation, to prevent entry into 
such atmospheres, and to provide means for prompt rescue 
of any trapped personnel. Such safeguards shall include 
establishment of a trained brigade, equipped with and quali- 
fied in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus with 
30-minute minimum supply, for prompt search of the pro- 
tected area. 

Exception: Self-contained breathing apparatus shall not 
be required for a clean agent fire extinguishing system 
installation if: 

1 . The installation is provided with an alarm system 
that is connected to an approved central station. 

2. The protected area is provided with an approved 
fixed emergency forced ventilation system able to 
expel the extinguishing agent. Such emergency 
forced ventilation system shall have a capacity suf- 
ficient to effect at least 20 air changes per hour. 

3. The protected area is of a size, design and/or occu- 
pied in such a manner that egress will not be 
impeded. 

4. The protected area is not normally occupied by any 
individual requiring assistance in evacuation. 

904.2 Where required. Where this code or the rules requires 
the installation of a fire extinguishing system, other than a 
sprinkler system, the commissioner shall approve the type of 1 
fire extinguishing system to be installed. Fire extinguishing 
systems installed as an alternative to sprinkler systems other- 
wise required by this code or the construction codes, including 
the Building Code, shall be approved by the commissioner. 
Such a system may be accepted by the commissioner where the 
nature of the fire hazard is such that water is not effective as an 
extinguishing agent and the system is acceptable to the Com- 
missioner of Buildings. If a system using a fixed amount of 
extinguishing agent is authorized to be installed in lieu of a 
required sprinkler system or any other fire extinguishing sys- 
tem otherwise required by law, a connected reserve of charged 
agent cylinders equal to the primary supply shall be provided. 
The commissioner may impose additional requirements on the 
installation of any fire extinguishing system to be installed in 
lieu of any required sprinkler system. Fire extinguishing sys- 
tems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of 
exceptions or reductions permitted by other requirements of 
this code. 

904.3 Installation. Fire extinguishing systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section. 

904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with the Electrical Code. 

904.3.2 Actuation. Fire extinguishing systems shall be pro- 
vided with a manual means of actuation. 

904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment inter- 
locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, 
window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, 



and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire 
extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the 
design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 

904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of fire extinguishing sys- ^ 
terns, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs 
shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. 
Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a 
hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evac- 
uation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate 
warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once 
agent discharge has begun. ^ 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is 
installed, fire extinguishing systems shall be monitored by 
such fire alarm system. ♦■ 

904.4 Installation acceptance inspection and testing. Fire I 
extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accor- 
dance with this section prior to the installation acceptance test- 1 
ing required by Section 904. 1.1. 1 

904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance 
tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual- 
initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connec- 
tions to fire alarm systems, and connections to an approved 1 
central station shall be tested in accordance with this section I 
and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility 
and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent 
discharge or system operation, where required, shall be 
verified. 

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to central stations 1 
shall be tested to verify proper identification and retrans- 
mission of alarms from fire extinguishing systems. <™ 

904.5 Wet chemical systems. Wet chemical fire extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and 1 
otherwise maintained in accordance with Sections 901, j 
904. 1 . 1 and 904.4, NFPA 17A as modified by Appendix B, and 1 
their listing. 

904.5.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection 
shall be conducted by a trained and knowledgeable person 
to assess whether the system is in good working order. A 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly 
trained and having knowledge of the installation, operation 
and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system 
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such sys- 



82 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



tem in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's 
specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semian- 
nual basis. Tests shall include a check of the detection sys- 
tem, alarms and releasing devices, including manual 
stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing 
agent containers shall be weighed to verify the required 
amount of agent. Stored pressure-type units shall be 
checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of car- 
tridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at inter- 
vals specified by the manufacturer. 

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature- 
sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper oper- 
ation of the system. 

904.5.3 Commercial cooking installations. Wet chemical 
fire extinguishing systems installed to protect a commercial 
cooking operation shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of Section 904. 1 1 . 

904.6 Dry chemical systems. Dry chemical fire extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and 
otherwise maintained in accordance with Sections 901, 
904.1.1 and 904.4, NFPA 17 as modified by Appendix B, and 
their listing. 

904.6.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection 
shall be conducted by a trained and knowledgeable person 
to assess that the system is in good working order. A 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly 
trained and having knowledge of the installation, operation 
and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system 
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such sys- 
tem in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's 
specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semian- 
nual basis. Tests shall include a check of the detection sys- 
tem, alarms and releasing devices, including manual 
stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing 
agent containers shall be checked to verify that the system 
has not been discharged. Stored pressure-type units shall be 
checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of car- 
tridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at inter- 
vals specified by the manufacturer. 

904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed tempera- 
ture-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper 
operation of the system. 

904.7 Foam systems. Foam fire extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, periodically inspected, tested and otherwise main- 
tained in accordance with Sections 901, 904.1.1 and 904.4, 
NFPA 11 as modified by Appendix B, Section B 101.1, NFPA 
1 1 A as modified by Appendix B, and NFPA 16 as modified by 
Appendix B, and their listing. 

904.7.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection 
shall be conducted by a certificate of fitness holder to assess 
whether the system is in good working order. A licensed 
master fire suppression piping contractor properly trained 
and having knowledge of the installation, operation and 
maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system, shall 
inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such system in 



accordance with this section and the manufacturer's specifi- 
cations and servicing manuals at least on an annual basis. 

904.7.2 Commercial cooking installations. Foam fire 
extinguishing systems installed to protect a commercial 
cooking operation shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of Section 904. 1 1 . 

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide fire extin- 
guishing systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, 
tested and otherwise maintained in accordance with Section 
901, Section 904.1.1, 904.4, NFPA 12 as modified by Appen- 
dix B , and their listing. Total flooding carbon dioxide fire extin- 
guishing systems shall not be installed to protect hazards 
within normally occupied areas. Existing total flooding carbon 
dioxide fire extinguishing systems installed to protect normally 
occupied areas prior to the effective date of this code may be 
continued in service until July 1,2013, after which they shall be 
removed from service, and a replacement fire extinguishing 
system shall be installed, where required, in accordance with 
the Building Code, this code or other applicable laws, rules and 
regulations. 

904.8.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection 
shall be conducted by a trained and knowledgeable person 
to assess whether the system is in good working order. A 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly 
trained and having knowledge of the installation, operation 
and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system 
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such sys- 
tem in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's 
specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semian- 
nual basis. 

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders 
shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall 
be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a 
loss in original content of more than 1 percent, the cylinder 
shall be refilled or replaced. 

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges 
of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week 
intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more 
than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain 
the minimum gas requirements. 

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not 
less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) 
for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 1 2-month 
intervals to ensure that such components are in proper oper- 
ating condition. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



904.8.6 Safety precautions. All areas whose atmospheres 
will be made hazardous by the discharge of carbon dioxide 
shall be provided with: 

1. Exit and exit routes that are kept clear at all times. 

2. Lighting and exit directional signs in accordance with 
the construction codes, including the Building Code. 

3. Only outward swinging, self-closing doors at exits, 
and panic hardware on any such doors that are 
secured with a locking or latching device. 

4. A fixed emergency forced ventilation system able to 
clear the area. Such emergency forced ventilation 
shall have sufficient capacity to accomplish at least 6 
air changes per hour. 

5. Such other safety equipment as may be prescribed by 
the commissioner. 

904.8.7 Detection, activation, alarm and control. Detec- 
tion, pre-discharge alarms and discharge alarms shall be 
provided within and outside the protected area and such 
other areas that are made hazardous by a carbon dioxide dis- 
charge. Such alarms shall be audible and visible. 

904.8.7.1 Automatic operation. The carbon dioxide fire 
extinguishing system shall be activated by an automatic 
cross-zoned detection system in which activation of a 
detection device in one zone shall sound a local alarm 
and transmit an alarm to an approved central station, and 
activation of a detection device in the cross zone shall ini- 
tiate the predischarge warning signal and after a time 
delay, initiate the discharge of carbon dioxide. The 
predischarge warning signal time delay shall be of suffi- 
cient duration to allow for evacuation from the protected 
area. Distinct alarms shall indicate the activation of a 
detectorin one zone, the activation of a detector in a cross 
zone (predischarge alarm) and the discharge of carbon 
dioxide. Such alarms shall be continued until the atmo- 
sphere has been returned to normal except that the alarm 
for the detector in one zone may be discontinued when 
the alarm for the cross-zone detector is activated. 

Exceptions: 

1. A carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system 
activated solely by manual means may be 
installed only if approved. Such a system may 
be approved upon a showing satisfactory to the 
commissioner of the need for such a system. 

2. A detection system that is not cross-zoned may 
be approved upon a showing satisfactory to the 
commissioner of the need for such a detection 
and activation system. 

904.8.7.2 Manual operation. A manual pull station 
shall be provided which, upon activation, transmits an 
alarm to an approved central station, overrides any delay 
other than the predischarge delay, and causes the carbon 
dioxide to discharge. Activation of a carbon dioxide fire 
extinguishing system by means of a manual pull station 
shall result in a complete predischarge delay sequence 
prior to system discharge. 



904.8.7.3 Abort systems. Abort systems may be 
installed, but shall be limited to systems activated by 
smoke detectors. Abort controls shall be located in the 
protected area near the means of egress for the area, and 
shall be designed to cause the discharge of carbon diox- 
ide after a time delay unless the abort control is reacti- 
vated for another cycle of delay. Abort controls shall not 
interfere with transmission of local alarms or central sta- 
tion alarms. 

904.8.7.4 Power supply. Power supply to the alarm sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with applicable requirements 
of the construction codes, including the Building Code 
and the Electrical Code. 

904.8.8 Pressure relief venting. The protected area enclo- 
sure shall be provided with suitable pressure relief venting 
which vents outdoors. 

Exception: Such venting shall not be required when a 
registered design professional certifies that the walls, 
ceilings and floors comprising the protected space have 
sufficient porosity and leakage to prevent damage to the 
integrity of such space upon discharge of the extinguish- 
ing agent, and that the inert gas agent leakage into other 
non-flooded rooms and spaces will not reach dangerous 
concentrations. 

904.8.9 Commercial cooking installations. Carbon diox- 
ide fire extinguishing systems installed to protect commer- 
cial cooking operations shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of Section 904. 11. 

904.9 Halon systems. Halon fire extinguishing systems shall 
be installed, periodically inspected, tested and otherwise main- 
tained in accordance with Section 901, Section 904.1.1, Sec- 
tion 904.4, NFPA 12A and their listing. 

904.9.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspection 
shall be conducted by a trained and knowledgeable person 
to assess whether the system is in good working order. A 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly 
trained and having knowledge of the installation, operation 
and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system 
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such sys- 
tem in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's 
specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semian- 
nual basis. 

904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of containers shall be checked at least on a semian- 1 
nual basis. Where a container shows a loss in original B 
weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure 
(adjusted for temperature) of more than 1 percent, the con- 
tainer shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure 
of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the 
container. 

904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, 
hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 
kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems 



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and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 
kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 
hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi 
(17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi 
(6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month 
intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating 
condition. 

904.10 Clean agent systems. Clean agent fire extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and 
otherwise maintained in accordance with Section 901 , Section 
904.1.1, Section 904.4, NFPA 2001 as modified by Appendix 
B, and their listing. The use of a clean agent fire extinguishing 
system shall be limited to automatic total flooding systems. 

904.10.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspec- 
tion shall be conducted by a trained and knowledgeable per- 
son to assess whether the system is in good working order. A 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly 
trained and having knowledge of the installation, operation, 
and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system 
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such sys- 
tem in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's 
specifications and servicing manuals at least on a semian- 
nual basis. 

904.1 0.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month inter- 
vals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of 
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted 
for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall 
be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the con- 
tainer shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container. 

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year inter- 
vals. 

904.10.4 System alarm and activation. Audible and visi- 
ble alarms shall be installed both inside and outside the pro- 
tected area to signal the activation of an automatic detection 
device and the operation of the fire extinguishing system. 
Such signals shall continue until the atmosphere has been 
returned to normal. Activation of a single automatic detec- 
tion device shall sound a local alarm and transmit an alarm 
to an approved central station. Unless the alarm is cancelled 
by an abort system as set forth in Section 904.10.5, activa- 
tion of a second automatic detection device shall, within 30 
seconds, initiate the discharge of clean agent. Power supply 
to the alarm system shall be in accordance with the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code, the Electrical 
Code and NFPA 2001 . 

904.10.4.1 Warning and instruction signs. Warning 
and instruction signs shall be posted at entrances to and 
within the protected area subject to flooding. 

904.10.5 Abort systems. Abort systems may be installed 
only on systems activated by smoke detectors. Abort con- 



trols shall be manually operated, shall be located in the pro- 
tected area, and shall cause the dumping of the clean agent 
after a 2-minute delay unless the abort control is reactivated 
for another cycle of delay. A manual pull station shall be 
provided which, upon activation, shall transmit an alarm to 
an approved central station, override the delay and cause the 
clean agent to dump immediately. Abort controls shall not 
interfere with transmission of local alarms or central station 
alarms. 

904.10.6 Means of egress. Where the protected area is nor- 
mally occupied, provision shall be made for adequate clear 
routes of exit with doors opening in direction of travel. 
Emergency lighting shall be provided for such exits. Exit 
directional signs shall clearly indicate the path of egress. 

904.10.7 Fixed emergency forced ventilation. When the 
protected area is normally occupied, a fixed emergency 
forced ventilation system sufficient to accomplish at least 
six air changes per hour of the flooded protected area shall 
be provided unless all of the following apply: 

1 . The clean agent fire extinguishing system is used to 
extinguish a Class A fire. 

2. The design concentration does not exceed the "no 
observable adverse effect level" for halocarbon 
agents, or "no effect level" for inert gas agents as 
defined in NFPA 2001. 

3. If other than inert gas agents are used, the quantity of 
the thermal decomposition products formed from 
such agents is below the dangerous toxic load (DTL) 
for humans as described in Meldrum's "Toxicology 
of Substances in Relation to Major Hazards: Hydro- 
gen Fluoride" (HMSO, London, 1993). Upon 
request, documentation of hazard assessment of ther- 
mal decomposition products formed from such 
agents shall be filed with the department. 

904.10.8 Pressure relief venting. Clean agent fire extin- 
guishing systems using inert gas agents shall be provided 
with suitable pressure relief venting for the flooded pro- 
tected area that discharges outdoors. 

Exception: Such venting shall not be required when a 
registered design professional certifies that the walls, 
ceilings and floors comprising the protected space have 
sufficient porosity and leakage to prevent damage to the 
integrity of such space upon discharge of the extinguish- 
ing agent, and that the inert gas agent leakage into other 
non-flooded rooms and spaces will not reach dangerous 
concentrations. 

904.11 Commercial cooking systems. Commercial cooking 
systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the 
construction codes, including the Building Code, and shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 90 1 , Section 904. 1.1, 
Section 904.4 and this section. The fire extinguishing system 
for commercial cooking systems shall be of an approved type 
recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment 
and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. 
Preengineered wet chemical fire extinguishing systems shall ^ 
be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for 
the intended application. Dry chemical fire extinguishing sys- i 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



85 



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tems shall not be installed to protect commercial cooking 
equipment and exhaust systems. Other types of fire extinguish- 
ing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as pro- 
tection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall 
be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the 
manufacturer's installation instructions. Fire extinguishing 
systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance 
with the referenced standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

3. Wet chemical fire extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A. 

904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual activation 
device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the 
cooking area, a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maxi- 
mum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. 
The manual activation device shall be located a minimum of 
42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1219 
mm) above the floor at its center. The manual activation 
shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds ( 178 N) and a 
maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to activate the 
fire extinguishing system. 

Exception: Sprinkler systems shall not be required to be 
equipped with a manual activation device. 

904.11.2 System interconnection. The activation of the 
fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the 
fuel and electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. 
The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

904.11.3 Reserved. 

904.11.4 Acceptance testing. Upon completion of the 
installation of a commercial cooking system, such system 
shall be tested at the owner's risk, by his or her representa- 
tive, to confirm proper installation and operation of the sys- 
tem in compliance with the requirements of the construction 
codes, including the Mechanical Code, and this code. The 
owner's representative shall furnish the necessary equip- 
ment required to conduct the test. No permit shall be issued 
for the operation of a commercial cooking system until sat- 
isfactory performance of the fire extinguishing system is 
demonstrated, including compliance with the following 
requirements: 

1 . A performance test of the exhaust system conducted 
before a representative of the department, in accor- 
dance with Section 507.16 of the Mechanical Code. 
The test shall verify that the exhaust airflow rate and 
makeup airflow meet the standards set forth in the 
construction codes, including the Mechanical Code, 
and verify proper operation as specified in this chap- 
ter. 

2. A performance test of the fire extinguishing system 
conducted before a representative of the department, 
in accordance with the applicable installation stan- 
dard set forth in this chapter and its listing. 

3. Chimneys serving masonry ovens shall be proved 
tight by a smoke test. A report of such test shall be pre- 
pared by the installer and made available for inspec- 



tion by a representative of the department at the time 
the performance tests of the exhaust system and fire 
extinguishing system are witnessed by such depart- 
ment representative. 

904.11.5 Commercial cooking equipment. Commercial 
cooking equipment shall be attended at all times while in 
operation and shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tions 904.11.5.1 through 904.11.5.5. 

904.11.5.1 Unlawful operation. It shall be unlawful to 
operate commercial cooking equipment that generates 
smoke or grease-laden vapors or fumes under any of the 
following conditions: 

1 . Without a permit for the operation of a commercial 
cooking system. 

2. Without a lawfully installed fire extinguishing 
system. 

3. Without a lawfully installed exhaust system. 

4. While its fire extinguishing system or exhaust sys- 
tem is out of service. 

904.11.5.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 
mm) travel distance of commercial cooking equipment. 
Cooking equipment involving vegetable or animal oils 
and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable fire 
extinguisher. 

904.11.5.3 Deep fat fryers. Deep fat fryers shall be sep- 
arated from any adjacent cooking equipment that uses an 
open flame by at least 16 inches (406.4 mm). In lieu of 
such separation distance, a 16-inch (406.4 mm) high by 
7 8 -inch (3.2 mm) thick steel baffle permanently attached 
to the longer of the two cooking appliances may be used. 
The baffle shall extend to the full depth of the cooking 
equipment it is attached. 

904.11.5.3.1 Deep-fat fryer high-limit controls. 
Deep-fat fryers shall be equipped with an independ- 
ent high-limit control in addition to the adjustable 
operating control (thermostat). Such high-limit con- 
trol shall be designed and arranged to shut off the fuel 
supply, including electrical energy, when the fat tem- 
perature reaches not more than 475°F (246°C), 1 inch 
(25.4 mm) below the liquid surface. All high-limit 
controls shall be replaced every 3 years with a new or 
rebuilt unit certified to operate at not more than 475°F 
(246°C). A record of such replacement shall be main- 
tained at the premises and made available for inspec- 
tion by any representative of the department upon 
request. 

904.11.5.4 Portable cooking equipment. The proper 
positioning of portable cooking equipment (equipment 
on wheels) shall be outlined on the floor in a durable 
1-inch (25.4 mm) wide yellow line or other approved 
means. 

904.11.5.5 Staff training. The owner or operator of 
commercial cooking equipment shall train all staff in the 
proper procedures for the use of all components of the 
grease removal system, cleaning of filters, and the man- 



86 



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ual operation of the fire extinguishing system. At least 
once every 6 months the owner or operator of the pre- 
mises shall review the instructions for manual operation 
of the fire extinguishing system with all staff. 

904.11.6 Operation and maintenance. Commercial cook- 
ing systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance 
with this section. 

904.11.6.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system 
in connection with hoods shall be operated at the 
required rate of air movement, and approved grease fil- 
ters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen 
grease hood is used. Exhaust systems shall be operated at 
all times while cooking equipment is being used. Fixed 
air supply openings installed to provide make-up air for 
air exhausted through the exhaust system shall not be 
restricted by covers, dampers, or any other means that 
would reduce the operating efficiency of the exhaust sys- 
tem. Commercial cooking hoods shall not be painted. 

904.11.6.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors 
are installed, they shall be operated when the commercial 
cooking equipment is used. 

904.11.6.3 Exhaust system inspection and cleaning. 

The entire exhaust system, including but not limited to 
hoods, filters, grease removal devices, ducts, fans, pollu- 
tion control devices, and other appurtenances, shall be 
inspected and cleaned at least once every three months 
under the personal supervision of a person holding a cer- 
tificate of fitness. Surfaces shall be cleaned to bare metal 
and no powder or other foreign substance shall remain in 
the exhaust system after cleaning. Flammable cleaning 
fluids shall not be used. If saponifying agents are used, 
residues shall be removed. Cleaning fluids shall not be 
applied on fusible links or other detection devices of the 
fire extinguishing system. Electrical switches that may 
be accidentally activated during the cleaning process 
shall be electrically locked out during such process. 

Exception: Vertical portions of interior and exterior 
vertical ducts in excess of three stories in height shall 
be cleaned at least every six months by a person hold- 
ing a certificate of fitness. Horizontal portions of such 
ducts, including all elbows, shall be inspected and 
cleaned in accordance with Section 904.1 1.6.3. 

904.11.6.3.1 Filters. Filters shall be cleaned or 
replaced as frequently as necessary, but at least once 
per month, by a properly trained employee of the 
owner or by a person holding a certificate of fitness. 
No exhaust system shall be operated without filters 
installed while cooking equipment is being used. 

904.11.6.3.2 Spark arrestors. Any spark arrestor 
provided in conjunction with a solid fuel cooking 
operation shall be inspected monthly and shall be 
cleaned as required to maintain free of debris and 
unobstructed. 

904.11.6.3.3 System deactivation. Unless necessary 
to accomplish cleaning, components of the fire extin- 
guishing system shall not be rendered inoperable dur- 
ing the cleaning process. If electrical switches, 



detection devices, or other components of the fire 
extinguishing system must be deactivated during the 
cleaning process, such deactivation shall be per- 
formed by a licensed master fire suppression piping 
contractor. Immediately upon completion of the 
cleaning process the licensed master fire suppression 
piping contractor shall restore the system to proper 
operation. 

904.11.6.4 Maintenance. At least once a month, an 
inspection shall be conducted by a trained and knowl- 
edgeable person to assess that the system is in good 
working order. A licensed master fire suppression piping 
contractor properly trained and having knowledge of the 
installation, operation and maintenance of the specific 
fire extinguishing system shall inspect, test, service and 
otherwise maintain such system in accordance with this 
section and the manufacturer's specifications and servic- 
ing manuals at least on a semiannual basis. At a mini- 
mum, the semiannual inspection, testing and servicing 
shall include: 

1 . Verification that the hazard has not changed. 

2. Verification that the fire extinguishing system has 
not been altered. 

3. Examination of all detectors, agent and gas con- 
tainers, releasing devices, piping, hose assemblies, 
nozzles, and all auxiliary equipment. 

4. Verification that the agent distribution piping is 
not obstructed. 

5. Verification that the extinguishing agent container 
and/or auxiliary pressure containers have been, as 
applicable, inspected, retested 3 and marked in con- 
formance with the requirements of the United 
States Department of Transportation. 

6. A test of the system's automatic and manual 
releasing devices, including any associated equip- 
ment. 

7. A test of the gas and electric power source shutoff 
devices. 

8. Preparation and submission to the owner of a writ- 
ten report of any system defects. 

9. Upon satisfactory completion of the semiannual 
inspection and correction of all defects, providing 
the owner with an inspection, testing and service 
compliance tag. Such tag shall indicate the date 
issued, the name and license number of the 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor 
issuing the tag, and that the system was found to be 
in compliance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

904.11.6.5 Fusible link and sprinkler head replace- 
ment. Fusible links and foam water sprinkler heads shall I 
be replaced at least annually, and other protection 
devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be 
replaced annually. 



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904.11.6.6 Recordkeeping. Records shall be main- 
tained as set forth in Section 901 and as follows: 

1. A record of the inspection and cleaning of the 
exhaust system required by Section 904.11.6.3 
shall be maintained at the premises and made 
available for inspection by any representative of 
the department upon request. Such record shall 
indicate the date that such inspection and cleaning 
was conducted, and the name and certificate of fit- 
ness number of the individual supervising such 
inspection and cleaning. 

2. A record indicating the name of the person or firm 
doing the servicing and the dates when filters were 
cleaned or replaced shall be maintained at the pre- 
mises and made available for inspection by any 
representative of the department upon request. 

3. Upon satisfactory completion of the semiannual 
inspection as required by Section 904.11.6.4 and 
the correction of all system defects, the licensed 
master fire suppression piping contractor shall 
issue an inspection, testing and service compliance 
tag. Such tag shall be posted in a conspicuous loca- 
tion on the premises. A new compliance tag shall 
be posted for each required semiannual inspection. 

4. A record of the periodic inspection of all portable 
fire extinguishers shall be maintained as required 
in Section 906. 

5. A record of the replacement of deep fat fryer 
high-limit controls shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Section 904.1 1.5.3.1. 

904.11.6.7 Postings. Postings required by this section 
shall be clearly and concisely written, at least 8V 2 inches 
(215.9 mm) by 1 1 inches (279.4 mm) in size, and posted 
under glass or laminated. The following information 
shall be posted: 

1 . A complete set of cleaning and operating instruc- 
tions covering all components of the cooking 
equipment and exhaust system and a schematic 
drawing or sketch showing the origin, run, and ter- 
minus of the exhaust system. Such posting shall be 
at the main entrance or other approved entrance to 
the cooking area. 

2. Instructions for manual operation of the fire extin- 
guishing system with a statement that the fire 
extinguishing system shall be manually activated 
prior to using a portable fire extinguisher. Such 
posting shall be near the portable fire extinguisher. 

904.11.7 Solid fuel cooking operations. Unless otherwise 
approved by the Commissioner of Buildings, the burning of 
solid fuel in commercial cooking equipment, such as bri- 
quettes, mesquite, hardwood, or charcoal, shall be permit- 
ted only for purposes of flavor enhancement. Solid fuel shall 
be ignited with a match or other approved means. Combusti- 
ble or flammable liquids shall not be used. Matches shall not 
be stored in the immediate vicinity of cooking equipment. 
Solid fuel shall be added to the fire only as required, and 1 
shall be done in a safe manner and in quantities that will not 



create a flame higher than required. Long-handled 4 tongs, 
hooks and other required devices shall be provided and used 
in order to safely add fuel, adjust the fuel, position and con- 
trol the fire, without having to reach into the fire box. The 
room where solid fuel is used or stored shall be protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

904.11.7.1 Solid fuel storage. Solid fuel shall be stored 
in a dedicated room with walls, floor and ceil ing having a 
minimum fire rating of one hour. The storage room floor 
shall be noncombustible 3 or covered with 
noncombustible 3 material. Not more than a one-day sup- 
ply may be kept in the same room as the solid fuel cook- 
ing appliance or masonry oven or in the room with the 
fuel loading or clean-out doors. 

Solid fuel shall not be stored: 

1 . Within 3 feet (911.4 mm) of any portion of a solid 
fuel burning appliance, masonry oven or any other 
heating or cooking appliance. 

2. Within 6 feet (1828.8 mm) of any solid fuel load- 
ing opening or door of the solid fuel cooking appli- 
ance or masonry oven. 

3. Above any heating or cooking appliance, flue or 
vent. 

904.11.7.2 Solid fuel cooking equipment. Cooking 
equipment burning solid fuel shall be installed on floors 
of noncombustible construction that extend 3 feet (911.4 
mm) from the cooking equipment in all directions. Com- 
bustible surfaces or construction shall not be permitted 
within 3 feet (911.4 mm) of the sides or 6 feet (1828.8 
mm) above any such cooking equipment. 

904.11.7.3 Water supply. A water supply with a flexible 
hose shall be provided near solid fuel cooking appliances 
and masonry ovens to cool down any fire that becomes 
too hot and to completely extinguish any fire before leav- 
ing the premises. The water source shall be a fixed pipe 
system with a hose of adequate length to reach to the 
combustion and cooking chambers of the appliance. The 
nozzle shall be fitted with a manual shut-off device, and 
shall be of the type to provide a fine to medium spray. A 
full flow or strong stream shall not be used. 

904.11.7.4 Spent fuel. Spent fuel, ash, cinders and other 
fire debris shall be removed from the fire box at regular 
intervals, but at least once a day, and, once removed, shall 
not be stored indoors. Adequate long handle rakes, hoes, 
scrapers and shovels shall be provided for such removal. 
When being removed from the fire box, the spent fuel 
shall be sprinkled adequately with water from the 
required water supply to cool it and to control the dust. 
Dedicated metal containers (minimum 16 gauge) with 
covers shall be provided for such removal. Each con- 
tainer of spent fuel, ash, cinder and other debris so 
removed shall not exceed 20 gallons (75.7 L) capacity, 
shall be sized to easily pass through any passageway to 
the outside and shall be capable of being handled easily 
by any employee assigned this task. The spent fuel shall 
be placed outside in heavy metal containers or a dump- 
ster used exclusively for this purpose and shall be sepa- 



88 



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rated from all combustible construction and combustible 
materials. The containers shall be covered at all times. 

904.12 Water-mist systems. Water-mist extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be installed, periodically inspected, tested and main- 
tained in accordance with Section 901, Section 904.4, NFPA 
750 as modified by Appendix B, and their listing. All devices 
and appurtenances shall be listed and installed in conformance 
to the terms of the listing. 

904.12.1 Maintenance. At least once a month, an inspec- 
tion shall be conducted by a trained and knowledgeable per- 
son to assess whether the system is in good working order. A 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor properly 
trained and having knowledge of the installation, operation 
and maintenance of the specific fire extinguishing system 
shall inspect, test, service and otherwise maintain such sys- 
tem in accordance with this section and the manufacturer's 
specifications and servicing manuals at least on an annual 
basis. 



SECTION FC 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided where 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, this code or the rules. Fire hose threads used in connec- 
tion with standpipe systems shall be approved by the commis- 
sioner. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved by the commissioner. Standpipe systems in build- 
ings used for high-piled combustible storage shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 23. 

905.1.1 Standpipe system operator. In buildings with a 
multi-zone standpipe system, such system shall be continu- 
ously under the personal supervision of a person holding a 
certificate of fitness, who shall be immediately available to 
assist the department in the operation of such system. 

905.2 Installation standards. Standpipe systems shall be 

(installed in accordance with the construction codes, including 
the Building Code. 
905.3 through and including 905.6 Reserved. 

905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing firefighting equipment, 

isuch as standpipes, fire hose, portable fire extinguishers and 
water supply control valves, shall not be obstructed from use or 
obscured from view. 

| 905.8 Reserved. 

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the 
normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal 
at the central station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire 
alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to 
the fire alarm system control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 



2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required dur- 
ing construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be 
provided in accordance with Chapter 33 of the Building Code 
and Section 1413. 

905.11 Reserved. 

905.12 Maintenance. Standpipe systems shall be maintained, 
including all required inspection, testing and servicing, in 
accordance with this section, Section 901.6 and NFPA 25. 

905.12.1 Standpipe hydrostatic pressure and flow tests. 
Upon order of the commissioner, but at least once every 5 
years, the standpipe system shall be subjected to a hydro- 
static pressure test and a flow test to demonstrate its suitabil- 
ity for department use. These tests shall be conducted in 
compliance with the requirements of the rules and shall be 
conducted at the owner's risk, by his or her representative 
before a representative of the department. 

905.12.2 Pressure-reducing 4 valves. Upon order of the 
commissioner, but at least once every 3 years, standpipe sys- 
tems with pressure-reducing 4 valves installed shall be flow 
tested to demonstrate proper adjustment of such valves. 



SECTION FC 906 i 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1. In all Group A, B, E,F,H, I, M,R-l,R-2 adult homes and 1 
enriched housing, and S occupancies: I 

2. Within 30 feet (9 1 44 mm) of commercial cooking equip- 
ment. 

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are 
manufactured, stored, handled and used, including dis- 
pensing, in quantities requiring a permit pursuant to Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

4. On each floor of structures under construction, alteration 
or demolition, except detached Group R-3 occupancies, 
in accordance with Section 1415.1. 

5 . Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906. 1 . 

6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to labora- 
tories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where 
required by the commissioner. 

7. Where required by other provisions of this code or the 
rules. 

906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this 
section and NFPA 10. 

Exception: The travel distance to reach a portable fire 
extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions 
of Group A-5 occupancies. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



89 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 906.1 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


303.5 


Tar kettles 


304.4.3 


Outdoor storage of combustible waste 


307.4 


Open fires 


307.5 


Barbecues on residential properties 


308.6.5 


Flaming food and beverages in Group A occupancies 


309.4 


Powered industrial trucks 


315.3.4 


Outdoor storage of combustible material 


1105.2 


Aircraft towing vehicles 


1105.3 


Aircraft welding apparatus 


1105.4 


Aircraft-fueling vehicles 


1105.5 


Aircraft hydrant-fueling vehicles 


1105.6 


Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 


1107.7 


Heliports and helistops 


1110.6.2 


Helicopter lift operations 


1208.4 


Dry cleaning plants 


1415.1 


Buildings, structures, premises and facilities under construction, alteration or demolition 


1417.3 


Roofing operations 


1418.1 


Ammunition at a construction site 


1504.6.4 


Spray-finishing operations 


1505.5 


Dip-tank operations 


1507.10 


Powder coating operations 


1908.8 


Storage of wood chips and other wood waste materials 


1909.5 


Exterior lumber storage 


2003.5 


Organic-coating areas 


2106.3 


Industrial furnaces 


2205.5 


Automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2208.7.4.1 


CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2210.6.4 


Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2211.6 


Repair garages 


2306.10 


Rack storage 


2404.12 


Tents and other membrane structures 


2508.2 


Tire rebuilding/storage 


2604.2.6 


Welding and other hot work 


2707.9.3 


Transportation of flammable and combustible liquids in cargo tanks 


2903.6 and 2906.6.4 


Combustible fibers 


3309.9.1 


Special effects 


3403.2.1 


Flammable and combustible liquids, general 


3404.3.3.1 


Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids 


3404.3.7.5.2 


Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids 


3405.4.9 


Solvent distillation units 


3406.2.7 


Construction sites — flammable and combustible liquids storage 


3406.4.10.1 


Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids 


3406.8.1(20) 


Vapor recovery and processing equipment at bulk plants and terminals 


3506.5 


Sterilizers using flammable gas containing ethylene oxide 


3808.2 


LPG 



90 



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906.2.1 Maintenance. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
maintained in accordance with Section 901 .6 and this sec- 
tion. 

906.2.1.1 Monthly inspection. An inspection to verify 
that the portable fire extinguishers are readily available 
and in good working order shall be conducted at least 
once a month. The person conducting such inspections 
shall keep records of all portable fire extinguishers 
inspected, including the date the inspection was per- 
formed, the person performing the inspection, and those 
portable fire extinguishers found to require corrective 
action. Such recordkeeping shall be either kept on a tag 
or label securely attached to the portable fire extin- 
guisher, on an inspection checklist maintained on file or 
by an approved electronic method that provides a perma- 
nent record. 

906.2.1.2 Servicing. Annual servicing and recharging 
shall be performed by a person or company meeting the 
requirements of Section 901.6.3.1. Records of servicing 
and recharging of portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided and maintained in accordance with NFPA 10. 
The required tag or label for servicing shall also include 
the following information: 

1 . The name and certificate of fitness number of the 
person who serviced the portable fire extinguisher. 

2. The month and year the portable fire extinguisher 
was serviced. 

3. The name, street address and telephone number of 
the portable fire extinguisher servicing company, 
if any, servicing the portable fire extinguisher. 

906.2.1.3 Hydrostatic testing. Periodic hydrostatic test- 
ing of portable fire extinguishers shall be done in accor- 
dance with NFPA 1 0. 

906.3 Size and distribution. For occupancies that involve pri- 
marily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribu- 
tion shall comply with Table 906.3(1). Portable fire 
extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or com- 
bustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch 
(6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with 
Table 906.3(2). Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies 
involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of 
greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) or involving combustible 
metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 
10. Extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and 
placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or Class B hazard. 

906.3.1 Sprinklered areas. In buildings classified as Group 
A- 3 occupancy houses of worship and Group B occupancy 
office buildings that are protected throughout by a sprinkler 
system, the maximum floor area per unit of A required by 
Table 906.3(1) may be doubled. 

906.4 Cooking grease fires. Portable fire extinguishers pro- 
vided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an 

> approved type compatible with the fire extinguishing system 
agent and in accordance with Section 904.1 1.5. 

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall 
be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily 



accessible and immediately available for use. These locations 
shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the commissioner i 
determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for place- 
ment away from normal paths of travel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Portable fire extinguishers subject to theft, malicious 
use or damage may be located in locations approved 
by the commissioner. 

2. In rooming houses and single room occupancies, as 
defined in the New York State Multiple Dwelling 
Law, with over 15 sleeping rooms, a 2- A rated porta- 
ble fire extinguisher may be kept in the apartment of 
the manager or the building superintendent. 

TABLE 906.3(1) 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS 





LIGHT (Low) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY" 


ORDINARY 

(Moderate) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY" 


EXTRA (High) 

HAZARD 
OCCUPANCY" 


Minimum Rated 
Single Extinguisher 


2-A c 


2-A 


4-A a 


Maximum Floor 
Area Per Unit of A 


3,000 square 
feet e 


1 ,500 square 
feet 


1,000 square 
feet 


Maximum Travel 
Distance to 
Extinguisher 


75 feet 


75 feet 


75 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Two 2.5-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of 
one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

b. Reserved. 

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupan- 
cies. 

d. For the purposes of Table 906.3(1), the terms "Light (Low) Hazard", "Ordi- 
nary (Moderate) Hazard" and "Extra (High) Hazard" shall be as defined in 
NFPA 10. 

e. In areas classified as Groups A3, B , or E which are protected throughout by a 
sprinkler system, the maximum floor area per unit of A may be doubled. 

TABLE 906.3(2) 
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH 
DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH 



TYPE OF HAZARD 


BASIC MINIMUM 

PORTABLE FIRE 

EXTINGUISHER 

RATING 


MAXIMUM TRAVEL 

DISTANCE TO 

PORTABLE FIRE 

EXTINGUISHERS (feet) 


Light (Low) 


5-B 
10-B 


30 
50 


Ordinary (Moderate) 


10-B 

20-B 


30 
50 


Extra (High) 


40-B 
80-B 


30 
50 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 
sizing criteria, see NFPA 10, Sections 3-3 and 3-4. 

906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In 
rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be com- 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



91 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



§ pletely avoided, signs or other markings shall be provided to 
indicate the locations of portable fire extinguishers. 

906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire 
extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be 
securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

I 906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire 
extinguishers shall be readily identifiable and shall not be 
locked. 

Exceptions: 

II. Portable fire extinguishers subject to theft, malicious 
use or damage, if provided with an approved means of 

ready access. 

1 2. Portable fire extinguishers in Group 1-3 occupancies 

and in mental health areas in Group 1-2 occupancies 

I may be locked or located in staff locations, provided 

the staff of the institution has ready access to the cabi- 
net or other storage location. 

906.9 Height above floor. Portable fire extinguishers having a 
gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds ( 1 8 kg) shall be installed 
so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the 
floor. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross 
weight exceeding 40 pounds (1 8 kg) shall be installed so that 

1 their tops are not more than 3.5 feet ( 1 067 mm) above the floor. 
The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed 
hand-held extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 
mm). 

906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled portable fire extinguishers 
shall be conspicuously located in a designated location. 



SECTION FC 907 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

907.1 General. This section covers the operation and mainte- 
» nance of fire alarm systems and their components. 

907.1.1 Design and installation documents. Design and 
installation documents for fire alarm systems shall be sub- 
mitted to the department for review and approval prior to 
system installation. Design and installation documents shall 
include such design and installation details as may be 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

■ 907.2 Where required. An approved manual, automatic, or 
manual and automatic fire alarm system shall be provided 
where required by the construction codes, including the Build- 
ing Code or this code. An approved automatic fire detection 
system shall be installed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 72. 

I 907.3 Reserved. 

907.4 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes shall 
be installed in accordance with the construction codes, includ- 
ing the Building Code. 

907.4.1 through and including 907.4.4 Reserved. 



907.4.5 Protective covers. The commissioner may require i 
the installation of manual fire alarm box protective covers to «■ 
prevent malicious false alarms or provide the manual fire 
alarm box with protection from physical damage. The pro- 
tective cover shall comply with the requirements of the con- 1 
struction codes, including the Building Code. ■ 

907.5 through and including 907.7 Reserved. 1 

907.8 Presignal system. Presignal systems shall not be 
installed unless approved by the commissioner. Where a 1 
presignal system is installed, personal supervision shall be pro- «ss 
vided at an approved location, in order that the alarm signal can i 
be activated in the event of fire or other emergency. 

907.9 through and including 907.12 Reserved. 1 

907.13 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector for 
periodic inspection, testing and other maintenance. I 

907.14 Fire extinguishing systems. Fire extinguishing sys- 4" 
terns shall be connected to the building fire alarm system where 

a fire alarm system is required or is otherwise installed. «■ 

907.15 Monitoring. Where required by this code, the rules or 
by the construction codes, including the Building Code, such 
monitoring by a central station shall be performed in compli- 
ance with the requirements of NFPA 72 and the rules. 

Exception: Supervisory service is not required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required 
by Section 907.2. 1 of the Building Code. 1 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Sprinkler systems in Group R-3 occupancies. i 

907.16 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic 
telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm 
shall not be connected to any department telephone number 1 
unless approved by the commissioner. I 

907.17 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installation 
of a fire alarm system, including alarm notification appliances 1 
and circuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervi- 
sory-signal initiating devices and circuits, signaling line cir- 
cuits, and primary and secondary power supplies, such system 
shall be tested at the owner's risk, by his or her representative, 
before a representative of the department, to confirm its proper 
installation and operation of the system in compliance with the 
requirements of the Building Code and this code. 

907.18 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been 
installed in accordance with the approved design and installa- 
tion documents and specifications shall be provided by the 
installing contractor. 

907.19 Instructions. Inspection, testing, operation and main- 
tenance instructions, as built design and installation documents 
and equipment specifications shall be provided on site at an 
approved location. 

907.20 Inspection, testing and other maintenance. Fire 
alarm and fire alarm detection systems shall be operated and 
maintained in accordance with this code, Section 901 , the rules 
and NFPA 72. 

907.20.1 Reserved. 



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907.20.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance 
■* with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where 

I required by the commissioner. Where automatic testing is 
performed at least weekly by a remotely monitored fire 
alarm control unit specifically listed for the application, the 

I system may be manually tested on an annual basis. 

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible 
for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled 
1 shutdowns where approved by the commissioner, but not 

less than every 18 months. 

907.20.3 Detector sensitivity. Detector sensitivity shall be 
checked in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions 
and NFPA 72. Detectors which are connected to a fire alarm 
system that automatically transmit signals to the department 
or to a central station shall, as applicable, also be checked in 
compliance with the rules. 

907.20.4 Method. To ensure that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be 
tested using either a calibrated test method, the manufac- 
turer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument, listed control 
equipment arranged for the purpose, a smoke detector/con- 
trol unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at 
the control unit where its sensitivity is outside its acceptable 
sensitivity range or other calibrated sensitivity test method 
acceptable to the commissioner. Detectors found to have a 
sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range 
shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permit- 
ted to be either adjusted within the listed and 
marked sensitivity range and cleaned and 
recalibrated or they shall be replaced. 

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station 
smoke alarms. 

907.20.4.1 Testing device. Detector sensitivity shall not 
be tested or measured using a device that administers an 
unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into 
the detector. 

907.20.5 Maintenance. The owner shall be responsible for 
ensuring that the fire and life safety systems are maintained 
in good working order at all times. Service personnel shall 
possess the qualifications set forth in NFPA 72 for inspect- 
ing, testing, servicing and otherwise maintaining such sys- 
tems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be 
made available to the commissioner. When required by the 
rules, a smoke detector maintenance log book and an alarm 
log book shall be maintained. 

907.20.6 Smoke detector maintenance. The owner of any 
premises, or part thereof, monitored by a fire alarm system 
or sub-system thereof, whether required or not required by 
this code, which automatically transmits 1 signals to the 
department or to a central station, shall be responsible for 
preventing unnecessary and unwarranted alarms as set forth 
in rules. Cleaning and testing of smoke detectors shall be 
performed and records maintained of smoke detectors 
installed in a defined fire alarm system as required by the 
rules. 



SECTION FC 908 § 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detec- 
tion and notification of an emergency condition in Group H 
occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27. 

908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notifica- 
tion of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be pro- 
vided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accor- 
dance with Section 1803.13. 

908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by 
Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided 
for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed 
gases. 

908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system 
shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance 
with Section 3705.3.2. 

908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
non-odorized gases in accordance with Section 2211.7.2. 

908.6 Refrigerating systems. Refrigerating system machin- i 
ery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in 
accordance with Section 606.8 and the Mechanical Code. § 

908.7 Carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide alarms and car- 
bon monoxide detectors shall be installed where required by 
the construction codes, including the Building Code and, 
where applicable, the requirements of the New York City 
Department of Housing Preservation and Development. 

908.8 Medical gas systems. Medical gas systems shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 3006.4 and the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

908.9 Flammable gas. Flammable gas detection systems shall 
be as set forth in the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, this code or the rules. 

908.9.1 Flammable gas distribution piping. Areas within 
buildings and structures containing flammable gas distribu- 
tion piping operating at levels above 15 pounds per square 
inch (psig)(103.4 kPa) shall be provided with an approved 
flammable gas detection-alarm system. 

908.10 Maintenance. Emergency alarm and detection systems 
addressed by this section shall be inspected, tested, serviced 
and otherwise maintained in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications. Those approved for connection to a fire 
alarm system or which will transmit an alarm to a central sta- 
tion shall additionally comply with the requirements of NFPA 
72 and the rules governing the operation and maintenance of 
such systems. 

908.10.1 Carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide detectors 
shall be inspected, tested, serviced and otherwise main- 
tained in compliance with the requirements of the construc- 
tion codes, including the Building Code, and, where 
applicable, the requirements of the New York City Depart- 
ment of Housing Preservation and Development. Those 
connected to a fire alarm system or which will transmit an 
alarm to a central station shall additionally comply with the 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



93 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



requirements of Section 901 .6, NFPA 72 and the rules gov- 
erning the operation and maintenance of such systems. 



SECTION FC 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

909.1 Smoke control systems. Smoke control systems, 
including stairwell pressurization, shall be provided as 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, and shall be designed, installed and tested as required by 
such codes. 

909.1.1 Smoke control system maintenance. Smoke con- 
trol systems shall be maintained in good working order. 
Periodic testing, inspection and other maintenance shall be 
performed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions and Sections 909.1.1.1 through 909.1.1.3. 

909.1.1.1 Schedule. A written maintenance program, 
including periodic inspection and testing, shall be estab- 
lished and implemented immediately upon installation 
of the smoke control system. 

909.1.1.2 Recordkeeping. A logbook or other approved 
form of recordkeeping documenting each inspection and 
test shall be maintained on the premises and made avail- 
able for inspection by any department representative. 
The written record shall include the date of the mainte- 
nance, identification of servicing personnel, description 
of any operating defects or deficiencies, notifications 
made and corrective action taken, including parts 
replaced. 

909.1.1.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke con- 
trol system shall include all components of the system, 
including initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, 
doors and windows. Dedicated smoke control systems 
shall be tested semiannually. Nondedicated smoke con- 
trol systems shall be tested annually. All systems shall be 
tested under both normal power and emergency power. 

909.2 Post-fire smoke purge systems. Post-fire smoke purge 
systems shall be provided as required by the construction 
codes, including the Building Code, and shall be designed, 
installed and tested as required by such codes. 

909.2.1 Post-fire smoke purge system maintenance. 

Post-fire smoke purge systems shall be maintained in good 
working order. A record of inspections and tests shall be 
maintained on the premises and made available for inspec- 
tion by any department representative. 



I SECTION FC 910 

SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

I 910.1 General. Where required by the construction codes, 
including the Building Code, this code or the rules or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents, or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems, and draft curtains shall comply with the requirements 
1 of the construction codes, including the Building Code. 

910.2 Where required. Approved smoke and heat vents shall 

I be installed where required by the construction codes, includ- 
ing the Building Code, this code or the rules. 



910.3 Reserved. 

910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
Commissioner of Buildings, engineered mechanical smoke 
exhaust shall be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat 
vents. Mechanical smoke exhaust shall comply with the 
requirements of the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

910.5 Maintenance. Automatically and manually operated 
heat vents and engineered mechanical smoke exhaust systems 
shall be inspected periodically and an operational test of each 
shall be conducted at least every 1 2 months. A record of each 
inspection and test shall be maintained as required by Section 
901.6. 

Exception: Gravity operated drop out vents need only be 
inspected. 



SECTION FC 911 
EXPLOSION CONTROL 

911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for pur- 
poses involving explosion hazards as set forth in Table 
911.1. 

2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in 
Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
set forth in Table 2703.1.1(1). 

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) 
venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or barri- 
cades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69 or NFPA 
495, as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as 
a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards. 

911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required 
to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the 
following requirements: 

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas 
shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure 
of 1 00 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The mini- 
mum internal design pressure shall not be less than five 
times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in 
Section 911.2(5). 

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior 
walls and roofs. 

Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof 
venting cannot be provided because of inadequate 
exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall 
be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the 
exterior of the building. 

3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unac- 
ceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagra- 
tion, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of 
sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening 
injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property 
or adjacent public streets. 



94 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices 
shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the con- 
struction assemblies specified in Section 911.2(1) and 
the maximum internal pressure allowed by Section 
911.2(5). 

5 . Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination 
of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pres- 
sure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), but not less 



than the loads required by the construction codes, includ- 1 
ing the Building Code: I 

5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward. 

5.2. Hatch covers. 

5.3. Outward swinging doors. 

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose. 



TABLE 911.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting or explosion 
(deflagration) prevention systems 




Hazard Category 


Combustible dusts a 





Not required 


Required 


Cryogenic fluids 


Flammable 


Not required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1 .4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 


Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquids 


IA b 
IB C 


Not required 
Not required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


Unclassified Detonable 
I 


Required 
Required 


Not permitted 
Not permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not permitted 


Pyrophoric material 


Detonable 


Required 


Not permitted 


Pyrophoric gases 


Nondetonable 


Not required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive)" 


4 

3 detonable 

3 nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not required 


Not permitted 

Not permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids e 


3 detonable 
3 nondetonable 

2 detonable 
2 nondetonable 


Required 
Not required 

Required 
Not required 


Not permitted 
Required 

Not permitted 
Required 




Special Uses 


Grain processing 


— 


Not required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist" 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not required 


Not permitted 
Required 



a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2. 

b. Storage or use. 

c. In open use or dispensing. 

d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

e. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive) materials (see Chapter 
43) and detonable water-reactive materials (see Chapter 44) are considered as explosives for purposes of storage. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



95 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs 
of the building when venting a deflagration shall dis- 
charge directly outdoors where an unoccupied space not 
less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided 
between the exterior walls of the building and the prop- 
erty line. 

Exception: Vents complying with the requirements 
of Section 911.2(7). 

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when 
venting a deflagration shall be so located that the dis- 
charge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
vertically from window openings and exits in the build- 
ing and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the 
building, from window openings and exits in adjacent 
buildings on the same property, and from the property 
line. 

8. Vent lines shall discharge outdoors. 

911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention 
systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accor- 
dance with this code and NFPA 69. Where the building or 
structure or part thereof is provided with a fire alarm system, 
explosion prevention system alarms shall be transmitted to the 
fire alarm system control panel and to an approved central sta- 
tion. 

911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 495. 



SECTION FC 912 
FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 



912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be 

■ installed in accordance with the construction codes, including 
the Building Code. 

^ 912.2 Location. The location of fire department connections 
shall be approved. 

912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections shall 
be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and 
recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire depart- 

iment vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the com- 
missioner. 

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction 
by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other object for a mini- 
mum of 3 feet (914 mm). 

912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The 

I commissioner may require locking caps on fire department 
connections for sprinkler and standpipe systems. 

912.4 Marking. Wall hydrants and fire pump test headers 
located on the exterior of buildings shall be conspicuously 
marked to indicate their function. Fire department connections 
shall be marked as follows: 

1 . Fire department connections serving a standpipe system 
shall be provided with caps painted red, and shall have 
the word "STANDPIPE" in letters 1 inch (25.4 mm) high 
and 7 8 inch (3.2 mm) deep cast in the body or on a 
non-ferrous metal plate secured to the connections or 



mounted on the wall in a visible location, except that 
caps of fire department connections used for combina- 
tion standpipe and sprinkler systems shall be painted yel- 
low and the words shall read "COMBINATION 
STANDPIPE AND SPRINKLER SYSTEMS." 

2. Fire department connections serving a sprinkler system 
protecting an entire building or structure shall be pro- 
vided with caps painted green and shall have the word 
"SPRINKLER" in letters 1 inch (25.4 mm) high and V g 
inch (3.2 mm) deep cast in the body or on a non-ferrous 
metal plate secured to the connections or mounted on the 
wall in a visible location, except that caps of fire depart- 
ment connections used for combination standpipe and 
sprinkler systems shall be painted yellow and the words 
shall read "COMBINATION STANDPIPE AND 
SPRINKLER SYSTEMS." 

3. Fire department connections serving a non-automatic 
sprinkler system shall have the entire connection painted 
silver. 

4. Fire department connections serving a sprinkler system 
protecting only a portion of a building or structure shall 
have durable metal signs securely fastened to, or above, 
the connection indicating the portion of the building or 
structure protected. 

912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to all 
sprinkler systems and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the construction codes, includ- 
ing the Plumbing Code, and the requirements of the New York 
City Department of Environmental Protection. 

912.6 Maintenance. Sprinkler system and standpipe system 
fire department connections shall be periodically inspected, 
tested, serviced and otherwise maintained in accordance with 
Section 901.6 and NFPA 25. Upon order of the commissioner, 
but at least once every 5 years, such fire department connec- 
tions shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test to demon- 
strate their suitability for department use. The test shall be 
conducted in accordance with the rules and at the owner's risk, 
by his or her representative before a representative of the 
department. 



SECTION FC 913 1 

FIRE PUMPS 

913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed 
in accordance with this section, the construction codes, includ- I 
ing the Building Code, and NFPA 20. § 

913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire 
pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through 
damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, 
insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse con- 
ditions. 

913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be 
provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C). 

913.3.1 Engine manufacturer's recommendation. Tem- 
perature of the pump room, pump house or area where 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine 
manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be 
followed. 

913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suc- 
tion, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on 
the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be super- 
vised open by a fire alarm system and monitored by an 
approved central station. 

913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision. Fire pump test outlet 
valves shall be supervised in the closed position. 

913.5 Operation and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be oper- 
ated and maintained in compliance with the requirements of 
this section, Section 901.6 and NFPA 25, including all required 
inspection, testing and servicing. 

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done 
in accordance with Section 901 .5 and NFPA 20. Acceptance 
tests shall be conducted at the owner's risk by his or her rep- 
resentative before a representative of the department. 

913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying 
emergency power to fire pump assemblies shall be periodi- 
cally tested in accordance with Section 604 and the Electri- 
cal Code. 

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches 
shall be periodically tested in accordance with Section 604 
and the Electrical Code. 

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of 
pump room environmental conditions, including heating, 
ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper 
manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment. 

913.6 Fire pump supervision. The following fire pump opera- 
tions shall be electrically supervised by the fire alarm system in 
accordance with the Electrical Code and NFPA 20; and moni- 
tored by a central station in accordance with this code and the 
rules: 

1. Pump running. 

2. Pump power failed. 

3. Pump phase reversal. 



SECTION FC 914 
YARD HYDRANT SYSTEMS 

914.1 General. Yard hydrant systems shall be installed where 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, this code, including Section 508.2.3, or the rules. 

914.2 Operation and maintenance. Yard hydrant systems 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 
901.6 and NFPA 25. 

914.3 Supervision. At all times when the area served by the 
yard hydrant system is in use, the system shall be under the per- 
sonal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder, who shall be 
available to assist the department in the operation of such sys- 
tem. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



97 



98 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 10 

MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION FC 1001 
GENERAL 

1001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the maintenance of 
means of egress from all buildings, structures and premises in 
all occupancy classifications. 

1001.2 General. Buildings, structures and premises, or parts 
thereof, shall be provided with a means of egress system as 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. The maintenance of means of egress from all buildings, 
structures and premises and all occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with this chapter. 



SECTION FC 1002 
DEFINITIONS 

1002.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 
operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include vertical 
exits, exterior exit doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit 
passageways, exterior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and hori- 
zontal exits, but do not include access stairs, aisles, exit access 
doors opening to corridors or corridors. This term shall include 
the locations on a premises at which egress may be had from an 
enclosed outdoor space. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 

■ leads from any occupied portion of a building, structure or pre- 
mises to an exit. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building, structure or premises to a public way. A 
means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the 
exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. 



SECTIONS FC 1003 

THROUGH AND INCLUDING 

SECTION FC 1024 

RESERVED 



SECTION FC 1025 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 

1025.1 General. Emergency escape and rescue openings as 
required by the Building Code shall be provided in Group R 
occupancies. 

1025.2 Reserved. 

1025.3 Reserved. 

1025.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and res- 
cue openings and windows or other openings onto fire escapes, 
as that term is defined in the New York State Multiple Dwelling 
Law, shall be operational from the inside of the room without 
the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices 
are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue 
openings and windows or other openings onto fire escapes, 
provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with the 
requirements of the construction codes, including the Building 
Code and the New York State Multiple Dwelling Law, and such 
devices are releasable or removable from the inside without the 
use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for 
normal operation of the escape and rescue opening, window or 
other opening. 

1025.5 Certificate of approval. Bars, grilles, grates or similar 
devices placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, 
and windows or other openings onto fire escapes, shall be of a 
type for which a certificate of approval has been issued in 
accordance with this code. 



SECTION FC 1026 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 1027 
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1027.1 General. The means of egress for buildings, structures 
or premises, or parts thereof, shall be maintained in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Building Code and 
this section. 

1027.2 Prohibition. It shall be unlawful to obstruct or impede 
access to any required means of egress, including any exit, exit 
access or exit discharge. 



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1027.3 Unobstructed and unimpeded egress required. All 

required means of egress, including each exit, exit access and 
exit discharge, shall be continuously maintained free from 
obstructions and impediments to immediate use in the event of 
fire or other emergency. 

1027.3.1 Door hardware. Door hardware and other 
devices and physical components of the means of egress 
shall be maintained in good working order at all times. 

1027.3.2 Security devices. It shall be unlawful for a secu- 
rity device to emit any substance that could obscure a means 
of egress in any building, structure or premises. Security 
devices affecting means of egress shall be subject to the 
approval of the Commissioner of Buildings in consultation 
with the commissioner. 

1027.3.3 Snow and ice. All required means of egress shall 
be maintained free from the accumulation of snow and ice. 

1027.3.4 Overcrowding. Premises shall not be caused, 
allowed or maintained in such a manner as to become over- 
crowded, such that the number of persons present on the 
premises and/or their location thereon obstructs or impedes 
access to any means of egress. 

1027.4 Furnishings and decorations. Furnishings, decora- 
tions or other objects shall not be placed so as to obstruct exits, 
access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. Hang- 
ings and draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or other- 
wise be located to conceal or obstruct an exit except as 
authorized by the commissioner. Mirrors shall not be placed on 
exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit 
in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit. 

1027.4.1 Corridor storage. It shall be unlawful to store 
combustible materials or combustible waste in corridors 
except as authorized by this code or by the commissioner by 
rule. 

1027.5 Existing window gates and other restrictions. Bars, 
grilles, grates or similar devices installed on windows and other 
openings onto fire escapes prior to the effective date of this 
code shall be in accordance with the applicable laws, rules and 
regulations in effect at the time of installation, and Section 
1025.4. 

1027.6 Maintenance of window gates and other restric- 
tions. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices placed over emer- 
gency escape and rescue openings, and windows or other 
openings onto fire escapes shall be maintained in good working 
order. 



100 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 11 

AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 



SECTION FC 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installa- 
tion, operation and maintenance of aviation facilities, includ- 
ing aircraft landing sites, airports, heliports, helistops, 
helicopter landings, seaplane bases and helicopter lift opera- 
tions. 

1101.2 Regulations not covered. Except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this chapter or any other federal, state or local law, rule 
or regulation, aviation facilities and related operations shall be 
operated or conducted in accordance with nationally recog- 
nized standards. 

1101.3 General. Aircraft landing sites, airports, heliports, 
helistops and seaplane bases shall be designed, installed, oper- 
ated and maintained in accordance with this chapter. Aviation 
operations, including helicopter landings, helicopter lift opera- 
tions and hot air balloon operations, shall be conducted in 
accordance with this chapter. 

1101.4 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for aircraft fueling 
vehicles, seaplane base operations, helicopter landing opera- 
tions, helicopter lift operations and hot air balloon operations, 
as set forth in Section 1 05.6. 



SECTION FC 1102 
DEFINITIONS 

1102.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

AIRCRAFT LANDING SITE. An area of land or water or a 
structural surface that is designed or used for the landing or 
takeoff of aircraft, other than helicopters, and any appurtenant 
areas, but which is not designed or used for fueling, defueling, 
maintenance, repairs or storage of such aircraft. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA. Any area used or 
intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or 
other aviation-related operations. 

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is 

I designed or used for the landing and takeoff of aircraft with an 

overall length greater than 39 feet (1 1 887 mm) and an overall 

exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and 

■ any appurtenant areas that are designed or used for aviation 
facilities and operations. 

AVIATION FACILITY. Any premises upon which an aircraft 
landing site, airport, heliport, helistop, seaplane base or other 
aviation-related operation is located or conducted. 

DISCHARGE AREA. Any portion of a premises or other 
location to which an external load is to be delivered by helicop- 
ter. 

EXTERNAL LOAD. Cargo transported by, but not within, the 
helicopter. 



HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATION. The movement of an I 
external load with the use of a helicopter. ■ 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 

that is designed or used for the landing and takeoff of helicop- | 

ters, and any appurtenant areas which are designed or used for 1 

heliport facilities and operations. i 

HELISTOP. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is designed or used for the landing or takeoff of helicopters, 
but which is not designed or used for fueling, defueling, main- 
tenance, repairs or storage of helicopters, including any staging 
or other appurtenant areas. 

HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATION. The filling of balloons 
with hot air for purposes of display or flight. 

HYDRANT-FUELING VEHICLE. A type of aircraft fuel- 
ing vehicle that is equipped to transfer fuel between a fuel 
hydrant and an aircraft. 

SEAPLANE BASE. An area of water that is used for the land- 
ing or takeoff of airplanes, and any appurtenant areas of land or 
water designed or used for fueling, defueling, maintenance, 
repair or storage of seaplanes. 

STAGING AREA. Any portion of a premises or other location 
from where an external load is to be lifted by helicopter. 



SECTION FC 1103 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

1103.1 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to use or main- 
tain an open flame, flame-producing device or other source of 
ignition in an aircraft hangar or other location within 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling or defueling operation. 

1103.2 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in an aircraft 1 
hangar or other location used for aircraft fueling or defueling, 1 
cleaning, paint removal or painting operations. "No Smoking" 
signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 310. 

1103.3 Maintenance. The aircraft operation area and related I 
areas shall be kept free from combustible waste at all times. I 

1103.4 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 1 
roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with 
Chapter 5 and the construction codes, including the Building 1 
Code. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking posi- 1 
tions shall be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possi- 
bility of fire vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked 
aircraft. 

1103.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids. 

Flammable and combustible liquids shall be dispensed and 
otherwise stored, handled and used in accordance with this 
chapter and Chapter 34. Automotive liquid motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities shall be designed, installed, operated and 
maintained in accordance with Chapter 22. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



101 



AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 



1103.6 Combustible material storage. Combustible materi- 
als stored in aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved loca- 
tions and containers. 

1103.7 Hazardous material storage. Hazardous materials 
shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 27. 



I SECTION FC 1104 

AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 

1104.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids. 

Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into 
or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft, except in 
approved locations. 

1104.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid 

finishes. The application of flammable or Class II combustible 
liquid finishes shall be conducted in an approved location, 
using methods and procedures in accordance with Chapter 15. 

1104.3 Cleaning parts. Class IA flammable liquids shall not 
be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or aircraft engines. 
Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with Section 3405.3.6. 

1 104.4 Spills. The following actions shall be taken in response 
to spills of flammable and combustible liquids and other haz- 
ardous materials, in addition to the procedures set forth in Sec- 
tion 1106.11. 

1 104.4.1 Cessation of work. Activities in the affected area 
not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the 
spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been 
mitigated. 

1104.4.2 Vehicle movement. Aircraft or other vehicles 
shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled 
material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated. 

1104.4.3 Mitigation. Spills shall be reported, documented 
and mitigated in accordance with this chapter and Section 
2703.3, and any other applicable law, rule or regulation. 

1104.5 Running engines. Aircraft engines shall not be oper- 
ated in aircraft hangars, except in approved engine test areas. 

1104.6 Open flame. Repair of aircraft requiring the use of 
open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts 
above 500°F (260°C) shall only be performed outdoors or in an 
area complying with the requirements of the construction 
codes, including the requirements of the Building Code for a 
Group F-l occupancy. 



SECTION FC 1105 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flam- 
mable or combustible liquid and electrical-type fires shall be 
provided as set forth in Sections 1105.2 through 1105.7 and 
Section 906. Portable fire extinguishers required by this sec- 
tion shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with Sec- 
tion 906. 

1105.2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft 
shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire 



extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 i 
and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. 

1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be 
equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with the requirements of Section 906 and I 
having a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C. 

1105.4 On aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aire raft- fueling vehicles 
shall be equipped with a minimum of two listed portable fire 
extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section 906, 1 
each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. A portable fire extin- 
guisher shall be readily accessible from either side of the vehi- 
cle. 

1 105.5 On hydrant-fueling vehicles. Hydrant-fueling vehi- 4» 
cles shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable 
fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Section 1 
906, and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. 



1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. 

extinguishers shall be provided as follows: 



Portable fire 



1. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is not more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s), 
a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers com- 
plying with the requirements of Section 906 and having a 
minimum rating of 20-B:C shall be provided. 

2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s) but 
not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a mini- 
mum of one listed wheeled portable fire extinguisher 
complying with the requirements of Section 906 and 
having a minimum extinguishing rating of 80-B :C, and a 
minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds (57 kg), shall be 
provided. 

3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling 
system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), a 
minimum of two listed wheeled portable fire 
extinguishers complying with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 906 and having a minimum rating of 80-B:C each, 
and a minimum agent capacity of 1 25 pounds (57 kg) of 
each, shall be provided. 

1105.6.1 Location of portable fire extinguishers. Portable 
fire extinguishers at aircraft fuel-dispensing stations shall 
be located such that pumps or dispensers are not more than 
75 feet (22 860 mm) from one such extinguisher. 

1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers 
required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where 
necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of 
snow, ice and other forms of weather-related obstructions. 

1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments 
used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly 
marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at 
least 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments 
shall be readily accessible at all times. 



102 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 



SECTION FC 1106 
AIRCRAFT AND MOTOR VEHICLE FUELING 

1106.1 Motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities. Motor vehi- 
cle fuel-dispensing facilities at aviation facilities shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance 
with Chapter 22. 

1106.2 Aircraft-fueling systems. Aircraft-fueling systems 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 
407. 

Exception: Aircraft fueling systems may be designed and 
constructed as a full service automotive liquid motor vehicle 
fuel-dispensing facility in accordance with Chapter 22, sub- 
ject to such conditions as the commissioner may require. 

11106.3 Design of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling 
vehicles shall be designed in accordance with Section 1 106 and 
NFPA 407. 

1106.3.1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be equipped and maintained with an approved transfer 
apparatus. 

1106.3.1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such 
transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the 
intemal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall 
be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, pip- 
ing, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels, 
and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate 
compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The 
fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably 
designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity 
shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is 
installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail 
pipe shall be shielded. 

1106.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or 
chains, the gears, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and 
all pails thereof shall be of an approved design and shall 
be installed and maintained in an approved manner. 

1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections 
for the purpose of eliminating vibration are allowed if the 

1 material used therein is designed, installed, operated and 

maintained in an approved manner, provided such con- 
nections do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length. 

1106.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type 
shall be provided with a bypass relief valve set at a pressure 
of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working 
pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and 
maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of 
the pump. 

1106.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles. Hoses shall be 
designed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and 
shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient 
fuel transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an 
approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be 
self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure 
only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for hold- 
ing a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall 
be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper 
attachment for aircraft to be serviced. 



1106.3.4 Protection of electrical equipment. Electric wir- 
ing, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, when 
located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air 
eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equip- 
ment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical 
motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type 
approved for use as specified in the Electrical Code. 1 

1106.3.5 Venting of equipment compartments. Compart- 
ments housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separa- 
tors, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately 
ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself. 

1106.3.6 Accessory equipment. Ladders, hose reels and 
similar accessory equipment used for aircraft-fueling oper- E 
ations shall be of an approved type, as follows: I 

1 . Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are 
allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling 
vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of 
such ladders is approved and does not constitute an 
additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of 
such fueling vehicles. 

2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and 
shall be provided with a packing gland or other device 
which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and 
fuel manifolds. 

1106.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions. Transfer appara- 
tus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, 
axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.7.1 Bonding cables. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be provided and maintained with a substantial 
heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be 
bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be 
metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chas- 
sis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be 
provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to 
be fixed to the aircraft. 

1106.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection. The bonding 
cable shall be bare or have a transparent protective sleeve 
and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for 
no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that 
it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental break- 
age under conditions of general use. 

1106.3.8 Smoking. Smoking in aircraft-fueling vehicles is 
prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be conspicuously 
posted in the driver's compartment of all fueling vehicles. 

1106.3.9 Smoking equipment. Smoking equipment such 
as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in 
aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

1106.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling 
vehicles. The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fuel- 
ing vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4.1 
through 1 106.4.5 and other applicable provisions of this chap- 
ter. 

1106.4.1 Proper maintenance. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and 
kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 



other flammable or combustible waste are prohibited. 
Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be 
accomplished in approved areas. 

1106.4.2 Vehicle integrity. Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and 
other fueling equipment shall be maintained leak free at all 
times. 

1106.4.3 Removal from service. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
and related equipment which are in violation of Section 
1106.4.1 or 1106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled, 
removed from service and properly repaired or disposed of. 

1106.4.4 Identification of operator. Aircraft- fueling vehi- 
cles that are operated by a person, firm or corporation other 
than the permittee or the permittee's authorized employee 
shall be provided with a legible sign visible from outside the 
vehicle showing the name of the person, firm or corporation 
operating such unit. 

1106.4.5 Training. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be 
attended and operated by competent personnel familiar with 
the safety hazards of each type of fuel used at the facility. 

1106.5 Fueling and defueling. Aircraft-fueling and defueling 
operations shall be conducted in accordance with Sections 
1106.5.1 through 1106.5.4. 

1106.5.1 Positioning of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Air- 
craft-fueling vehicles shall not be parked or otherwise 
allowed to stop or stand in a position where such vehicle 
would obstruct egress from an aircraft, including emer- 
gency exits. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be parked or 
otherwise permitted to stop or stand under any portion of an 
aircraft. 

1106.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress. A clear path shall be 
maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to allow ready 
access to and egress from the fueling area. 

1106.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings. A clear space of at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between air- 
craft fuel-system vent openings and an aircraft-fueling 
vehicle. 

1106.5.1.3 Parking. Prior to leaving the cab, the opera- 
tor of an aircraft-fueling vehicle shall set the parking 
brake. At least two chock blocks not less than 5 inches by 
5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 mm by 305 mm) 
in size and dished to fit the contour of the tires shall be 
utilized and positioned in such a manner so as to preclude 
movement of the vehicle in any direction. 

1106.5.2 Electrical bonding. Aircraft-fueling vehicles 
shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or 
defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to mak- 
ing fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until 
the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fueling 
connections have been removed. Where a hydrant service 
vehicle or cart is used for fueling, the hydrant coupler shall 
be connected to the hydrant system prior to bonding the 
fueling equipment to the aircraft. 

1106.5.2.1 Conductive hose. In addition to the bonding 
cable required by Section 1106.5.2, conductive hose 
shall be used for all fueling operations. 



1106.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles. 

Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approved bond- 
ing conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise posi- 
tively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on 
the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal 
of the cap. 

Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no 
appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel 
fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling 
operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle 
spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be 
kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is com- 
pleted. 

1106.5.2.3 Funnels. It shall be unlawful to use funnels in 
aircraft-fueling operations. 

1106.5.3 Training. All personnel engaged in fuel storage 
and aircraft-fueling operations shall receive appropriate 
hazard and fire safety training relating to such storage and 
fueling operation, including training in the use of fire extin- 
guishing equipment. The owner or operator of the aviation 
facilities shall maintain on the premises a record of all such 
training and make such records available for inspection by 
any department representative. 

1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer opera- 
tions, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer 
nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate 
control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or other- 
wise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling opera- 
tions are begun until they are completed. 

Exceptions: 

1. For underwing refueling, the person stationed at 
the point of fuel intake is not required. 

2. For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the 
fuel pumping equipment shall not be required 
when the person at the fuel dispensing device is 
within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shut- 
off device, is not on the wing of the aircraft and has 
a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping 
equipment; and, the fuel dispensing line does not 
exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length. 

1106.5.4.1 Monitoring during fueling. The fueling 
operator shall monitor the panel of the fueling equipment 
and the aircraft control panel during pressure fueling or 
shall monitor the fill port during overwing fueling. 

1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff con- 
trols and procedures shall comply with the requirements of 1 
Sections 1106.6.1 through 1106.6.4. 

1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls 
shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueling sys- 
tem is being operated. 

1106.6.2 Notification of the department. The owner or 1 
operator of the aviation facility shall establish a procedure E 
by which the department will be notified in the event of an 
emergency involving the activation of an emergency fuel 1 
shutoff control. 



104 



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1106.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of 
normal fuel flow, the cause of emergency fuel shutoff condi- 
tions shall be determined and corrected. 

1106.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be 
operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. 
The fueling-system operator shall maintain suitable records 

I of these tests. These records shall be maintained on the pre- 
mises and made available for inspection by any representa- 
tive of the department. 

1106.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle 
is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on the 
approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the 
top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is pro- 
vided for security and protection of such equipment. 
Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part 
of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer 
hose shall not be dragged when a fueling vehicle is moved from 
one fueling position to another. 

I 1106.8 Loading and unloading of aircraft-fueling vehicles. 

Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be loaded only at an approved 

(loading rack, except that aircraft-fueling vehicles may be 
loaded from the fuel tanks of an aircraft during defueling oper- 
ations. Such loading racks shall be in accordance with Chapter 
34. 

1106.8.1 Unloading of aircraft-fueling vehicles. The fuel 
cargo of such vehicles shall be unloaded only by approved 
transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, approved 
underground storage tanks or approved aboveground stor- 
age tanks. 

1 1 106.9 Passengers. Passenger traffic is not allowed during the 
^ time that fuel transfer operations are in progress. 

II 1.06.10 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to smoke, or 
light or maintain an open flame, within 50 feet (1 5 240 mm) of 
any location where fuel is being transferred. Electrical and 
motor-driven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected 
from an aircraft at any time fueling operations are in progress 
on such aircraft. 

1106.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures. Fuel spill pre- 
vention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply 
I with the requirements of Sections 1106.11.1 through 
1106.11.7. 

1106.11.1 Fueling equipment maintenance. Aircraft fuel- 
ing equipment shall be maintained and kept free from leaks. 
Fueling equipment that malfunctions or leaks shall be 

I immediately defueled, removed from service and properly 
repaired or disposed of. 

1106.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be 
carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles 
along the ground is prohibited. 

1106.1 1.3 Drum fueling. Fueling from drums or other con- 
I tainers is prohibited. 

1106.11.4 Fuel spill procedures. The owner or operator of 
the aviation facility shall establish comprehensive proce- 
dures to implement in the event of a fuel spill, which shall 
include the following actions: 



1 . Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling 
operator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel 
by releasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control 
valve. 

2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued 
spillage of fuel shall be cause for the activation of the 
appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device. 

3 . A supervisor shall respond to the fuel spill area imme- 
diately. 

1106.11.5 Notification of the department. The depart- 4" 
ment shall be notified of any fuel spill which is considered a 
hazard to people or property or which meets one or more of 
the following criteria: 

1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m 2 ). 

3. The release of fuel is continuing. § 

1106.11.6 Investigation required. An investigation shall 
be conducted by the owner or operator of the aviation facil- 
ity into the cause of all spills requiring notification of the 
department, the response thereto by the persons in charge of 
the aircraft fueling operation and other aviation facility per- 
sonnel. Should it be determined that corrective measures are 
necessary to prevent future incidents of the same nature, 
such measures shall be implemented in a timely manner. 1 

1106.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles. Simultaneous 
delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft- fueling vehicle 
to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless 
proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent 
fuel flow into the aircraft-fueling vehicles. I 

1106.12 Aircraft engines and heaters. Aircraft onboard <■■ 
engines and combustion heaters shall be shut down prior to 1 
commencing fueling operations and shall remain off until the 1 
fueling operation is completed. I 

Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed 
to be operated with the onboard engine running during fuel- 
ing operations where all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard 
failure of the aircraft's auxiliary power unit. 

2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by 
ground support services is not available. 

3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the 
aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the 
fueling operations. 

4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a 
written procedure approved by the commissioner. § 

1106.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions. During air- 
craft-fueling operations, only aircraft-fueling vehicles or other I 
equipment actively involved in the fueling operation are I 
allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the aircraft being fueled. 
Other aircraft-fueling vehicles or equipment are prohibited in 1 
this area until the fueling operation is complete. 

Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing sin- 
gle-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



105 



AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 



line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liq- 
uid. 

m 1106.13.1 Overwing fueling. Vehicles or equipment shall 
not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when 
aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft 
fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the 
wing. 

1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, includ- 
ing but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary 
power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, 
nor shall they be connected or disconnected from their power 
source, during fueling operations. 

1 106.14.1 Other equipment. Electrical or other spark-pro- 
ducing equipment shall not be used within 1 feet (3048 
mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill 
areas unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and 
approved for use in an explosive atmosphere. 

1 1106.15 Reserved. 

1106.16 Lightning. The commissioner may require the owner 
or operator of an aviation facility to establish criteria for the 
suspension and resumption of aircraft-fueling operations and 
other written procedures to implement in the event of lightning 
flashes at or near the aviation facility. 

1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft-fueling operations 
shall be prohibited indoors. 

Exception: In aircraft hangars designed in accordance with 

I the Building Code for Group F-l occupancies, aircraft 
fuel-transfer operations are allowed where: 

1 . Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system mainte- 
nance operations. Such operations shall be performed 
in accordance with nationally recognized standards; 
or 

2. The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 
100°F (37.8°C). 

1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall 
be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel 
tank openings are a minimum of: 

1 . Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or struc- 
tures other than jet bridges; and 

2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for 
boiler, heater or incinerator rooms. 

1 106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for fire service 
equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during air- 
craft-fueling operations. 

11106.18 Defueling operations. The requirements for air- 
craft-fueling operations contained in this section shall also 
apply to aircraft-defueling operations. Additional procedures 
shall be established by the owner or operator of the aviation 
facility to prevent overfilling of the cargo tank or other vehicle 
used in the defueling operation. 

1 106. 19 Maintenance of aircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fuel- 
ing hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 
1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4. 



1 



1106.19.1 Inspections. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft 
shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability 
and suitability for continued service. The owner or operator I 
of the aviation facility shall maintain records of all inspec- 1 
tions and tests performed on fueling hoses. 1 

1106.19.1.1 Daily inspection. Hoses shall be inspected 1 
daily. This inspection shall include a complete visual 
scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blistering or 
leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for evidence of 
leaks, slippage or misalignment. 

1106.19.1.2 Monthly inspection. A more thorough 
inspection, including pressure testing, shall be per- 1 
formed on each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection i 
shall include examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen 
for rubber particles, which may indicate deterioration of 1 
the hose lining. 

1106.19.2 Damaged hose. Hose that has been damaged I 
shall be immediately removed from service. 1 

1106.19.3 Repairing hose. Hoses are allowed to be 
repaired by removing the damaged portion and recoupling 
the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only cou- 
plings designed and approved for the size and type of hose in 
question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner shall 
be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to 
being placed back in service. 

1106.19.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected 
prior to being placed into service. 

1106.20 Aircraft-fueling vehicles parking. Unattended air- I 
craft-fueling vehicles shall be parked in areas that provide for I 
both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in the event of an 
emergency and the control of leakage such that adjacent build- 
ings and storm drains are not contaminated by leaking fuel. 

1106.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for air- 1 
craft-fueling vehicles shall be designed and utilized such i 
that a clearance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between 
each parked vehicle for department access. In addition, a 
minimum clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be main- 
tained between aircraft-fueling vehicles and parked aircraft 
and structures other than those used for the maintenance of 
aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not 1 
be stored in a building or structure. I 

1106.21 Radar equipment. Aircraft-fueling operations shall 
be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar of that aircraft 
is operating. Aircraft-fueling or other operations in which 
flammable liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be 
conducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft 
surveillance radar. Aircraft-fueling operations shall not be con- 
ducted within 300 feet (9 1 440 mm) of airport flight traffic sur- 
veillance radar equipment. Aircraft-fueling or other operations 
in which flammable liquids, vapors or mists may be present 
shall not be conducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport 
ground traffic surveillance radar equipment. 

1106.21.1 Direction of radar beams. The beam from 
ground radar equipment shall not be directed toward fuel 
storage or loading racks. 



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Exceptions: 

1 . Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 
feet (91 440mm) from airport flight traffic surveil- 
lance equipment. 

2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 
feet (30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic sur- 
veillance equipment. 



§ SECTION FC 1107 

HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS 

1107.1 General. Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in 
accordance with this section. Helistops and heliports on build- 

Iings shall be constructed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

1107.2 Clearances. The touchdown area shall be surrounded 
on all sides by a clear area having minimum average width at 
roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet 
(1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained. 

1 107.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage. 

I Landing areas on buildings or structures shall be maintained so 
as to confine flammable or Class II combustible liquid spillage 
to the landing area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain 
such spillage away from exits or stairways serving the helicop- 
ter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stair- 
way. 

1107.4 Exits. Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accor- 

I dance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

1107.5 Standpipe systems. Where a building with a rooftop 
helistop or heliport is equipped with a standpipe system, the 
system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport 

(area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a standpipe system 
outlet connection. 

1107.6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities 
shall be provided for rooftop heliports as required by the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code. Such systems 
shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9. 

1107.6.1 Initial foam fire extinguishing system test. 

Upon installation, a foam fire extinguishing system shall be 
tested in accordance with Chapter 9. The test shall be con- 
ducted at the owner's risk by his or her representative before 
a representative of the department. 

1107.6.2 Periodic foam fire extinguishing system test. 

The foam fire extinguishing system shall be inspected, 
tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9. Addi- 
tionally, the foam fire extinguishing system shall be tested at 
least once every two years, as required in Section 
3406.4.10.7. 

1 1 07.7 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one porta- 
ble fire extinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be 
provided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for 
the aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and mainte- 



nance of these portable fire extinguishers shall be in 1 
accordance with Section 906. 

1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from 
helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the 
Federal Aviation Administration and any other federal, state or 
city authority having jurisdiction. 



SECTION FC 1108 
SEAPLANE BASE OPERATIONS 

1108.1 General. Seaplane bases shall be operated in accor- 
dance with this section. 

1108.2 Hours of operation. Seaplane bases shall be operated 
during daylight hours only, under visual flight rules, and shall 
be further restricted to the hours of 8 am through 8 pm, Monday 
through Friday, except as authorized by the commissioner. 

1108.3 Arrival and departure notification. Aircraft arriving 
at or departing from a seaplane base shall make such notifica- 
tions prior to such arriving or departing as the commissioner 
may require. 

1108.4 Emergency procedures manual. The permit holder 
shall prepare an emergency procedures manual and obtain the 
approval of the department and the mayor's office of emer- 
gency management for such manual prior to commencing a 
seaplane base operation. An approved copy of the manual shall 
be maintained at the seaplane base facility at an approved loca- 
tion. 



SECTION FC1109 
HELICOPTER LANDING OPERATIONS 

1109.1 General. Helicopter landing operations, at other than 
an approved heliport or helistop, shall be conducted in accor- 
dance with this section. 

1 109.2 Permit application. The owner or operator of the heli- 
copter conducting the helicopter landing operation shall make 
a permit application to the department at least 20 days prior to 
the proposed landing. The permit applications shall be on such 
form and include such information and documentation as the 
commissioner may require, including the following: 

1. A site map of the area in which the helicopter landing 
operation is proposed to be conducted. 

2. Proof of a liability and casualty insurance policy in an 
amount to be determined by the commissioner but not 
less than two million dollars. Such insurance policy shall 
cover the permit holder and the permit holder's employ- 
ees, agents and contractors for any loss, damage or injury 
to persons or property by reason of the conduct of the 
helicopter landing operation, or the failure to comply 
with any requirement of this chapter or the rules, or the 
terms and conditions of the permit. 

3. A copy of the pilot's license issued by the Federal Avia- 
tion Administration. 

4. A copy of the aircraft' s airworthiness certificate issued 
by the Federal Aviation Administration. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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AVIATION FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS 



5. An affidavit of the property owner authorizing the heli- 
copter landing operation on their property. 

1109.3 Required clearances. The location at which the heli- 
copter landing operations are to be conducted is subject to the 
approval of the department. The commissioner may specify the 
open space clearances to be provided. 



SECTION FC 1110 
HELICOPTER LIFT OPERATIONS 

1 110.1 General. Helicopter lift operations shall be conducted 
in accordance with this section. 

1110.1.1 Department of Buildings approval. Helicopter 
lift operations shall not be conducted except when the Com- 
missioner of Buildings has authorized such operation. 

1110.2 Permit application. The owner or operator of the heli- 
copter used to conduct the lift operation shall make application 
to the department for a permit at least 20 days prior to the pro- 
posed lift operation. The permit application shall be on such 
form and include such information and documentation as the 
commissioner may require, including the following: 

1 . A site map of the area in which the lifting operation is 
proposed to be conducted. 

2. Proof of a liability and casualty insurance policy in an 
amount to be determined by the commissioner but not 
less than five million dollars. Such insurance policy shall 
cover the permit holder and the permit holder's employ- 
ees, agents and contractors from any loss, damage or 
injury to persons or property by reason of the conduct of 
the lift operation, or the failure to comply with any 
requirement of this chapter or the rules, or the terms and 
conditions of the permit. 

3. A copy of the pilot's license issued by the Federal Avia- 
tion Administration. 

4. A copy of the aircraft's airworthiness certificate issued 
by the Federal Aviation Administration. 

5. An affidavit of the property owner authorizing the heli- 
copter lift operation on their property. 

1110.3 Helicopter fueling. It shall be unlawful to fuel helicop- 
ters in the staging or discharge area. 

1110.3.1 Portable fuel tanks. Portable fuel tanks or drums 
within or on the exterior of the helicopter are prohibited. 
Auxiliary fuel storage tanks may be used provided they are 
an integral part of the aircraft's fuel system and of a type 
meeting the requirements of the Federal Aviation Adminis- 
tration. 

1 1 10.4 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke within 100 feet 
(30 480 mm) of a fuel storage area or fueling operation. It shall 
be unlawful to smoke within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the heli- 
copter staging area or discharge area while lift operations are 
being conducted. 

1110.5 Staging and discharge areas. The location of the stag- 
ing and discharge areas, and their distance from any buildings 
or other impediments to flight, shall be subject to the approval 



of the commissioner, and shall be arranged and operated as set 
forth in Sections 1110.5.1 and 1110.5.2. 

1110.5.1 Emergency access. Entrances to and exits from 
any premises or other location wherein lifting operations are 
being conducted shall be safeguarded in accordance with 
applicable laws, rules and regulations, but shall not be 
obstructed in a manner that prevents access or egress in the 
event of an emergency. 

1110.5.2 Restricted locations. Bulk plants or terminals or 
other premises where hazardous operations or occupancies 
are maintained shall not be used as a staging area or dis- 
charge area unless approved by the commissioner. 

1110.6 Fire protection. An adequate supply of water shall be 
provided at the location where lifting operations are conducted. 
When the discharge area or other area of the lifting operation 
requires the use of a fire pump or other auxiliary equipment to 
augment the water supply, such equipment shall be under the 
personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. 

1110.6.1 Foam protection. An air foam nozzle, pick-up 
tube and a minimum of 5 gallons (19 L) of foam, suitable for 
the fuel hazard presented, shall be available on site. 

1 110.6.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Both the staging area 
and discharge area shall be provided with a minimum of 2 
portable fire extinguishers each having a minimum 80-B:C 
rating. 

1110.6.3 Department monitoring. Lift operations permit- 
ted pursuant to this section may be monitored by representa- 
tives of the department to ensure compliance with the 
requirements of this chapter and the rules. Such representa- 
tives shall be allowed within the perimeter of the lift opera- 
tion for such purpose. 

1 1 10.7 Communication. Radio and/or other two-way wireless 
communication shall be maintained between the helicopter 
pilot and the ground at all times during the lift operation. The 
department representatives monitoring the lifting operation 
shall be provided with the ability to monitor such communica- 
tions. 

1110.8 Discontinuance. Department representatives may tem- 
porarily suspend or cancel any lifting operation if, in their judg- 
ment, conditions exist that endanger public safety. 



SECTION FC 1111 
HOT AIR BALLOON OPERATIONS 

1111.1 General. Hot air balloon operations shall be conducted 
in accordance with this section. 

1111.1.1 Storage, handling and use of flammable gas. 

The storage, handling and use of LPG or other flammable 
gas for hot air balloon operations shall additionally be con- 
ducted in accordance with Chapter 35 and 38, as applicable, 
and the rules. 

1111.2 Permit application. The owner or operator of the hot 
air balloon, or in the case of an event involving multiple owners 
or operators of hot air balloons , the sponsor of such event, shall 
make application to the department for a permit at least 20 days 
prior to any anticipated or scheduled operation. Permit applica- 



108 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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tions shall be on such form and include such information and 
documentation as the commissioner may require, including the 
following: 

1 . A site map of the area in which the hot air balloon opera- 
tion is proposed to be conducted. 

2. Proof of a liability and casualty insurance policy in an 
amount to be determined by the commissioner but not 
less than two million dollars. Such insurance policy shall 
cover the permit holder and the permit holder's employ- 
ees, agents and contractors from any loss, damage or 
injury to persons or property by reason of the conduct of 
the lifting operation, or the failure to comply with any 
requirement of this chapter or the rules, or the terms and 
conditions of the permit. 

3. A copy of the pilot's license issued by the Federal Avia- 
tion Administration. 

4. A copy of the aircraft's airworthiness certificate issued 
by the Federal Aviation Administration. 

5. An affidavit of the property owner authorizing the hot air 
balloon operation on their property. 

6. All information and documentation required for issu- 
ance of a permit for LPG storage, handling and use in 
connection with the hot air balloon operation pursuant to 
Chapter 38 and the rules. 

1111.3 Required clearances. The location at which hot air 
balloon operations are to be conducted are subject to the 
approval of the department, provided, however, that a balloon 
shall not be secured or filled unless there is at least 150 feet (45 
720 mm) of open space in all directions when measured from 
the center of the balloon. 

1111.4 Securing of balloons. Balloons shall have at least a 
three-point tie down to substantially immovable objects. 

1111.5 Weather conditions. Hot air balloon operations shall 
be conducted only under weather conditions conducive to such 
operation and in no circumstance when prevailing winds 
exceed 15 miles (24.135 km) per hour. 

1111.6 Discontinuance. Department representatives may tem- 
porarily suspend or cancel any hot air balloon operation if, in 
their judgment, conditions exist that endanger public safety. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



109 



110 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 12 

DRY CLEANING 



SECTION FC 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the installation, opera- 
tion and maintenance of dry cleaning facilities. 

1201.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1201.3 General. Dry cleaning facilities shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this 
chapter. 

1201.4 Supervision. Dry cleaning facilities using Class II or 
III solvents in dry cleaning systems shall be under the general 
supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. Such certificate of 
fitness holder shall be an employee of the dry cleaning facility. 
The certificate of fitness holder shall monitor the equipment 
and facilities, ensure that the equipment and facilities are oper- 
ated and maintained in accordance with this section, and 
instruct all employees who use or supervise the use of equip- 
ment in the proper operation and maintenance of such equip- 
ment. 

Exception: Dry cleaning facilities may be operated under 
the general supervision of a person who is not an employee 
of the dry cleaning facility, provided that such person: 

1 . Holds a certificate of fitness. 

2. Is an authorized representative of the manufacturer of 
the dry cleaning equipment, and provides the owner 
of the dry cleaning facility with appropriate proof of 
such authority. 

3. Instructs all employees of the dry cleaning facility 
who use or supervise the use of the equipment in the 
proper operation and maintenance of the equipment. 

4. Personally conducts a monthly inspection of the 
equipment and facility to ensure that they are being 
operated and maintained in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

5. Records each monthly inspection in a logbook main- 
tained on the premises by the owner of the dry clean- 
ing facility, by making the following entries: the date 
of the inspection, the name, address, and certificate of 
fitness number and expiration date of the person con- 
ducting the inspection and the certification that the 
equipment and facility are being operated 1 and main- 
tained in accordance with this section. 

1201.4.1 Proof of qualification. Photocopies of the certifi- 
cates of fitness of all persons responsible for the supervision of 
a dry cleaning facility, and of the proof that such person is an 
authorized representative of the manufacturer, where applica- 
ble, shall be maintained on the premises and made available for 
inspection by any representative of the department. 



SECTION FC 1202 I 

DEFINITIONS 

1202.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- *■ 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt and stains or *a 
otherwise cleaning apparel, textiles, rugs and other items with 1 
nonaqueous liquid solvents. 1 

DRY CLEANING FACILITY. A facility in which dry clean- I 
ing and associated operations are conducted, including the 
office, receiving area and storage rooms. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a 
building used for dry cleaning, the installation, storage and/or ^ 
use of dry cleaning equipment and/or the storage of dry clean- 1 
ing solvents. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Equipment used to perform dry 
cleaning, including immersion or agitation in solvent of the 
items to be cleaned, and the extraction of solvent from such 
items. 



SECTION FC 1203 I 

CLASSIFICATIONS 

1203.1 Dry cleaning solvent classifications. Dry cleaning I 
solvents shall be classified according to their flash points as fol- 
lows: 

1. Class I solvents are flammable liquids having a flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). 

2. Class II solvents are combustible liquids having a flash 1 
point at or above 100°F(38°C) and below 140°F(60°C). 

3. Class IIIA solvents are combustible liquids having a I 
flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F 
(93°C). 

4. Class IIIB solvents are combustible liquids having a I 
flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

5. Class IV solvents are liquids that are neither flammable 1 
nor combustible. I 

1203.2 Classification of dry cleaning systems and facilities. 

Dry cleaning systems shall be classified based on the use of sol- 
vents as follows: 

1 . Type I — systems using Class I solvents. 

2. Type II — systems using Class II solvents. 

3. Type I1I-A — systems using Class IIIA solvents. 

4. Type III-B — systems using Class IIIB solvents. 

5. Type IV — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is not conducted by the public. 

6. Type V — systems using Class IV solvents in which dry 
cleaning is conducted by the public. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



111 



DRY CLEANING 



1203.2.1 Multiple solvents. Dry cleaning facilities using 
more than one class of dry cleaning system shall be classi- 
fied based on the numerically lowest type of system. 

1203.2.2 Spotting and pretreating operations. Spotting 
and pretreating operations conducted in accordance with 
Section 1206 shall not affect the classification of the dry 
cleaning system or facility. 

1203.3 Design. Dry cleaning facilities shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, includ- 
ing the Building Code, and located in accordance with the Zon- 
ing Resolution, including Sections 3245(A) and 32-25(D). 



SECTION FC 1204 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1204.1 Prohibited dry cleaning systems. It shall be unlawful 
to install, operate or maintain a Type I dry cleaning system. 

1204.1.1 Allowed use of Class I solvents. Class I solvents 
stored, handled and used in the amounts authorized by Sec- 
tion 1206 are allowed in dry cleaning facilities. 

1204.2 Building services and systems. Building services and 
systems shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained 
in accordance with this section, Chapter 6 and the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with the construction codes, including Section 
502 of the Mechanical Code, and United States Department 
of Labor regulations, as set forth in 29 CFR Section 
1910.1000, as applicable. 

1 204.2.2 Heating. In Type II dry cleaning facilities, heating 
shall be by indirect means using steam or hot water. 

1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other portions 
of the facility exposed to flammable vapors shall be 
installed in accordance with the Electrical Code. 

1204.2.4 Bonding and grounding. Storage tanks, treat- 
ment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleaning units, 
stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other dry cleaning 
equipment, where not inherently electrically conductive, 
shall be bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment 
shall be grounded. 

1204.2.5 Smoking prohibited. It shall be unlawful to 
smoke in a dry cleaning facility. "NO SMOKING" signs 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 310. 



SECTION FC 1205 
OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS 

1205.1 General. Dry cleaning systems shall be operated and 
maintained in compliance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion, the manufacturer's specifications and the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

1205.1.1 Written instructions. The manufacturer's manu- 
als for the installation, operation and maintenance of the 
equipment shall be maintained on the premises and made 



available for inspection by any representative of the depart- 
ment. 

1205.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems. Type 
II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems shall be oper- 
ated in accordance with the instructions provided by the 
manufacturer. The owner shall ensure that all persons 
operating dry cleaning equipment comply with such 
instructions. 

1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for 
customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be 
conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning 
equipment. A telephone number shall be provided for 
emergency assistance. 

1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer 
shall permanently affix to dry cleaning equipment name- 
plates indicating the class of solvent for which each piece of 
equipment is designed. The name of the dry cleaning sol- 
vent approved for use in dry cleaning equipment shall be 
clearly and conspicuously marked or posted at the fill con- 
nection of the equipment. 

1205.1.3 Prohibited operations. It shall be unlawful to dry 
clean by immersion and agitation in open systems. 

1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. Only solvents of a type 
listed for a particular piece of equipment shall be used in that 
equipment. 

1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. 
Proper operating practices and maintenance shall be i 
observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the 
accumulation of lint. The handling of waste generated by 
dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of facilities 
shall comply with the requirements of this section. 1 

1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and II liquids as defined in 
Section 3402 shall not be used for cleaning floors. 

1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other waste con- 
taining solvent shall be stored in covered metal contain- 
ers and disposed of lawfully. 

1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and other waste shall be removed 1 
from traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans and 
disposed of lawfully. Lint traps shall remain in place I 
while the dry cleaning equipment is in operation. | 

1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning sys- 
tems, customer areas shall be kept free of rubbish and 1 
other combustible waste. I 

1205.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning systems shall be 1 
operated in accordance with the following additional require- 1 
ments. i 

1205.2.1 Inspection of items. Items to be dry cleaned shall I 
be searched thoroughly, and foreign materials, including 
matches and metallic substances, shall be removed. 

1205.2.2 Transfer. In removing dry cleaned items from the I 
washer, provision shall be made to minimize the dripping of 
solvent onto the floor. Where items are transferred from a i 
washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron shall be 
placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the cylin- 
der of the washer. 



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1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system 
shall be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms 
in accordance with the construction codes, including the 
Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall operate 
automatically when the dry cleaning equipment is in opera- 
tion and shall have manual controls at an approved location. 

1205.3 Type III, IV and V systems. Type III, IV and V dry 

cleaning systems shall be provided with an automatically acti- 
vated exhaust ventilation system as required and in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code. 

1205.4 Periodic inspection and testing. All dry cleaning 
equipment using Class II or III solvents shall be inspected and 
tested on at least an annual basis. The owner of the dry cleaning 
facility shall remove from service any equipment that is found 
to be defective, and shall promptly repair such equipment or 
remove it from the premises. Such equipment shall not be 
returned to service until it has been inspected and tested. All 
such inspection and testing shall be performed by a person 
holding a certificate of fitness. 

1205.4.1 Inspection reports. The individual performing 
the inspection and testing of equipment shall prepare a writ- 
ten report identifying any defects in the condition and oper- 
ation of the equipment and/or certifying that the equipment 
can be safely operated in accordance with this chapter. A 
certification that all equipment in service is in proper work- 
ing order in accordance with this chapter shall be main- 
tained on the premises for 3 years and made available for 
inspection by any representative of the department. 

1205.5 Filling and emptying. The filling and emptying of dry 
cleaning equipment with Class II or III solvents shall be per- 
formed by a certificate of fitness holder. Each filling and emp- 
tying of dry cleaning equipment with a Class II or III solvent 
shall be recorded in a logbook. Such records shall include the 
date of the filling or emptying, the type and amount of dry 
cleaning solvent, the equipment filled or emptied, and the name 
and certificate number of the certificate of fitness holder who 
performed the filling or emptying. The records shall be main- 
tained on the premises for 3 years and made available for 
inspection by any representative of the department. 



SECTION FC 1206 
SPOTTING AND PRETREATING 

1206.1 General. The storage, handling and use of dry cleaning 
solvents for spotting and pretreating operations in any dry 
cleaning facility shall comply with the requirements of this sec- 
tion, based on the classification of the solvent. 

1206.2 Class I solvents. The maximum quantity of Class I sol- 
vents allowed at any dry cleaning facility shall be 1 gallon (4 
L). Class I solvents shall be stored in approved metal containers 
or safety cans of not more than 2 quarts (2 L) capacity. 

1206.3 Class II and III solvents. Spotting and pretreating, 
including scouring and brushing, shall be conducted with Class 
II or III solvents. The maximum quantity of Class II or III sol- 
vents allowed at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In an 
occupancy other than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate 
quantities of solvents shall not exceed the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area for use-open systems. 



1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting 
tables on which items are soaked in solvent shall have a liq- 1 
uid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch (25 
mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure 
thorough draining to a 1 .5-inch (38 mm) drain connected to 
an approved container. 

1206.3.2 Special handling. Items that may be damaged 
from being washed in the washing equipment may be manu- 
ally cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs shall comply 
with the following requirements: 

1. Only Class II or III liquids shall be used. 

2. The total amount of solvent used in such tubs shall not I 
exceed 3 gallons (11 L). 

3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor. 

4. Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 1.5- 
inch (38 mm) drains. Such drains shall be provided 
with a trap and shall be connected to an approved con- 
tainer. 

1206.3.3 Ventilation. Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing 
or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent 
vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating sys- 
tem. 

1206.3.4 Bonding and grounding. Metal scouring, brush- 
ing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be perma- 
nently and effectively bonded and grounded. 

1206.4 Reserved. ■ 

1206.5 Prohibited spotting and pretreating operation. It 

shall be unlawful to store, handle or use any Class I, Class II or 
Class III solvent for spotting or pretreating operations in any 
Type V dry cleaning facility or in connection with the use of 
any Type V dry cleaning system. 



SECTION FC 1207 
DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS 

1207.1 General equipment requirements. Dry cleaning sys- 
tems, including dry cleaning units, washing equipment, stills, 
drying cabinets, tumblers, and their appurtenances, including 
pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance 
with NFPA 32, the manufacturer's specifications, and the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code. 

1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank 
storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the 
lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3. 

Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in 
vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 

34. 

1 207.2.1 Firefighting access. Type II dry cleaning facilities 
shall be located so that access is provided and maintained 
from at least one side for firefighting and fire control pur- 
poses in accordance with Section 503 and the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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1207.2.2 Means of egress. Type II dry cleaning rooms shall 
have not less than two means of egress through doors 
located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which 
shall lead directly to the outdoors. 

1207.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment. 

Curbs, drains, or other provisions for spill control and sec- 
ondary containment shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection 
water and direct it to a safe location. 

1207.3 Solvent storage tanks. Solvent storage tanks for Class 
II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of 
Chapter 34 and be located underground, or outdoors, above- 
ground. 

Exception: Indoor storage tanks in compliance with the 
requirements of NFPA 32 and Chapter 34. 



SECTION FC 1208 
FIRE PROTECTION 

1208.1 General. Where required by this section, fire protec- 
tion devices, equipment and systems shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Chapter 
9 and the construction codes, including the Building Code. 

1208.2 Sprinkler system. Dry cleaning facilities containing 
Type II, Type III-A or Type IIIB dry cleaning systems shall be 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system. 

1208.3 Fire extinguishing systems. Type II dry cleaning sys- 
tems in Type II dry cleaning facilities shall be protected by a 
fire extinguishing system. 

1208.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be provided and maintained in accordance 
with this section and Section 906. A minimum of two 
2-A:10-B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided near 
the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II, Type 
III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems. 



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CHAPTER 13 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS 



SECTION FC 1301 
GENERAL 

1301.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern combustible dust-pro- 
ducing operations, and the equipment and processes utilized in 
connection with such operations in order to minimize and miti- 
gate dust explosion hazards. 

1301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1301.3 General. Combustible dust-producing operations shall 
be conducted in accordance with this chapter. All devices, 
equipment, systems and processes utilized in connection with 
such operations shall be designed, installed, operated and 
maintained in accordance with this chapter. 



SECTION FC 1302 
DEFINITIONS 

1302.1 Definition. The following term shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meaning shown herein. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter, will pass through a U.S. stan- 
dard No. 40 sieve and, when dispersed in air in sufficient con- 
centrations, can be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of 
ignition. 



TABLE 1304.1 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION STANDARDS 



STANDARD 


SUBJECT 


NFPA61 


Agriculture and Food Products 


NFPA 69 


Explosion Prevention 


NFPA 85 


Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards 


NFPA 120 


Coal Preparation Plants 


NFPA 484 


Standard for Combustible Metals, Metal 
Powders, and Metal Dusts 


NFPA 654 


Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical and Plastics 


NFPA 655 


Sulfur 


Electrical Code 


Electrical Installations 



1 SECTION FC 1303 

PRECAUTIONS 

I 1303.1 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to smoke, or 
use heating or other devices employing an open flame or 
«* spark-producing equipment, in areas where combustible dust 
I is generated, processed or otherwise stored, handled or used. 

1303.2 Housekeeping. Accumulation of combustible dust 
1 shall be kept to a minimum indoors. Accumulated combustible 
dust shall be collected by vacuum cleaning or other means that 
will not place combustible dust into suspension in air. Forced 
air or similar methods shall not be used to remove dust from 
surfaces. 



SECTION FC 1304 
EXPLOSION PROTECTION 

1304.1 Standards. Prevention and control of dust explosions 
shall be in compliance with the applicable operation and main- 
tenance requirements of the codes and standards listed in Table 
1304.1. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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116 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 14 

FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION, 
ALTERATION AND DEMOLITION 



SECTION FC 1401 
GENERAL 

1401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern fire safety measures 
during the construction, alteration, or demolition of buildings, 
structures, premises and facilities. 

1401.2 General. Buildings, structures, premises and facilities 
undergoing construction, alteration or demolition shall comply 
with the fire safety measures set forth in this chapter, and shall 
additionally comply with the requirements of NFPA 241 as to 
measures not specifically addressed herein. 

1401.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1401.4 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful at a construction site 
to store, handle or use portable fueled heating devices or equip- 
ment: 

1. For purposes of human comfort or any other purpose 
other than construction-related curing and drying. 

2. Utilizing a flammable liquid as a fuel. 



SECTION FC 1402 
DEFINITIONS 

1402.1 Definitions. The following term shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meaning shown herein. 

CONSTRUCTION SITE. Any location at which a building, 
structure, premises or facility is undergoing construction, alter- 
ation or demolition. 



SECTION FC 1403 
PORTABLE FUELED SPACE HEATERS 

1403.1 Design. Portable fueled space heaters shall be 
designed, listed and labeled in accordance with the construc- 
tion codes, including the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas 
Code, and standards promulgated by the commissioner by rule, 
as applicable. Portable fueled space heaters shall be installed, 
operated and maintained in accordance with this chapter, the 
terms of the listing, and manufacturer's specifications. 

1403.2 Portable oil-fueled heaters. Portable oil-fueled space 
heaters may be used at construction sites for construc- 
tion-related curing and drying purposes. Such heaters shall be 
stored, handled and used in accordance with the rules. 

1403.3 Portable gas-fueled heaters. Portable gas-fueled 
space heaters utilizing liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), com- 
pressed natural gas (CNG) and piped natural gas may be used at 
construction sites for construction-related curing and drying 
purposes. Such heaters shall be stored, handled and used in 
accordance with the rules. 



1403.4 Refueling. Refueling operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with Section 3405. Portable fueled space heaters i 
shall be shut down and cool to the touch before refueling. I 

1403.5 Installation. Clearance to combustibles from portable I 
fueled space heaters shall be maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturer's specifications. When in operation, portable J 
fueled space heaters shall be fixed in place and protected from I 
overturning, movement or damage in accordance with the man- 1 
ufacturer's specifications. 

1403.5.1 Protection of heating element. The heating ele- 
ment or combustion chamber shall have a permanent device 
to prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

1403.6 Supervision. The handling and use of portable fueled 
space heaters shall be under the personal supervision of a per- 
son holding a certificate of fitness. The storage of portable 
fueled space heaters, and the fuel therefore, shall be under the 
genera] supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. 



SECTION FC 1404 
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

1404.1 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited at all construc- 
tion sites. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 310. 

1404.2 Waste disposal. Combustible waste, including rubbish 
and construction and demolition material, shall not be accumu- 
lated within buildings and shall be removed from buildings at 
the end of each work shift, but at least once a day. Combustible 
waste, including rubbish and construction and demolition 
material, shall be removed from the premises or stored in 
noncombustible containers. 

1404.3 Open fires. It shall be unlawful to ignite or maintain an 
open fire at a construction site. 

1404.4 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spon- 
taneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a container 
listed for such use. 

1404.5 Fire watch. The commissioner may require, for demo- 
lition operations that are hazardous in nature, that persons 
holding a certificate of fitness as fire guard be provided to serve 
as an on-site fire watch. Fire guard personnel shall be provided 
with at least one approved means for notification of the depart- 
ment and their sole duty shall be to perform constant patrols 
and watch for the occurrence of fire. 

1404.6 Cutting and welding. Operations involving the use of 
cutting and welding shall be performed in accordance with 
Chapter 26. 

1404.7 Electrical. Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations at construction sites shall comply with the I 
requirements of the Electrical Code. I 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



117 



FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION, ALTERATION AND DEMOLITION 



% SECTION FC 1405 

FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

1405.1 Storage of flammable and combustible liquids. Stor- 
age of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 3404. 

11405.2 Class I and Class II liquids. The storage, handling and 
use of flammable and combustible liquids at construction sites 
shall be in accordance with Section 3406.2. Adequate ventila- 
tion shall be provided for operations involving the application 
of materials containing flammable solvents. 

1405.3 Housekeeping. Flammable and combustible liquid 

■ storage areas shall be maintained clear of vegetation and com- 
bustible waste. Such storage areas shall not be used for the stor- 
age of combustible materials. 

1405.4 Precautions against fire. Sources of ignition and 
smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible liq- 
uid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Sec- 
tion 310. 

1405.5 Handling at point of final use. Class I and 11 liquids 
shall be stored in approved safety containers. 

I 1405.6 Leakage and spills. Leaking containers shall be imme- 
diately repaired or taken out of service. Spills shall be cleaned 
I up immediately and all liquid and waste material disposed of 
lawfully. 



SECTION FC 1406 
FLAMMABLE GASES AND OXYGEN 

1406.1 Flammable gases. The storage, handling and use of 
flammable gases shall comply with the requirements of Chap- 
ters 26, 35 and 38, as applicable. 

1406.2 Oxygen. The storage, handling and use of oxygen shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 1406.2.1 through 
1406.2.3, and Chapters 26 and 30, as applicable. 

1406.2.1 Portable liquid oxygen containers. The storage, 
handling and use of portable liquid oxygen containers shall 
be in accordance with Sections 1406.2.1.1 through 
1406.2.1.9. 

1406.2.1.1 Design and installation documents. A 

sketch showing the following information shall be sub- 
mitted to the department for approval in connection with 
an application for a permit for oxygen storage. 

1. Number and size of containers. 

2. Enclosure, manifold and service piping construc- 
tion. 

3. Location of risers and outlets. 

4. Location of all equipment and devices including 
vaporizers, valves and safety relief devices. 

1406.2.1.2 Indoor storage restrictions. Not more than 
one liquid oxygen container having a maximum water 
capacity of 6.2 cubic feet (0.176 m 3 ) may be installed 
indoors. Such container shall be connected for use with a 
flammable gas. Storage in excess of one liquid oxygen 
container shall be located outdoors. 



1406.2.1.3 Ventilation. The room used for the storage, 
handling and use of a liquid oxygen container shall be 
equipped with ventilation direct to the outdoors, and 
shall not contain any combustible material or flammable 

gas. 

1406.2.1.4 Manifolds and vaporizers. Manifolds and 
vaporizers shall be constructed of materials suitable for 
oxygen service at a pressure of 250 psig (1724 kPa). 
Such manifolds and vaporizers shall have a minimum 
bursting pressure of 1 ,000 psig (6895 kPa) and shall be 
protected with safety relief devices which will relieve at 
or below 500 psig (3448 kPa). 

1406.2.1.4.1 Test. The assembled vaporizer and man- 
ifold shall be pressure tested at 500 psig (3448 kPa) 
with an oil-free 4 and nonflammable 3 material as the 
testing medium. 

1406.2.1.5 Service piping from the oxygen manifold. 

Service piping from the oxygen manifold shall be copper 
tubing, stainless steel, wrought iron or steel, and shall run 
vertically outside the building to the floor or floors being 
serviced, where outlets may be provided for hose con- 
nections to approved torches. The service piping shall be 
properly secured, protected from damage from mechani- 
cal injury and properly labeled. Any connection between 
service piping and the manifold shall be made using not 
more than 5 feet (1524 mm) of hose capable of with- 
standing pressure up to at least 1,000 psig (6895 kPa). 

1406.2.1.5.1 Service pressure. Service piping shall 
be suitable for 250 psig (1724 kPa) service unless an 
intervening pressure regulator is provided at the man- 
ifold, and shall withstand a test of two times the maxi- 
mum operating pressure, using an oil-free 4 and 
nonflammable 3 material as the testing medium. 

1406.2.1.6 Hose and connectors. Hose and connectors 
capable of withstanding pressure up to at least 1 ,000 psig 
(6895 kPa) and of a design suitable for oxygen service at 
a pressure of 250 psig (1 724 kPa) shall be used to connect 
the outlets on the service piping to the blowpipes. Hose 
shall be rejected for use if it shows excessive wear, loose 
connections, leaks or burns; hose subjected to a flash 
back in use shall be tested to twice the service pressure, 
but not less than 200 psig (1379 kPa), before being 
returned to service. 

1406.2.1.7 Signs. Signs shall be posted in the vicinity of 
liquid oxygen container storage and use, reading: DAN- 
GER-LIQUID OXYGEN-NO SMOKING-NO OPEN 
FLAMES. 

1406.2.1.8 Operating instructions. Legible operating 
instructions shall be posted near any liquid oxygen mani- 
fold. 

1406.2.1.9 Affidavit. An affidavit shall be provided by 
the installer and/or contractor to certify that the vapor- 
izer, valves, piping, hose and safety devices are of an 
approved type, that they meet the specifications for 
bursting test and design pressure, and that they have been 
satisfactorily tested in accordance with this section. 



118 



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1406.2.2 Oxygen trailers. The storage and use of oxygen 
trailers shall be in accordance with Sections 1406.2.2.1 
through 1406.2.2.5. 

1406.2.2.1 Design, construction, testing and mainte- 
nance. Oxygen trailer containers shall be designed, con- 
structed, tested and maintained in accordance with the 
United States Department of Transportation specifica- 
tions and regulations. 

1406.2.2.2 Instructions. Legible operating instructions 
shall be posted in the trailer and on or near any oxygen 
manifold used indoors. 

] 406.2.2.3 License plates. Oxygen trailers shall at all 
times have affixed to them a motor vehicle license plate 
as issued in accordance with New York State or other 
applicable motor vehicle license plate laws, rules or reg- 
ulations. 

1406.2.2.4 Notification. The owner or operator of an 
oxygen trailer shall notify the department, in writing, of 
the delivery of the trailer to a construction site, at least 48 
hours in advance of such delivery. Such notification shall 
include: 

1. Contractor's name, address and telephone num- 
ber. 

2. Location of the construction site. 

3. Quantity and frequency of oxygen delivery to the 
construction site. 

4. Expected duration of oxygen storage and use at the 
construction site. 

1406.2.2.5 Oxygen trailers having a capacity exceed- 
ing 20,000 SCF (566 m 3 ). The distance between oxygen 
trailers having a total aggregate capacity exceeding 
20,000 SCF (566 m 3 ) and exposures shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 50. 

1406.2.3 Supervision. The handling and use of portable liq- 
uid oxygen containers and oxygen trailers shall be under the 
personal supervision of a certificate of fitness holder. The 
storage of liquid oxygen containers and oxygen trailers 
shall be under the general supervision of a certificate of fit- 
ness holder. 



SECTION FC 1407 
EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 

1407.1 Storage and handling. Explosive materials shall be 
stored, handled and used in accordance with Section 1418 and 
Chapter 33. 

1407.2 Blasting operations. Blasting operations shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Chapter 33. 

1407.3 Demolition using explosives. Fire hoses and nozzles 
for use by demolition personnel, connected to an approved 
water supply under pressure, shall be provided and maintained 
at the demolition site whenever explosives are used for demoli- 
tion. Such fire hoses, nozzles and water supply shall be avail- 



able prior to explosives arriving at the site. Such fire hoses and 
nozzles shall be capable of a continuous flow of 1 80 gallons 
(681 L) per minute with a minimum reach of 35 feet (10 668 
mm) from the nozzle and be capable of being brought to bear 
anywhere on the construction site. Hose shall be pressure 
tested to withstand at least 600 pounds per square inch gauge 
(psig) (2413 kPa). 



SECTION FC 1408 
CONSTRUCTION SITE FIRE SAFETY MANAGER 

1408.1 Fire safety manager. Where a site safety manager or 
site safety coordinator is required by the Building Code, the 
owner shall designate a person to be the fire safety manager for 
the construction site. The fire safety manager may be the site 
safety manager or site safety coordinator required by the Build- 
ing Code. The fire safety manager shall be responsible for 
ensuring compliance with the requirements of this code, 
including this chapter, and the rules. The fire safety manager 
shall conduct an inspection of the construction site and all fire 
safety measures on at least a daily basis, and maintain a record 
of same in a bound log book or other approved system of 
recordkeeping. The log book or other approved recordkeeping 
shall be made available for inspection by any representative of 
the department. Where fire watch service is provided, the fire 
safety manager shall be responsible for the general supervision 
of the fire guards. 

1408.2 Pre-fire plans. The fire safety manager shall develop 
and maintain at the construction site an approved pre-fire plan, 
and make it available for examination by any representative of 
the department. The department shall be notified of any 
changes in site conditions materially affecting the procedures 
set forth in such plan. 

1408.3 Training. The fire safety manager shall ensure that 
construction site personnel are acquainted with the operation 
of portable fire extinguishers and other fire protection equip- 
ment on the construction site. 

1408.4 Fire protection devices. The fire safety manager shall 
ensure that all fire protection equipment and systems are 
readily available and periodically inspected and tested, and 
maintained in accordance with this code, the rules and the 
Building Code. 

1 408.5 Hot work operations. The fire safety manager shall be J 
responsible for supervising the issuance of authorizations for 1 
hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 26. 

1408.6 Impairment of fire protection systems. The fire 
safety manager or impairment coordinator shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 901 in the event of impairment of 
any fire protection system. 

1408.7 Temporary covering of fire protection devices. Cov- 
erings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them 
from damage during construction processes shall comply with 
the requirements of Chapter 9 and shall be immediately 
removed upon the completion of the construction processes in 
the room or area in which the devices are installed. 



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SECTION FC 1409 
FIRE ALARM REPORTING 

1409.1 Emergency telephone. A telephone not requiring a 
coin to operate, or other approved clearly identified means to 
notify the department, shall be provided at an approved loca- 
tion. The street address of the construction site and the emer- 
gency telephone number of the fire department shall be posted 
adjacent to the telephone or other approved device. 



I SECTION FC 1410 

ACCESS FOR FIREFIGHTING 

1410.1 Required access. Approved vehicle access for fire 
«■> apparatus shall be provided to all construction sites. Vehicle 

access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of tem- 
porary or permanent fire department connections. Vehicle 
access shall be provided by either temporary or permanent 
roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under all weather 
conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until permanent 
fire apparatus access roads are available. 

1410.2 Key boxes. Key boxes shall be provided as required by 
§ Chapter 5 and the Building Code. 



SECTION FC 1411 
MEANS OF EGRESS AND ELEVATORS 

1411.1 Stairways. Stairways at construction sites shall be pro- 
vided, maintained, and made available for department use in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 



1411.2 Maintenance. Required means of egress shall be main- 
tained during construction, alteration and demolition in accor- 

1 dance with this code and the Building Code. 

1411.3 Elevators. Elevators at construction sites shall be pro- 
vided, maintained, and made available for department use in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 



SECTION FC 1412 
WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION 

1412.1 Water supply. An approved water supply for fire pro- 
tection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made available 
prior to hazardous materials or combustible material arriving at 
the site. Any water source intended for firefighting operations, 
including standpipe outlets, street hydrants and yard hydrants, 
shall not be used for construction, alteration or demolition pur- 
poses, unless approved. 



SECTION FC 1413 
STANDPIPES 

1413.1 Standpipe systems. Standpipe systems for use at con- 
struction sites shall be provided, maintained, and made avail- 
able for department use in accordance with this code, and the 
construction codes, including the Building Code. 



1413.2 Demolition operations. Where a building or structure 
with an existing standpipe system is being demolished, such 
system shall be maintained for the use of the department in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 



SECTION FC 1414 
SPRINKLER SYSTEM 

1414.1 Sprinkler systems. Sprinkler systems for use at con- 
struction sites shall be provided, maintained, and made avail- 
able for department use, in accordance with this code, and the 
construction codes, including the Building Code. 

1414.2 Completion before occupancy. In buildings or struc- 
tures where a sprinkler system is required by this code or the 
construction codes, including the Building Code, it shall be 
unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until 
the sprinkler system installation has been tested and approved. 

1414.3 Operation of valves. Sprinkler control valves shall be 
operated only by authorized personnel. Such operation shall be 
under the general supervision of the fire safety manager where 
one is required pursuant to Section 1408. When the sprinkler 
system valves are being regularly closed and opened to facili- 
tate connection of newly completed or disconnected segments, 
the sprinkler control valves shall be inspected at the end of each 
work day to ascertain that the system is in good working order. 



SECTION FC 1415 1 

PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1415.1 Where required. Buildings or structures under con- i 
struction, alteration or demolition shall be provided with not 
less than one approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance 
with Section 906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as 
follows: 

1. At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible 
materials are being stored or combustible waste is being 
generated. 

2. At the entrance of each storage and construction shed. I 

3. Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided 
where flammable and combustible liquids are stored, | 
handled and used. 1 



SECTION FC 1416 
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION-POWERED EQUIPMENT 

1416.1 Conditions of use. Internal-combustion-powered con- 
struction equipment shall be used in accordance with the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

1. Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not dis- 
charge against combustible material. 

2. Exhausts shall be piped to the outdoors. 

3. Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation. 

4. Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved out- 
door area, and shall be moved in approved containers not 
to exceed 5 gallons (19 L). 



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SECTION FC 1417 
SAFEGUARDING ROOFING OPERATIONS 

1417.1 General. Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing 
systems or other ignition sources shall be performed by a com- 
petent person. Roofing operations involving hot work shall 
comply with the requirements of Chapters 26, 35 and 38, as 
applicable. 

1417.2 Tar kettles. Tar kettles shall be handled and used in 
accordance with Section 303. 

1417.3 Portable fire extinguishers for roofing operations. 

Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 906. There shall be not less than one multi-pur- 
pose portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3- A 40-B:C 
rating on the roof being covered or repaired. 

1417.4 Prohibited operations. It shall be unlawful to install 
any roofing material using a torch on a roof of combustible 
construction, or otherwise engage in roofing operations on 
roofs of combustible construction using hot work equipment. 



SECTION FC 1418 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION FOR 

POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS 

1418.1 Storage, handling and use. Small arms ammunition 
shall be stored, handled and used for powder-actuated tools at a 
construction site, as follows: 

1 . The main store of small arms ammunition shall be kept in 
a locked metal box interlined with V 2 inch (12.7 mm) of 
noncombustible 3 insulating material. 

2. The small arms ammunition storage box shall be kept 
away from heat and shall not be stored in the same stor- 
age area or storage facility containing compressed gases 
or flammable liquids. 

3. The storage area or storage facility in which the locked 
metal small arms ammunition box is stored shall bear a 
permanent sign bearing the words "DANGER-AMMU- 
NITION" in 2-inch (50.8-mm) white letters on a red 
background. 

4. Powder-actuated tools shall not be used in an explosive 
atmosphere. 

5. The certificate of fitness holder shall establish a safe 
zone behind a work area in which powder-actuated tools 
are to be used by evacuating the area or placing a barrier 
constructed of V 2 inch (12.7 mm) steel plate. 

6. At least one portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 
2- A rating shall be provided in the area where small arms 
ammunition is stored. 

1418.1.1 Supervision. Powder-actuated tools utilizing 
small arms ammunition shall be used only by a certificate of 
fitness holder. Small arms ammunition shall be handled 
only by a certificate of fitness holder. Storage of small arms 
ammunition shall be under the general supervision of a cer- 
tificate of fitness holder. 

2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 121 



122 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 15 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



SECTION FC 1501 
GENERAL 

1501.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the following opera- 
tions, and the design, installation, operation and maintenance 
of any building, structure or premises wherein such operations 
are conducted: 

1 . The application of flammable or combustible paint, var- 
nish, lacquer, stain, fiberglass resins or other flammable 
or combustible liquid applied by means of spray appara- 
tus in continuous or intermittent processes. 

2. Dip-tank operations in which articles or materials are 
passed through contents of tanks, vats or containers of 
flammable or combustible liquids, including coating, 
finishing, treatment and similar processes. 

3. The application of combustible powders when applied 
by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, 
fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds. 

4. Floor finishing operations. 

5 . The application of dual-component coatings or Class I or 
II liquids when applied by brush or roller in quantities 
exceeding 1 gallon (4 L). 

6. Spraying and dipping operations. 

1501.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1501.3 General. Flammable finishing operations governed by 
this chapter shall be conducted in accordance with this chapter. 
The buildings, structures and premises in which such flamma- 
ble finishing operations are conducted shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this 
chapter. 

1501.4 Supervision. The following finishing operations shall 
be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a certifi- 
cate of fitness holder: 

1 . Spray-finishing and dipping operations. 

2. Floor finishing operations requiring a permit. 



SECTION FC 1502 
DEFINITIONS 

1502.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet 
coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by 
passing it through an electrostatic field. 

DIP TANK. A tank, vat or other container of flammable or 
combustible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed 
for the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar pro- 
cesses. 



ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding 
powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to 
form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material which 
is electrically charged with a charge opposite to the charge of 
the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the 
container immediately above the charged and aerated materials 
in order to be coated. 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Material coatings in which the 
material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liq- 
uid, combustible powder or flammable or combustible gel 
coatings. 

FLOOR FINISHING OPERATION. Any activity involving 
the finishing of a floor, including but not limited to cleaning, 
stripping, sealing, painting, varnishing, lacquering, staining 
and waxing. 

FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating 
material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-sup- 
ported expanded cloud of such material through which the pre- 
heated object to be coated is immersed and transported. 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which spraying 
operations for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area are 
conducted. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced 
plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or 
spray-fabrication methods. 

ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and 
impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are 
passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable 
or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving 
partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid. 

SPRAY AREA. A room or other area in which spraying opera- 
tions are conducted that generate flammable vapors or combus- 
tible residues, dusts or deposits, including spray spaces, spray 
booths, spray rooms, ducts exhausting from spraying pro- 
cesses, any area in the direct path of spray, any area containing 
dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, combustible 
residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result of spraying 
operations or other such areas approved for spraying opera- 1 
tions. ■ 

SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of 
varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or 
accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the 
escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely. 

SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying 
operations constructed in accordance with the Building Code 1 
and separated from the remainder of the building by a mini- 
mum 1-hour fire barrier. 

SPRAY SPACE. The interior of spray booths, the interior of 1 
exhaust ducts or any area in the direct path of spray operations. § 



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FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



VAPOR AREA. An area containing flammable vapors in the 
vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or associated drying, con- 
veying or other equipment during operation or shutdown peri- 
ods, the dimensions of which are as determined by the 
commissioner, taking into consideration the characteristics of 
the liquid, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of 
the operations. 



I SECTION FC 1503 

PROTECTION OF OPERATIONS 

1503.1 General. Operations covered by this chapter shall be 
i protected as required by this section and the Electrical Code. 

1503.2 Sources of ignition. Protection against sources of igni- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1503.2.1 
through 1503.2.8. 

1503.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 

Iing and equipment shall comply with the requirements of 
this chapter and the Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.1 Spray spaces and vapor areas. Electrical 
wiring and equipment in spray spaces and vapor areas 
shall be of an explosion-proof type approved for use in 
such hazardous locations. Such areas shall be considered 
to be Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 hazardous 
locations in accordance with the Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.2 Electrical wiring and equipment in resin 
application areas. Electrical wiring and equipment 
located in resin application areas shall be in accordance 

I with the Electrical Code. 

1503.2.1.3 Areas subject to deposits of residues. Elec- 
trical equipment in the vicinity of spray areas and dip 
tanks or associated drain boards or drying operations 
which are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids shall 
be specifically approved for locations containing depos- 
its of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid 
conduit, threaded boxes or fittings not contain- 
ing taps, splices or terminal connections. 

2. This provision shall not apply to electrostatic 
equipment allowed by Section 1506. 

I 1503.2.1.3.1 Resin application areas. In resin appli- 

cation areas, electrical wiring and equipment that is 
subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be 
listed for such exposure and shall be installed as 
required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electri- 
cal wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of 
combustible residues shall be installed as required for 
ordinary hazard locations. 

1503.2.1.4 Areas adjacent to spray booths. Electrical 
wiring and equipment located outside of, but within 5 
feet (1524 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) verti- 
cally of openings in a spray booth or a spray room shall 



be approved for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 
hazardous locations, whichever is applicable. 

1503.2.1.5 Areas subject to overspray deposits. Elec- 
trical equipment in spray areas located such that deposits 
of combustible residues could readily accumulate 
thereon shall be specifically approved for locations con- 
taining deposits of readily ignitable residue and explo- 
sive vapors in accordance with the Electrical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wiring in rigid conduit. 

2. Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or 
terminal connections. 

3. Equipment allowed by Sections 1504 and 1506 
and Chapter 21. 

1503.2.1.6 Flexible power cords. The use of flexible 
power cords may be used as authorized by the Electrical 
Code. 

1503.2.2 Open flames and sparks. Open flames and 
spark-producing devices shall not be located in spray spaces 
or vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 
mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent parti- 
tion. 

Exception: Drying and baking apparatus complying 
with the requirements of Section 1504.7.2. 

1503.2.3 Hot surfaces. Heated surfaces having a tempera- 
ture sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in vapor 
areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes or hot surfaces 
in a spray area or a resin application area shall be iocated 
such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of 
combustible residues. 

Exception: Drying apparatus complying with the 
requirements of Section 1504.7.2. 

1503.2.4 Equipment enclosures. Equipment or apparatus 
that is capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal 
that would fall into a spray space or vapor area shall be 
totally enclosed. 

1503.2.5 Grounding. Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust 
ducts and piping systems conveying Class I or II liquids 
shall be electrically grounded in accordance with the Elec- 
trical Code. Metallic parts located in resin application areas, 
including but not limited to exhaust ducts, ventilation fans, 
spray application equipment, workpieces and piping, shall 
be electrically grounded. 

1503.2.6 Smoking prohibited. It shall be unlawful to 
smoke in a powder coating area, organic peroxide and 
dual-component coating area, any spray space, limited 
spraying space, or vapor area. "No Smoking" signs comply- 
ing with the requirements of Section 310 shall be conspicu- 
ously posted in such areas and other locations. 

1503.2.7 Hot work warning signs. Welding, cutting and 
other hot work operations shall not be conducted in or adja- 
cent to spray areas or dipping or coating operations. Durable 
signs bearing the following warning shall be conspicuously 



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posted in the vicinity of spray areas and dipping or coating 
operations: 

NO WELDING 

THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING 

EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA 

IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE 

AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. 

1503.2.8 Powered industrial trucks. Powered industrial 
trucks used in electrically classified areas shall be listed for 
such use. 

1503.3 Storage, handling and use of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids. The storage, handling and use of flammable 
and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section 
and Chapter 34. 

1503.3.1 Use. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be 
of a closed type or provided with metal covers which are 
kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on 
noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Con- 
tainers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not 
exceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity. 

1503.3.2 Valves. Containers and piping to which a hose or 
flexible connection is attached shall be provided with a shut- 
off valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut 
when hoses are not in use. 

1503.3.3 Pumped liquid supplies. Where flammable or 
combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by posi- 
tive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be pro- 
vided with an approved relief valve discharging to pump 
suction or a safe detached location. 

1503.3.4 Liquid transfer. Where a flammable liquid is 
transferred from one portable container to another, a bond 
shall be provided between the two containers. At least one 
container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and 
Class II liquids shall be permanently grounded. 

1503.3.5 Class I liquids as solvents. Class I liquids used as 
solvents shall be used in spray gun and equipment cleaning 
machines which have been listed and approved for the pur- 
pose or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in 
accordance with Sections 1503.3.5.1 and 1503.3.5.2. 

1503.3.5.1 Listed devices. Cleaning machines for spray 
guns and equipment shall not be located in areas open to 
the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in 
accordance with their listings or by a distance of 3 feet 
(914 mm), whichever is greater. The quantity of solvent 
used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of 
the machine. 

1503.3.5.2 Within spray booths and spray rooms. 

Mechanical ventilation equipment shall be operated 
when solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and 
auxiliary equipment and for a period of time thereafter to 
allow for the exhaust of the vapors within spray booths 
and spray rooms. 

1503.3.6 Class II and Class III liquids. Solvents used out- 
side of spray booths, spray rooms or listed and approved 
spray gun and equipment cleaning machines shall be 
restricted to Class II and Class III liquids. 



1503.4 Operations and maintenance. Spray areas, exhaust 
fan blades and exhaust ducts shall be kept free from the accu- 
mulation of deposits of combustible residues. Where excessive 
residue accumulates in booths, ducts, discharge points or other 
spray areas, spraying operations shall be discontinued until the 
accumulation is removed from such areas and properly dis- 1 
posed of. ■ 

1503.4.1 Tools. Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for 
cleaning purposes shall be constructed of non-sparking 
materials. 

1503.4.2 Residue. Residue removed during cleaning and I 
debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately 
removed from the premises and disposed of lawfully. I 

1503.4.3 Waste cans. Approved metal waste cans equipped 
with self-closing lids shall be provided wherever rags or 
waste are impregnated with finishing material. Such rags 
and waste shall be deposited therein immediately after 
being utilized. The contents of waste cans shall be properly 
disposed of at the end of each work shift and at least once j 
daily. ■ 

1503.4.4 Solvent recycling. Solvent distillation equipment 
used to recycle and clean dirty solvents shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 3405.4. § 



SECTION FC 1504 
SPRAY FINISHING 

1504.1 Location of spray-finishing operations. Spray-fin- 
ishing operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I 
or R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system, and separated vertically and 
horizontally from other areas in accordance with the Building 
Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing operations shall be 
conducted in a spray room, spray booth or limited spraying 
space approved for such use. 

1504.1.1 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be constructed 
and designed in accordance with this section and the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code, and shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 1504.2, 1504.3, 
1504.4, 1504.5 and 1504.6. 



1504.1.1.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spray rooms shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except that com- 
bustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and 
strippable coatings, may be utilized over 
noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning opera- 
tions in spray rooms. 

1504.1.1.2 Certificate of approval. Pre-manufactured 
spray rooms shall be of a type for which a certificate of 
approval has been issued in accordance with this code, or 
which was previously approved by the Department of 
Buildings or the Board of Standards and Appeals, unless 
such approval is amended or repealed by the commis- 
sioner. 

1504.1.2 Spray booths. The design and construction of 
spray booths shall be in accordance with Sections 



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FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



1504.1.2.1 through 1504.1.2.7, Sections 1504.2 through 
1504.6, and NFPA 33. 

1504.1.2.1 Construction. Spray booths shall be con- 
structed of approved noncombustible materials. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 

Where walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of 
sheet metal, single-skin assemblies shall be no thinner 
than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1 .2 mm) and each sheet of 
double-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 0.0359 
inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm). 

Structural sections of spray booths are allowed to be 
sealed with latex-based or similar caulks and sealants. 

1504.1.2.2 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray 
booths shall be smooth and shall be constructed so as to 
permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the 
interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall 
be designed to confine residues within the booth. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 

1504.1.2.3 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spray booths shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, non-sparking material, except that 
combustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and 
strippable coatings, may be utilized over noncombusti- 
ble materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray 
booths. 

1504.1.2.4 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be 
provided in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. 

Exception: Means of egress doors from pre-manu- 
factured spray booths shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) in width by 80 inches (2032 mm) in height. 

1504.1.2.5 Clear space. Spray booths shall be installed 
so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for 
cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This 
clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combusti- 
ble construction. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or 
directly against an interior partition, wall or 
floor/ceiling assembly, that has a fire-resis- 
tance-rating of not less than 1 hour, provided 
the spray booth can be adequately cleaned and 
maintained. 

2. This requirement shall not prohibit locating a 
spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an 
exterior wall or a roof assembly provided the 
wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible 
material and provided the spray booth can be 
adequately cleaned and maintained. 

1504.1.2.6 Size. The aggregate area of spray booths in a 
building shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the 
area of any floor of the building or the basic area allowed 
for a Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set 



forth in the construction codes, including the Building 1 
Code. The area of an individual spray booth in a building 1 
shall not exceed the lesser of the aggregate size limit or 
1,500 square feet (139 m 2 ). 

Exception: One individual booth not exceeding 500 
square feet (46 m 2 ). 

1504.1.2.7 Certificate of approval. Pre-manufactured 
spray booths shall be of a type for which a certificate of 
approval has been issued in accordance with this code, or 
which was previously approved by the Department of 
Buildings or the Board of Standards and Appeals, unless 
such approval is amended or repealed by the commis- 
sioner. 

1504.1.3 Spray spaces. Spray spaces shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the construction codes, 1 
including the Building Code, and Sections 1504.1.3.1, 1 
1504.2, 1504.3, 1504.4, 1504.5 and 1504.6 of this code. 

1504.1.3.1 Floor. Combustible floor construction in 
spray spaces shall be covered by approved, 
noncombustible, nonsparking material, except that com- 
bustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and 
strippable coatings, may be utilized over 
noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning opera- 
tions in spray spaces. 

1504.1.4 Limited spraying spaces. Limited spraying 
spaces shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
1504.1.4.1 through 1504.1.4.4. 

1504.1.4.1 Job size. The aggregate surface area to be 
sprayed shall not exceed 9 square feet (0.84 m 2 ). 

1504.1.4.2 Frequency. Spraying operations shall not be 
of a continuous nature. 

1504.1.4.3 Ventilation. Positive mechanical ventilation 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 502.7.2 of 1 
the Mechanical Code. Such system shall meet the 1 
requirements of this code for handling flammable 
vapors. Explosion venting is not required. 

1504.1.4.4 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring within 
10 feet (3048 mm) of the floor and 20 feet (6096 mm) 
horizontally of the limited spraying space shall be 
designed for Class I, Division 2 locations in accordance 
with the Electrical Code. 1 

1504.2 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation of spray areas 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 502.7 and 5 1 of 1 
the Mechanical Code. 1 

1504.2.1 Operation. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept 
in operation at all times while spraying operations are being 
conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow 
vapors from drying coated articles and finishing material 
residue to be exhausted. Spraying equipment shall be inter- 
locked with the ventilation of the spray area such that spray- 
ing operations cannot be conducted unless the ventilation 
system is in operation. 

1504.2.2 Reserved. 1 

1504.2.3 Reserved. i 



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1504.2.4 Ventilation obstruction. Articles being sprayed 
shall be positioned in a manner that does not obstruct collec- 
tion of overspray. 

1504.3 Filters. Air intake filters that are part of a wall or ceiling 
assembly shall be listed as Class I or Class II in accordance with 

I UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be provided. 

1504.3.1 Supports. Supports and holders for filters shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials. 

1504.3.2 Attachment. Overspray collection filters shall be 
readily removable and accessible for cleaning or replace- 
ment. 

1504.3.3 Maintaining air velocity. Visible gauges, audible 
alarms or pressure-activated devices shall be installed to 

1 indicate or ensure that the required air velocity is being 
maintained. 

1504.3.4 Filter rolls. Spray booths equipped with a filter 
roll that is automatically advanced when the air velocity is 
reduced to less than 1 00 linear feet per minute (5 1 m/s) shall 
be arranged to shut down the spraying operation if the filter 
roll fails to advance automatically. 

1504.3.5 Filter disposal. Discarded filter pads shall be 
i immediately removed from the premises or placed in a 

noncombustible container with a tight-fitting lid, and dis- 
1 posed of lawfully. 

1504.3.6 Spontaneous ignition. Spray booths using dry fil- 
ters shall not be used for spraying materials that are highly 
susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. Filters 
shall be changed prior to spraying materials that could react 
with other materials previously collected. Examples of 
potentially reactive combinations include lacquer when 
combined with varnishes, stains or primers. 

1504.3.7 Waterwash spray booths. Waterwash spray 
booths shall be of an approved design so as to prevent exces- 
sive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue at duct 
outlets. Such booths shall be arranged so that air and 
overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing water 

1 curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the outdoors. 

1504.4 Different coatings. Spray booths, spray rooms and 
spray spaces shall not be alternately utilized for different types 
of coating materials where the combination of materials is con- 
ducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all deposits of one mate- 
rial are removed from the booth, room or space and exhaust 
ducts prior to spraying with a different material. 

1504.5 Illumination. Where spray spaces, spray rooms or 
spray booths are illuminated through glass panels or other 
transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall be utilized 
as a source of illumination. 

1504.5.1 Glass panels. Panels for light fixtures or for obser- 
vation shall be of heat-treated glass, wired glass or ham- 
mered-wire glass and shall be sealed to confine vapors, 
mists, residues, dusts and deposits to the spray area. Panels 
for light fixtures shall be separated from the fixture to pre- 
vent the surface temperature of the panel from exceeding 
200°F (93°C). 



1504.5.2 Exterior fixtures. Light fixtures attached to the 
walls or ceilings of a spray area, but which are outside of any I 
classified area and are separated from the spray area by 
vapor-tight glass panels, shall be suitable for use in ordinary 
hazard locations. Such fixtures shall be serviced from out- 
side the spray area. 

1504.5.3 Integral fixtures. Light fixtures that are an inte- 
gral part of the walls or ceiling of a spray area are allowed to 
be separated from the spray area by glass panels that are an 1 
integral part of the fixture. Such fixtures shall be listed for 
use in Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations, 
whichever is applicable, and also shall be suitable for accu- 
mulations of deposits of combustible residues. Such fix- 
tures are allowed to be serviced from inside the spray area. 

1504.5.4 Portable electric lamps. Portable electric lamps 
shall not be used in spray areas during spraying operations. 
Portable electric lamps used during cleaning or repairing 
operations shall be of a type approved for hazardous loca- 
tions. 

1504.6 Fire protection. Spray booths and spray rooms shall be 
protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system. Such fire i 
extinguishing system shall also protect exhaust plenums, 
exhaust ducts and both sides of dry filters when such filters are 
used. 

1504.6.1 Protection of sprinklers. Sprinkler systems ^ 
installed in spray areas shall be protected from accumula- 
tion of residue from spraying operations in an approved 
manner. Sprinkler heads shall be inspected at least once per I 
week and cleaned as needed. Bags used as a protective cov- f 
ering shall be 0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or 
cellophane or shall be thin paper. Sprinkler heads contami- ^ 
nated by overspray particles shall be replaced with new 
sprinkler heads. 

1504.6.2 Automated spray application operations. 

Where protecting automated spray application operations, 
fire extinguishing systems shall be equipped with an ^ 
approved interlock feature that will, upon discharge of the 
system, automatically stop the operation of spraying opera- 
tions and workpiece conveyors into and out of the spray 
area. Where the building is equipped with a fire alarm sys- 
tem, discharge of the fire extinguishing system shall also *■ 
activate the building alarm notification appliances. 

1504.6.2.1 Alarm station. A manual fire alarm and 
emergency system shutdown station shall be installed to 
serve each spray area. When activated, the station shall 
accomplish the functions indicated in Section 1 504.6.2. 
At least one such station shall be readily accessible to 
operating personnel. Where access to this station is likely 
to involve exposure to danger, an additional station shall 
be located adjacent to an exit from the area. 

1504.6.3 Ventilation interlock prohibited. Makeup air I 
and spray area exhaust systems shall not be interlocked with I 
the fire alarm system and shall remain in operation during a 
fire alarm condition. 

Exception: Where the type of fire extinguishing system 
used requires that ventilation be discontinued, makeup 



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air and exhaust systems shall shut down and dampers 
shall close. 

1504.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section 
906 shall be provided for spray areas in accordance with the 
requirements for an extra (high) hazard occupancy. 

1504.7 Drying operations. Spray booths and spray rooms 
shall not be used for the purpose of drying by arrangements 
which could cause an increase in the surface temperature of the 
spray booth or spray room, except in accordance with Sections 
1504.7.1 through 1504.7.2.3. 

1504.7.1 Spraying procedure. The spraying procedure 
shall use low-volume spray application. 

1504.7.2 Drying apparatus. Fixed drying apparatus shall 
comply with the requirements of this chapter and the appli- 
cable provisions of Chapter 21. When recirculation ventila- 
tion is provided in accordance with Section 1504.2.2, the 
heating system shall not be within the recirculation air path. 

1504.7.2.1 Interlocks. The spraying apparatus, drying 
apparatus and ventilating system for the spray booth or 
spray room shall be equipped with interlocks arranged 
to: 

1 . Prevent operation of spraying apparatus while dry- 
ing operations are in progress. 

2. Purge spray vapors from the spray booth or spray 
room for a period of not less than 3 minutes before 
drying apparatus is rendered operable. 

3. Have the ventilating system maintain a safe atmo- 
sphere within the spray booth or spray room dur- 
ing the drying process and automatically shut off 
drying apparatus in the event of a failure of the 
ventilating system. 

4. Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if the 
air temperature within the booth exceeds 200°F 
(93°C). 

1504.7.2.2 Portable infrared apparatus. When porta- 
ble infrared drying apparatus is used, electrical wiring 
and portable infrared drying equipment shall comply 
with the requirements of the Electrical Code. Electrical 
equipment located within 18 inches (457 mm) of floor 
level shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous 
locations. Metallic parts of drying apparatus shall be 
electrically bonded and grounded. During spraying 
operations, portable drying apparatus and electrical con- 
nections and wiring thereto shall not be located within 
spray booths, spray rooms or other areas where spray 
residue would be deposited thereon. 

1504.7.2.3 Sources of ignition. Except as otherwise spe- 
cifically provided in this section, drying or baking units 
utilizing a heating system having open flames or which 
are capable of producing sparks, shall not be installed in 
a spray area. 



SECTION FC 1505 
DIPPING OPERATIONS 

1505.1 Location of dip-tank operations. Dip-tank operations 
conducted in buildings used for Group A, I or R occupancies 
shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system, and separated vertically and 
horizontally from other areas in accordance with the construc- 
tion codes, including the Building Code. 

1505.2 Ventilation of vapor areas. Vapor areas shall be pro- 
vided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with Section 
502.7.4 of the Mechanical Code. 

1505.3 Construction of dip tanks. Dip tanks shall be con- 
structed in accordance with this section, and NFPA 34. Dip 
tanks, including drain boards, shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material and their supports shall be of heavy 
metal, reinforced concrete or masonry. 

1505.3.1 Overflow. Dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 
L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m 2 ) in liquid surface 
area shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading 
to an approved outdoor location. The bottom of the over- 
flow connection shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
below the top of the tank. 

1505.3.2 Bottom drains. Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons 
(1893 L) in liquid capacity shall be equipped with bottom 
drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain 
the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of 
the liquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this 
impractical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessi- 
ble location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, auto- 
matic pumps shall be provided. Such drains shall be trapped 
and discharge to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an 
approved location outdoors. 

Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible 
liquids where the liquids are not heated above room tem- 
perature, and the process area is protected throughout by 
a sprinkler system. 

1505.3.3 Dipping liquid temperature control. Protection 
against the accumulation of vapors, self-ignition and exces- 
sively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liq- 
uids that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the 
object being dipped. 

1505.4 Conveyors. Dip tanks utilizing a conveyor system shall 
be arranged such that in the event of fire, the conveyor system 
shall automatically cease motion and the required tank bottom 
drains shall open. 

1505.5 Portable fire extinguishers. Areas in the vicinity of 
dip tanks shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers 
complying with the requirements of Section 906 and suitable 
for flammable and combustible liquid fires as specified for 
extra (high) hazard occupancies. 

1505.6 Fire extinguishing equipment. A fire extinguishing 
cover 1 system or dip tank cover 1 in accordance with Section 

1505.7 shall be provided for the following dip tanks: 

1. Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 
square feet (0.93 m 2 ) in liquid surface area. 



128 



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FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



2. Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 
1 10°F (43°C), used in such manner that the liquid tem- 
perature could equal or be greater than its flash point 
from artificial or natural causes, and having both a capac- 
ity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liquid surface 
area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m 2 ). 

I 1505.6.1 Fire extinguishing system. A fire extinguishing 
system shall be provided for dip tanks with a 150-gallon 
(568 L) or more capacity, or 10 square feet (0.93 m 2 ) or 
larger in a liquid surface area. Fire extinguishing system 
design shall be in accordance with NFPA 34. 

1505.7 Dip tank covers. Dip tank covers allowed by Section 
1 505.6 shall be capable of manual operation and shall be auto- 
matic-closing by approved automatic-closing devices 
designed to operate in the event of fire. 

1505.7.1 Construction. Covers shall be constructed of 
noncombustible material or be of a tin-clad type with 
enclosing metal applied with locked joints. 

1505.7.2 Supports. Chain or wire rope shall be utilized for 
cover supports or operating mechanisms. 

1505.7.3 Closed covers. Covers shall be kept closed when 
tanks are not in use. 

1505.8 Hardening and tempering tanks. Hardening and tem- 
i pering tanks shall comply with the requirements of Sections 

1505.3 through 1505.5 but shall be exempt from other provi- 
sions of Section 1505. 

1505.8. 1 Location. Tanks shall be located as far as practical 
from furnaces and shall not be located on or near combusti- 
ble floors. 

1505.8.2 Hoods. Tanks shall be provided with a 
noncombustible hood and vent or other approved venting 
means, terminating outdoors to serve as a vent in case of a 
fire. Such vent ducts shall be treated as flues, and proper 
clearances shall be maintained from combustible materials. 

1505.8.3 Alarms. Tanks shall be equipped with a high-tem- 
perature limit switch arranged to sound an alarm when the 
temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50°F (10°C) 
below the flash point. 

1505.8.4 Fire protection. Hardening and tempering tanks 
greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in capacity or 25 square 

I feet (2.3 m 2 ) in liquid surface area shall be protected by a fire 
extinguishing system. 

1505.8.5 Use of air pressure. Air under pressure shall not 
be used to fill or agitate oil in tanks. 

1505.9 Flow-coating operations. Flow-coating operations 
shall comply with the requirements for dip tanks. The area of 
the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be consid- 
ered to be the area of a dip tank. 

1505.9.1 Paint supply. Paint shall be supplied by a gravity 
tank not exceeding 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity or by 
direct low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automati- 
cally in case of fire by means of approved heat-actuated 
devices. 

1505.10 Roll-coating operations. Roll-coating operations 
1 shall comply with the requirements of Section 1505.9. In 



roll-coating operations utilizing flammable or combustible 
liquids, sparks from static electricity shall be prevented by 
electrically bonding and grounding all metallic rotating and 
other parts of machinery and equipment and by the installation 
of static collectors or by maintaining a conductive atmosphere 
such as a high relative humidity. 



SECTION FC 1506 1 

ELECTROSTATIC APPARATUS 

1506.1 General. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in 
connection with paint-spraying and paint-detearing operations 
shall be of an approved type. 

1506.2 Location. Transformers, power packs, control appara- 
tus and all other electrical portions of the equipment, except 
high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads and con- 
nections, shall be located outside of the spray area or vapor 1 
area, or shall comply with the requirements of Section 1503.2. | 

1506.3 Construction of equipment. Electrodes and electro- 
static atomizing heads shall be of approved construction, rig- 
idly supported in permanent locations and effectively insulated 
from ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and 
noncombustible. 

1506.4 Clear space. A space of at least twice the sparking dis- 
tance shall be maintained between goods being painted or 
deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads or con- 
ductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall be conspicu- 
ously posted near the assembly. 

1506.5 Emergency shutdown. Electrostatic apparatus shall be 
equipped with automatic controls operating without time delay 
to disconnect the power supply to the high- voltage transformer 
and signal the operator under any of the following conditions : 

1. Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating 
equipment from any cause. 

2. Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the 
high-voltage grid. 

3. Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any 
point of the high- voltage system. 

4. Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 
1506.4. 

1506.6 Ventilation interlock. Hand electrostatic equipment 
shall be interlocked with the ventilation system for the spray 
area so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the venti- 
lating system is in operation. 

1506.7 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic spray 
application equipment. Automated liquid electrostatic spray 
application equipment shall be protected by the installation of 
an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in 
the event of ignition, react to the presence of flame within 0.5 
second and shall accomplish all of the following: 

1 . Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying 
operation and activation of the building alarm system, if 
such system is provided. 

2. Shutting down of the coating material delivery system. 

3. Termination of all spray application operations. 



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FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



4. Stopping of conveyors into and out of the spray area. 

5. Disconnection of power to the high- voltage elements in 
the spray area and disconnection of power to the system. 

1506.8 Barriers. Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall be 
placed about the equipment such that either by their location or 
character, or both, isolation of the process is maintained from 
plant storage and personnel. Railings, fencing and guards shall 
be of conductive material, adequately grounded, and shall be at 
least 5 feet (1524 mm) from processing equipment. 

1506.9 Signs. Durable signs shall be conspicuously posted to 
provide the following information: 

1. Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect to 
fire and accident. 

2. Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically 
conductive objects in the spray area, including persons. 

3. Restrict access to qualified personnel only. 

1506.10 Ventilation. The spray area shall be ventilated in 
accordance with Section 1504.2. 

1506.11 Maintenance. Insulators shall be kept clean and dry. 
Drip plates and screens subject to paint deposits shall be 
removable and taken to a safe place for cleaning. 

1506.12 Fire protection. Areas used for electrostatic spray 

■ finishing with fixed equipment shall be protected throughout 
by a fire extinguishing system. 



SECTION FC 1507 
POWDER COATING 

1507.1 General. Operations using finely ground particles of 
protective finishing material applied in dry powder form by 
fluidized bed, electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns or 
electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with the require- 
ments of this section. 

1507.2 Location and construction of powder coating rooms 
and booths. Powder coating operations shall be conducted in 
enclosed rooms constructed of noncombustible materials, 
enclosed powder coating facilities which are ventilated, or ven- 
tilated spray booths complying with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1504.1.2. 

Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are con- 
structed of other materials shall be allowed. 

1507.3 Sources of ignition. When parts are heated prior to 
coating, the temperature of the parts shall not exceed the igni- 
tion temperature of the powder to be used. Precautions shall be 
taken to minimize the possibility of ignition by static electrical 
sparks through static bonding and grounding, where possible, 
of powder transport, application and recovery equipment. 
Sources of ignition shall additionally comply with the require- 
ments of Section 1503.2. 

1507.4 Ventilation. Exhaust ventilation and powder recovery 
systems shall be provided in accordance with 1 Section 502.7.6 
of the Mechanical Code. 

1507.5 Drying, curing and fusion equipment. Drying, curing 
and fusion equipment shall comply with the requirements of 
Chapter 21. 



1507.6 Operation and maintenance. Powder coating areas 
shall be kept free from the accumulation of powder coating 
dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams, 
pipes, hoods, booths and floors. 

1 507.6. 1 Cleaning. Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a man- 
ner so as to avoid scattering dusts to other places or creating 
dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type 
approved for use in hazardous location. 

1507.6.2 Spark-producing metals. Iron or spark -produc- 
ing metals shall be prevented from being introduced into the 
powders being applied by magnetic separators, filter-type 
separators, or by other approved means. 

1507.7 Fixed electrostatic-spraying equipment. In addition 
to Section 1507, Section 1506 shall apply to fixed electrostatic 
equipment used in powder coating operations. 

1507.8 Fire protection. Areas used for powder coating shall 
be protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system. 

1507.9 Additional protection for fixed systems. Automated 
powder application equipment shall be protected by the instal- 
lation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus 
that shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and 
shall accomplish all of the following: 

1 . Shutting down of energy supplies (electrical and com- 
pressed air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, trans- 
fer and powder collection equipment. 

2. Closing of segregation dampers in associated ductwork 
to interrupt airflows from application equipment to pow- 
der collectors. 

3. Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the 
powder coating room or booth. 

1507.10 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section 906 
shall be provided for areas used for powder coating in accor- 
dance with the requirements for extra (high) hazard occupancy. 



SECTION FC 1508 
AUTOMOBILE UNDERCOATING 

1508.1 General. Automobile undercoating spray operations 
conducted in areas with approved natural or mechanical venti- 
lation shall not be required to comply with the requirements of 
Section 1504 when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or 
IIIB combustible liquids. 



SECTION FC 1509 

ORGANIC PEROXIDES AND 

DUAL-COMPONENT COATINGS 

1509.1 Contamination prevention. Organic peroxide initia- 
tors shall not be contaminated with foreign substances. 

1509.2 Equipment. Spray guns and related handling equip- 
ment used with organic peroxides shall be of a type manufac- 
tured for such use. 

1509.3 Pressure tanks. Separate pressure vessels and inserts 
specifically for the application shall be used for the resin and 



130 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



for the organic peroxide, and shall not be interchanged. 
Organic peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be constructed of 
stainless steel or polyethylene. 

1509.4 Residue control. Materials shall not be contaminated 
by dusts and overspray residues resulting from the sanding or 
spraying of finishing materials containing organic peroxides. 

1509.5 Spilled material. Spilled organic peroxides shall be 
promptly removed so there are no residues. Spilled material 
absorbed by using a noncombustible absorbent shall be 

1 promptly removed from the premises and disposed of lawfully. 

1509.6 Use of organic peroxide coatings. Spraying opera- 
tions involving the use of organic peroxides and other 

■» dual-component coatings shall be conducted in spray booths 

■ complying with the requirements of Section 1504.1.2 that are 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system. 

1509.7 Storage. The storage of organic peroxides shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 39. 

1509.8 Handling. Handling of organic peroxides shall be con- 
ducted in a manner that avoids shock and friction that produces 
decomposition and violent reaction hazards. 

1509.9 Mixing. Organic peroxides shall not be mixed directly 
with accelerators or promoters. 

h* 1509.10 Sources of ignition. Only nonsparking tools shall be 
used in areas where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or 

I applied. Such areas shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1503.2. 



SECTION FC 1510 
FLOOR FINISHING OPERATIONS 

1510.1 Scope. All floor finishing operations using Class I or 
Class II liquids shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
1510.1.1 and 1510.1.2. Floor finishing operations exceeding 
168 square feet (15.6 m 2 ) and using Class I or Class II liquids 
shall additionally comply with the requirements of Sections 

1510.2 through 1510.5. 

1510.1.1 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1 . Use flammable floor finishing products with a flash 
point below 80°F (27°C) indoors. 

2. Smoke, use or maintain open flames, including 
torches, in rooms or other indoor areas in which floor 
finishing products are being stored and/or in which 
floor finishing operations are being conducted. 

3. Conduct floor finishing operations in rooms or other 
indoor areas occupied by anyone other than the indi- 
viduals engaged in such operations. 

1510.1.2 General requirements. All floor finishing opera- 
tions shall comply with the following requirements: 

1. Floor finishing operations shall be conducted in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for 
the storage, handling and use of floor finishing prod- 
ucts. 

2. Flammable or combustible liquids or mixtures, other 
than floor finishing products, stored, handled or used 
in connection with floor finishing operations shall be 



stored, handled or used in accordance with Chapter 

34. 

3. Floor finishing product containers shall be closed 
when not in use. 

4. Empty containers of floor finishing products and all 
other floor finishing product waste and residue shall 
be removed from the premises not less than once a 
day. 

5. Gas burners, pilot lights, electrical devices, electronic 
devices and other sources of ignition in vapor areas 
shall be shut off prior to commencing work. 

6. At least one portable fire extinguisher with a mini- 
mum rating of 20-B shall be immediately accessible 
during floor finishing operations. The travel distance 
to such extinguisher shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 
mm). 

7. Quantities of floor finishing products at a site shall not 
exceed the amount necessary for that day's opera- 
tions. In no event shall such quantity exceed 20 gal- 
lons (76 L). 

1510.2 Business operation. Floor finishing operations shall 4* 
not be conducted while an establishment is open to the public. 

1510.3 Ventilation. To prevent the accumulation of flammable 
vapors, mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m 3 /(s x m 2 )] of area 
being finished shall be provided. Such ventilation shall be by I 
approved temporary or portable means. Vapors shall be 
exhausted outdoors. Such ventilation equipment shall be kept 
in operation while the floor finishing operations are conducted 
and for a period of time thereafter to allow for the exhaust of the 
vapors. 

1510.4 Mechanical system operation. Heating, ventilation 
and air-conditioning systems shall not be operated during 
refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the application of 
flammable or combustible liquids. 

1510.5 Sources of ignition. No electrical equipment or device 
that is a potential source of ignition of floor finishing product 
vapors, including switches and outlets, shall be operated dur- 
ing floor finishing operations. Precautions shall be taken prior 
to commencing work to prevent inadvertent operation of such 
equipment or devices, such as shutting down electrical power, 
unplugging equipment and taping over switches and outlets. 

1510.6 Retail sale. Floor finishing products with a flash point 
below 80°F (27°C) shall be provided with a conspicuous and 
durable tag bearing the words, "WARNING: INDOOR USE 
OF THIS PRODUCT IS PROHIBITED IN NEW YORK 
CITY." A sign shall be conspicuously posted in the area in 
which the floor finishing product is displayed, warning that the 
product is prohibited for indoor use in New York City. 



SECTION FC 1511 

INDOOR MANUFACTURING OF REINFORCED 

PLASTICS 

1511.1 General. Indoor manufacturing processes involving 
spray or hand application of reinforced plastics and using more 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



131 



FLAMMABLE FINISHES 



than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with this section. 

1511.2 Resin application equipment. Equipment used for 
spray application of resin shall be designed, installed, operated 
and maintained in accordance with Sections 1509 and 15 1 J . 

1511.3 Fire protection. Resin application areas shall be pro- 
► tected throughout by a sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 

design shall not be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, 
Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 
m 2 ). Where the materials or storage arrangements are required 
by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprin- 
kler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system pro- 
tection shall be provided. 

1511.4 Sources of ignition in resin application areas. 
Sources of ignition in resin application areas shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 1503.2. 

1511.5 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation shall be provided 
throughout resin application areas in accordance with Sections 
1504.2 and 1504.3. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to 
maintain the concentration of flammable vapors in the resin 
application area at or below 25 percent of the lower flammable 
limit (LFL). 

Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for 
buildings that are unenclosed for at least 75 percent of the 
perimeter. 

1511.5.1 Local ventilation. Local ventilation shall be pro- 
vided inside of workpieces where personnel will be under or 
inside of the workpiece. 

1511.6 Storage and use of hazardous materials. Storage and 
use of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with Section 
1509 and Chapter 39. Storage and use of flammable and com- 
bustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34. Stor- 
age and use of unstable (reactive) materials shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 43. 

1511.7 Handling of excess catalyzed resin. A 
noncombustible, open-top container shall be provided for dis- 
posal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin shall be 
drained into the container while still in the liquid state. Enough 
water shall be provided in the container to maintain a minimum 
2-inch (51 mm) water layer over contained resin. 

1511.8 Control of overchop. In areas where chopper guns are 
used, exposed wall and floor surfaces shall be covered with 
paper, polyethylene film, or other approved material to allow 
for removal of overchop. Overchop shall be allowed to cure for 
not less than 4 hours prior to removal. 

1511 .8.1 Disposal. Following removal, used wall and floor 
covering materials required by Section 1511.8 shall be 
placed in a noncombustible container and removed from the 
facility. 



132 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 16 

FRUIT ANn PROP RIPFN1NC5 



SECTION FC 1601 
GENERAL 

1601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installa- 
tion, operation and maintenance of facilities in which ethylene 
gas is used, other than in self-contained equipment, to promote 
the ripening of fruits, vegetables and other crops. 

Exception: Mixtures of ethylene and one or more inert 
gases in concentrations which prevent the gas from reaching 
greater than 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) 
when released to the atmosphere. 

1601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1601.3 Ethylene generators. Approved ethylene generators 
shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 
1606. 

1601.4 General. Facilities using ethylene gas to promote the 
ripening of fruits, vegetables and other crops shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this 
chapter. 



SECTION FC 1602 
DEFINITIONS 

1602.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chap- 
ter, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown in Chapter 2 or elsewhere in 
this code. 



SECTION FC 1603 
ETHYLENE GAS 

1603.1 Location. Ethylene gas shall be discharged only into 
approved rooms or enclosures designed and constructed for 
this purpose. 

1603.2 Dispensing. Valves controlling discharge of ethylene 
shall provide positive and fail-closed control of flow and shall 
be set to limit the concentration of gas in air below 1,000 parts 
per million (ppm). 

SECTION FC 1604 
SOURCES OF IGNITION 

1604.1 Ignition prevention. Sources of ignition shall be con- 
trolled or protected in accordance with this section and Chapter 

3. 

1604.2 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 
and equipment, including lighting fixtures, shall be approved 
for use in Class I, Division 2, Group C hazardous (classified) 
locations. 

1604.3 Static electricity. Devices, equipment and systems, 
including containers and piping, used to dispense ethylene, 



shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the discharge of static 
sparks or arcs. 

1604.4 Lighting. Lighting shall be by approved electric lamps 
or fixtures only. 

1604.5 Heating. Heating shall be by indirect means utilizing 
low-pressure steam, hot water, or warm air. 

Exception : Electric or fuel-fired heaters approved for use in 
hazardous (classified) locations which are installed and 
operated in accordance with the Electrical Code, the 
Mechanical Code or the Fuel Gas Code. 



SECTION FC 1605 i 

COMBUSTIBLE WASTE 

1605.1 Housekeeping. Empty boxes, cartons, pallets and other 
combustible waste shall be removed from ripening rooms or 
enclosures and properly disposed of at the end of each work 1 



shift, but at least once a day. 



SECTION FC 1606 
ETHYLENE GENERATORS 

1606.1 Ethylene generators. Ethylene generators shall be 
listed and labeled by an approved testing laboratory and used 
only in approved rooms in accordance with the ethylene gener- 
ator manufacturer's instructions. The listing evaluation shall 
include documentation that the concentration of ethylene gas 
does not exceed 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL). 

1606.2 Ethylene generator rooms. Ethylene generators shall 
be used in rooms having a volume of not less than the minimum 
room size provided for in the manufacturer's specifications and 
testing laboratory listing, but in no case less than 1,000 cubic 
feet (28 m 3 ). Rooms shall have air circulation to ensure even 
distribution of ethylene gas and shall be free from sparks, open 
flames or other ignition sources. 



SECTION FC 1607 i 

WARNING SIGNS 

1607.1 Required warning sign. Approved warning signs j 

identifying the hazard and indicating the danger involved and I 
necessary precautions shall be posted on all doors and 

entrances to the premises in accordance with Chapter 27. I 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



133 



134 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 17 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL SNSECTICIDAL FOGGING 



SECTION FC 1701 
GENERAL 

1701.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern fumigation and ther- 
mal insecticidal fogging operations within buildings and struc- 
tures. 

1701.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

1701.3 General. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations within buildings and structures shall be conducted 
in accordance with this chapter. 

1701 .4 Supervision. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fog- 
ging operations shall be supervised in accordance with Sec- 
tions 1 1701.4.1 and 1701.4.2. 

1701.4.1 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operation company certificate. Persons engaged in the 
business of fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations shall obtain a fumigation and thermal insecti- 
cidal fogging operation company certificate. 

1701.4.2 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations requiring a permit or a company certificate shall 
be conducted by or under the personal supervision of a per- 
son holding a certificate of fitness. 

1701.5 Compliance with other provisions of law. Fumiga- 
tion and thermal insecticidal fogging operations shall comply 
with all applicable federal, state and city laws, rules and regula- 
tions. 



SECTION FC 1702 
DEFINITIONS 

1702.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination 
with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor 
utilized for the destruction or control of insects, rats or other 
vermin or fungi, germs or similar conditions, as distinguished 
from insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effec- 
tive in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, 
ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and 
sulfuryl fluoride. 

FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of a 
fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic 
to humans. 

FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOG- 
GING OPERATION COMPANY CERTIFICATE. A cer- 
tificate issued by the commissioner to a person engaged in the 
business of fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging opera- 
tions, which authorizes an owner or principal of such business 



to conduct such fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging 
operations, for which such certificate is required by this code or 
the rules. 

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization 
of insecticidal liquids passed through thermal fog-generating 
units where, by means of heat, pressure and turbulence, such 
liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or 
mist blown into an area to be treated. 



SECTION FC 1703 
FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

1703.1 General. Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging • 
operations in buildings and structures shall be conducted in 
compliance with the fire protection and safety requirements of 
Sections 1703.2 through 1703.7. 

1703.2 Sources of ignition. Open flames and similar sources 
of ignition shall be removed from the space in which fumiga- 
tion or thermal insecticidal fogging operations are being con- 
ducted. Heating, where needed, shall be of an approved type. 

1703.2.1 Electricity. Electricity in any part of the building 
or structure where operation of switches or electrical 
devices, equipment and systems could serve as a source of 
ignition during and for a reasonable time after any fumiga- 
tion or thermal insecticidal fogging operation shall be shut 
off. 

Exception: Circulating fans that have been specifically 
designed for utilization in hazardous atmospheres and 
installed in accordance with the Electrical Code. I 

1703.2.2 Electronic devices. Electronic devices, including 1 
portable equipment and cellular phones, shall be shut off. j 
Telephone lines shall be disconnected from telephones. 1 

1703.3 Notification. The department shall be notified in writ- 1 
ing at least 48 hours before the building or structure is to be I 
closed in connection with the utilization of any toxic or flam- 
mable fumigant. Notification shall give the location of the 
enclosed space to be fumigated or fogged, the occupancy, the 
fumigants or insecticides to be utilized, the person or persons 
responsible for the operation, and the date and time at which 
the operation will begin. Written notice of any fumigation or 
thermal insecticidal fogging operation shall be given to all 
affected occupants of the building, structure or portion thereof 
in which such operations are to be conducted, with sufficient 
advance notice to allow all such spaces to be vacated in an 
orderly manner. Such notice shall inform the occupants as to 
the purposes and anticipated duration of the fumigation opera- 
tions. 

1703.3.1 Warning signs. Approved warning signs indicat- 
ing the danger, type of chemical involved and necessary pre- 
cautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the 
premises and upon all gangplanks and ladders from the 
deck, pier or land to the marine vessel. Such notices shall be 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



135 



FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 



printed in red ink on a white background. Letters in the 
headlines shall be at least 2 inches (51 mm) in height and 
shall state the date and time of the operation, the name and 
address of the person conducting the fumigation or thermal 
insecticidal fogging, the name of the operator in charge, and 
a warning stating that the occupied premises shall be 
vacated at least 1 hour before the operation begins and shall 
not be reentered until the danger signs have been removed 
by the proper authorities. Advance notice shall be given to 
all occupants of the building or structure where fumigation 
and thermal insecticidal fogging operations are to be con- 
ducted to warn of the hazards of such operation. 

1703.3.2 Reserved. 

1703.3.3 Watch personnel. During the period fumigation 
is in progress, except when fumigation is conducted in a 
gas-tight vault or tank, a responsible watchperson shall 
remain on duty at the entrance or entrances to the enclosed 
fumigated space until after the fumigation is completed and 
the premises is properly ventilated and safe for occupancy. 
Sufficient watchers shall be provided to prevent persons 
from entering the enclosed space under fumigation. 

1703.4 Prohibited thermal insecticidal fogging liquids. It 
shall be unlawful to use thermal insecticidal fogging liquids 
with a flash point below 100°F (38°C). 

1703.5 Wrapping of buildings. Paper and other similar com- 
bustible materials that are not flame resistant shall not be used 
to wrap or cover a building in excess of that required for the 
sealing of cracks, casements and similar openings. 

1703.6 Ventilation and cleanup. At the end of the exposure 
period, fumigators shall safely and properly ventilate the pre- 
mises and contents; properly dispose of fumigant containers, 
residues, debris and other waste materials; and clear obstruc- 
tions from gas-fired appliance vents. 

1703.7 Flammable fumigants restricted. It shall be unlawful 
to use carbon disulfide and hydrogen cyanide for fumigation 
unless conducted on a premises used solely for agriculture. 



136 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 18 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



SECTION FC 1801 
GENERAL 

1801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installa- 
tion, operation and maintenance of semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development facilities 
classified as Group H-5 occupancies, and the storage, handling 
and use of hazardous materials therein. 

1801.2 Application. The requirements set forth in this chapter 
are requirements specific only to Group H-5 and shall be 
applied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements 
set forth elsewhere in this code. 

1801.3 Multiple hazards. Where a material poses multiple 
hazards, all hazards shall be addressed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2701.1. 

1801.4 General. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and 
comparable research and development facilities classified as 
Group H-5 occupancies shall be designed, installed, operated 
and maintained in accordance with this chapter. Such facilities 
and hazardous materials shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

1801.5 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



| SECTION FC 1802 

DEFINITIONS 

m 1802.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 
detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 
in continuous operation and sampling is performed without 
^ interruption on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 
minutes. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved loca- 

Ition on the premises of a semiconductor fabrication facility 
staffed by trained personnel that monitor the operation of 
equipment and systems including alert and alarm signals. 

FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fab- 
^ rication facility in which processes using hazardous production 
I materials are conducted. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 
solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or 
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as defined in NFPA 704 and which is 
used directly in research, laboratory or production processes 
which have as their end product materials that are not hazard- 
ous. 



HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which 
is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

PASS-THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a 
door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and 
parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other. 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A 
building or structure, or porti on thereof, in which electrical cir- j 
cuits or devices, commonly known as semiconductors, are I 
manufactured on solid crystalline substances having electrical I 
conductivity greater than insulators but less than conductors. *■ 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage, other than 1 
one designated as a required means of egress, through which I 
HPM can be moved during handling. f 

TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation, or process 
machine used in a fabrication area. 

WORKSTATION. A defined space within a fabrication area 
in which a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity relating to semiconductor manufacture is conducted. A 
workstation may include equipment using HPM, hazardous 
materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets 
or gas cabinets, ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, 
detection devices and electrical devices. 



SECTION FC 1803 
GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS 

1803.1 Emergency control station. An emergency control 
station shall be maintained on the premises at an approved loca- 
tion outside of the fabrication area, and shall be continuously 
staffed by trained personnel. The emergency control station 
shall monitor signals from emergency equipment and alarm 
and detection systems, including the following systems, 
whether required by this code or the construction codes or vol- 
untarily installed. 

1 . Sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous-gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power systems. 

1803.2 Devices, equipment and systems. Devices, equipment 



and systems including, containers, piping, tubing, valves and 
fittings shall comply with the requirements of this section, Sec- 
tion 2703.2, and other applicable provisions of this code, and 



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SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



I the construction codes, including the Building Code and the 
Mechanical Code. 

1803.2.1 Additional regulations for HPM supply piping 

and tubing. The requirements set forth in Section 
2703.2.2.2 shall apply to supply piping and tubing for HPM 
gases and liquids. Supply piping and tubing for HPM gases 
and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections located within a 
ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved 
method of drainage or containment is provided for connec- 
tions if the material is a liquid. 

I 1803.3 Design and installation requirements. Semiconduc- 
tor fabrication facilities shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with Sections 1803.3.1 through 1803.3.8. 

11803.3.1 Fabrication areas. Design, installation and loca- 
tion of fabrication areas shall comply with the requirements 
of the construction codes, including the Building Code. 

1803.3.2 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. 

Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall be constructed 

I in accordance with the construction codes, including the 
Building Code. 

1803.3.3 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms 

I shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 34 and the 
construction codes, including the Building Code. 

1803.3.4 HPM rooms. HPM rooms shall comply with the 

■ requirements of the construction codes, including the Build- 
ing Code. 

1803.3.5 Gas cabinets. Gas cabinets shall comply with the 
1 requirements of Section 2703.8.6. 

1803.3.6 Exhausted enclosures. Exhausted enclosures 
1 shall comply with the requirements of Section 2703.8.5. 

11803.3.7 Gas rooms. Gas rooms shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 2703.8.4. 

1803.3.8 Service corridors. Service corridors shall comply 

■ with the requirements of Section 1805.3 and the Building 
Code. 

11803.4 Emergency plan. A fire safety and evacuation plan 
shall be prepared in accordance with Chapter 4. 

11803.5 Maintenance of devices, equipment, systems and 
processes. Maintenance of devices, equipment, systems and 
processes shall comply with the requirements of Section 
2703.2.6. 

1 1803.6 Reserved. 

1803.7 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring 

■ and equipment in HPM facilities shall comply with the require- 
ments of Sections 1803.7.1 through 1803.7.3. 

1803.7.1 Fabrication areas. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment in fabrication areas shall comply with the require- 
ments of the Electrical Code. 

1803.7.2 Workstations. Electrical equipment and devices 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of workstations in which flamma- 



I 



ble or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall 
comply with the requirements of the Electrical Code for 1 
Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations. Workstations shall 
not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation in 
accordance with Section 1803.14. 

Exception: Class I, Division 2 hazardous electrical 
equipment is not required when the air removal from the 
workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of 
flammable vapors and fumes on a continuous basis. 

1803.7.3 Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms, 
gas rooms and liquid storage rooms. Electrical wiring and 
equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage 
rooms shall comply with the requirements of the Electrical 1 
Code. 1 

1803.8 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Hazardous 
materials shall not be used or stored in exit access corridors or 
exit access enclosures. 

1803.9 Service corridors. Hazardous materials shall not be 
used in service corridors. 

1803.10 Sprinkler system. A sprinkler system shall be pro- I 
vided in accordance with Sections 1803.10.1 through 
1803.10.5, Chapter 9 and the Building Code. '" 1 

1 803.10.1 Workstations and tools. The design of the sprin- 
kler system in the area shall take into consideration the spray 
pattern and the effect on the equipment. 

1803.10.1.1 Combustible workstations. A sprinkler 
head shall be installed within each branch exhaust con- 
nection or individual plenums of workstations of com- 
bustible construction. The sprinkler head in the exhaust 
connection or plenum shall be located not more than 2 
feet (610 mm) from the point of the duct connection or 
the connection to the plenum. When necessary to prevent 
corrosion, the sprinkler head and connecting piping in 
the duct shall be coated with approved or listed corro- 
sion-resistant materials. The sprinkler head shall be 
accessible for periodic inspection in accordance with 1 
Chapter 9. 1 

Exceptions: 

1 . Alternative fire extinguishing systems shall be I 
allowed where approved. Activation of such I 
systems shall deactivate the related processing 
equipment. 

2. Process equipment that operates at tempera- 1 
tures exceeding 932°F (500°C) and has auto- 
matic shutdown capabilities that will interrupt 
HPM flow for hazardous materials. 

3. Exhaust ducts 10 inches (254 mm) or less in 
diameter from flammable gas storage cabinets 
that are part of a workstation. 

4. Ducts listed or approved for use without inter- 
nal sprinkler protection. 

1803.10.1.2 Combustible tools. Where the horizontal 
surface of a combustible tool is obstructed from ceiling 



138 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



sprinkler discharge, sprinkler protection that covers the 
horizontal surface of the tool shall be provided. 

Exceptions: 

spf, 1. A gaseous fire extinguishing local surface 

application system shall be allowed as an alter- 

53$, native to sprinklers when approved. Gaseous 

fire extinguishing systems shall be actuated by 
infrared (1R) or ultraviolet/infrared (UVIR) 
optical detectors. 

2. Tools constructed of materials that are listed or 
approved for use without internal fire extin- 
guishing system protection. 

1 1803.10.2 Gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A 
sprinkler system shall be provided in gas cabinets and 
exhausted enclosures containing HPM compressed gases. 

Exception: Gas cabinets located in a HPM room other 
than those cabinets containing pyrophoric gases. 

1803.10.3 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors. 

Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall be protected 
throughout by a sprinkler system. 

1 1803.10.4 Exhaust ducts for HPM. A sprinkler system 
shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying vapors, fumes, 
mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with this 

1 section and the Mechanical Code and the Building Code. 

1803.10.4.1 Metallic and noncombustible nonmetal- 
1 lie exhaust ducts. A sprinkler system shall be provided 

in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust 
ducts when the following conditions apply: 

1. The largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or 
greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable vapors or 
fumes. 

1803.10.4.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. 
A sprinkler system shall be provided in combustible non- 
metallic exhaust ducts when the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches 
(254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out sprinkler system protection. 

2, Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

1803.10.4.3 Exhaust connections and plenums of 
h^ combustible workstations. Fire extinguishing system 

protection for exhaust connections and plenums of com- 

Bbustible workstations shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 1803.10.1. 

1803.10.4.4 Exhaust duct sprinkler system require- 
■*. ments. Sprinkler systems installed in exhaust duct sys- 
tems shall be hydraulically designed to provide 0.5 
gallons per minute (gpm) (1.9 L/min) over an area 
derived by multiplying the distance between the sprin- 



klers in a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Mini- 
mum discharge shall be 20 gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler 
from the five hydraulically most remote sprinklers. 

1803.10.4.4.1 Sprinkler head locations. Sprinkler *■ 
heads shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) inter- 
vals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In 
vertical runs, sprinkler heads shall be installed at the <■ 
top and at alternate floor levels. 

1803.10.4.4.2 Control valve. A separate indicating 
control valve shall be provided for sprinkler heads 
installed in exhaust ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.3 Drainage. Drainage shall be provided 
to remove sprinkler water discharged in exhaust 
ducts. 

1803.10.4.4.4 Corrosive atmospheres. Where cor- 
rosive atmospheres exist, exhaust duct sprinkler 
heads and pipe fittings shall be manufactured of cor- 1 
rosion-resistant materials or coated with approved 
materials. 

1803.10.4.4.5 Maintenance and inspection. Sprin- 
kler heads in exhaust ducts shall be accessible for 
inspection and maintenance and shall be inspected 1 
and maintained on not less than an annual basis. I 

1803.10.5 Sprinkler alarms and supervision. Sprinkler 4" 
systems shall be electrically supervised and provided with 
alarms in accordance with the construction codes, including I 
the Building Code. Sprinkler system alarm and supervisory 1 
signals shall be transmitted to the emergency control sta- 
tion. 

1803.11 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing a Group 
H-5 occupancy. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a 
local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control sta- 
tion. Manual fire alarm systems shall be designed and installed 

in accordance with the construction codes, including the Build- 1 
ing Code. ■ 

1803.12 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm sys- 
tems shall be provided in accordance with this section, Section 
2704.9 and Section 2705.4.4. The maximum allowable quan- 
tity per control area provisions of Section 2704. 1 shall not 
apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

1803.12.1 Where required. Emergency alarm systems 
shall be provided in the areas indicated in Sections 
1803.12.1.1 through 1803.12.1.3. 

1803.12.1.1 Service corridors. An approved emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with 
at least one alarm device in the service corridor. 

1803.12.1.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. 
Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and exit 
enclosures shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 2705.4.4. 

1803.12.1.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and 
gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, 
HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with the 1 
requirements of Section 2704.9. i 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



1803.12.2 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emer- 
gency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or 
other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be 
used as emergency alarm-initiating devices. 

1803.12.3 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency 
alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal 
to the emergency control station. 

1803.13 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the 
physiological warning properties of the gas are at a higher level 
than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas 
and for flammable gases in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

1 803.14 Exhaust ventilation systems for HPM. Exhaust ven- 
tilation systems and materials for exhaust ducts utilized for the 
exhaust of HPM shall comply with the requirements of this sec- 
tion, other applicable provisions of this code, the construction 
codes, including the Building Code and the Mechanical Code. 

1803.14.1 Where required. Exhaust ventilation systems 
shall be provided in the following locations in accordance 
with this section and the construction codes, including the 
Building Code: 

1 . Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication 
areas shall comply with the requirements of the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code. Addi- 
tional manual control switches shall be provided as 
may be required by the commissioner. 

2. Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided 
to capture and exhaust fumes and vapors at 
workstations. 

3. Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid 
storage rooms shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 2704.3 and the construction codes, including 
the Building Code and Mechanical Code. 

4. HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 2704.3 
and the construction codes, including the Building 
Code and the Mechanical Code. 

5. Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 
2703.8.6.2. The gas cabinet ventilation system is 
allowed to connect to a workstation ventilation sys- 
tem. Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing 
highly toxic or toxic gases shall additionally comply 
with the requirements of Chapter 37. 

6. Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for 
exhausted enclosures shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 2703.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for 
exhausted enclosures containing highly toxic or toxic 
gases shall additionally comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 37. 

7. Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 2703.8.4.2. 
Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing highly 
toxic or toxic gases shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of Chapter 37. 



1803. 14.2 Penetrations. Exhaust ducts penetrating fire bar- 
rier assemblies shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not 
penetrate fire walls. Fire dampers shall not be installed in 
exhaust ducts. 

1803.14.3 Treatment systems. Treatment systems for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with the require- | 
ments of Chapter 37. 1 

1803.15 Emergency power system. An emergency power 
system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where 
required by the construction codes, including the Building 1 
Code. The emergency power system shall be designed to sup- 1 
ply power automatically to required electrical systems when 
the normal supply system is interrupted. 

1803.15.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power 
shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and 
connected control circuits as required by Section 41 5.9. 10.1 I 
of the Building Code or this code. 1 



SECTION FC 1804 I 

STORAGE 

1804.1 General. Hazardous materials shall be stored in accor- 1 
dance with this section, Section 1 803 and other applicable pro- 1 
visions of this code. 

1804.2 Fabrication areas. Storage of HPM in fabrication 
areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets, gas 
cabinets or within a workstation. Flammable and combustible 
liquid storage cabinets shall comply with the requirements of 
Chapter 34. Hazardous materials storage cabinets shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 2703.8.7. Gas cabinets shall I 
comply with the requirements of Section 2703.8.6. Gas cabi- 1 
nets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall additionally comply 
with the requirements of Chapter 37. Workstations shall com- I 
ply with the requirements of Section 1805.2.2. | 

1804.2.1 Maximum aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored, handled and used § 
in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set 
forth in Table 1804.2.1. 

Exception: Fabrication areas containing quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area established by Chapters 
27 and 34. 

1804.2.2 Maximum quantities of HPM. The maximum 
quantities of HPM stored in a single fabrication area shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area established by Chapters 27 and 34. 

1804.3 Storage rooms. The storage of HPM in quantities 
greater than those listed in Chapters 27 and 34 shall be in a 
room complying with the requirements of the construction 1 
codes, including the Building Code, and this code for a liquid 1 
storage room, HPM room or gas room as appropriate for the 
materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall 
comply with the requirements of Chapter 27 and other applica- 1 
ble provisions of this code. 



140 



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TABLE 1804.2.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5 a 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds/square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons/square foot) 


GAS 
(SCF/square foot) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber 
Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid 
Class 11 
Class I1IA 
Class IIIB 
Combination Class 1, 11 and TIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas 
Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Note c 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Notec 
Notec 


Flammable liquid 
Class 1A 
Class IB 
Class IC 

Combination Class 1A, IB and IC 
Combination Class 1, 11 and 1IIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 
Unclassified detonable 
Class I 
Class III 
Class III 
Class IV 
Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas 
Gaseous 
Liquefied 
Combination of Gaseous and Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 
1.25 


Oxidizer 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 
Combination oxidizer Class 1 , 2, 3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Note b 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes c and d 


Unstable reactive 
Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Note b 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m 2 , 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 2 L/m\ 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 ml 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 
2703.1.1(2). 

c. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 SCF. 

d. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703.8.2. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



141 



SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



1804.3.1 Separation of incompatible hazardous materi- 
als. Incompatible hazardous materials in storage shall be 
separated from each other in accordance with Section 
2703.9.8. 



SECTION FC 1805 
HANDLING AND USE 

1805.1 General. Hazardous materials shall be handled and 
used in accordance with this section, Section 1803 and other 
applicable provisions of this code. 

1805.2 Fabrication areas. Hazardous production materials 
located in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed 

■ storage cabinets, gas cabinets or within a workstation, in accor- 
dance with Chapter 27. 

1805.2.1 Maximum aggregate quantities. The aggregate 

quantities of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area 

i shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1804.2.1 



and 1804.2.2, and Table 1804.2.1. The quantity of HPM in 
use at a workstation shall not exceed the quantities listed in 
Table 1805.2.1. 

1805.2.2 Workstations. Workstations in fabrication areas 
shall be constructed of materials compatible with the mate- 
rials stored and used at the workstation. The portion of the 
workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM gases and 
flammable liquids shall be noncombustible and, if of metal, 
shall not be less than 0.0478-inch (1 .2mm) ( 1 8 gauge) steel. 

1805.2.2.1 Protection of vessels. Vessels containing 
HPM located in or connected to a workstation shall be 
protected from physical damage and shall not project 
from the workstation. Hazardous gases and liquid ves- 
sels located within a workstation shall be protected from 
seismic forces in an approved manner in accordance with 
the construction codes, including the Building Code. 
Protection for HPM compressed gases shall additionally 
comply with the requirements of Chapter 30. 



TABLE 1805.2.1 
MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATION 8 



HPM CLASSIFICATION 


STATE 


MAXIMUM QUANTITY 


Flammable, highly toxic, pyrophoric and toxic combined 


Gas 


3 containers 


Flammable 


Liquid 
Solid 


15gallons"' b ' c 
5 pounds bc 


Corrosive 


Gas 
Liquid 

Solid 


3 containers 
Use-Open System 

25 gallons"' 

Use-Closed System: 

150 gallons"' c - f 

20 pounds b ' c 


Highly toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


1 5 gallons"- b 
5 pounds' 3 


Oxidizer 


Gas 
Liquid 
Solid 


3 containers 
12 gallons"' b ' c 
20 pounds 1 '' c 


Pyrophoric 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon d 
See Table 1804.2.1 


Toxic 


Liquid 
Solid 


15 gallons"- b ' c 
5 pounds b ' c 


Unstable reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon 13 ' c 
5 pounds 1 " 


Water-reactive Class 3 


Liquid 
Solid 


0.5 gallon d 
See Table 1804.2.1 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

I a. DOT shipping containers with capacities of greater than 5.3 gallons shall not be located within a workstation, 
b. Maximum allowable quantities may be increased 1 00 percent for closed systems operations. When Note c applies, the quantities increased may be as set forth in 
both notes. 

I c. Quantities may be increased 1 00 percent when workstations are internally protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system complying with the requirements of 
■ Chapter 9. When Note b applies, the quantities increased may be as set forth in both notes. When Note f applies, the maximum increase authorized by both Notes c 

and f shall not exceed 1 00 percent. 
1 d. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system. 

e. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM. 

f. Quantities may be increased 100 percent for nonflammable, noncombustible corrosive liquids when the materials of construction for workstations are listed or 
1 approved for use without internal fire extinguishing system protection. When Note c applies, the maximum increase authorized by both Notes c and f shall not 

exceed 100 percent. 



142 



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SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 



1805.2.2.2 Drainage and containment for HPM liq- 
uids. Each workstation utilizing HPM liquids shall be 
provided with all of the following: 

1 . Drainage piping systems connected to a compati- 
ble system for disposition of such liquids. 

2. The work surface provided with a slope or other 
means for directing spilled materials to the con- 
tainment or drainage system. 

3. An approved means of containing or directing 
spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system. 

1805.2.2.3 Clearances. Workstations where HPM is 
used shall be provided with horizontal servicing clear- 
ances of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) for electrical 

1 equipment, gas container connections and similar haz- 

ardous conditions. These clearances shall apply only to 
normal operational procedures and not to repair or main- 
tenance-related work. 

■» 1805.3 Handling. The handling of hazardous materials shall 
comply with the requirements of this section and other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

1805.3.1 Exit corridors access and exit enclosures. Exit 
■^ access corridors and exit enclosures shall not contain HPM 

■ except as permitted for exit access corridors by the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code. 

1 1805.3.2 Reserved. 

■» 1805.3.3 Service corridors. A service corridor shall be pro- 
vided where it is necessary to move HPM during handling 
from a liquid storage room, HPM room, gas room or from 
the outdoors to the perimeter wall of a fabrication area. Ser- 

Ivice corridors shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. 

11805.3.4 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks used to move 
HPM during handling in exit access corridors and exit 
enclosures shall comply with the requirements of Section 
2703.10.3. 

1805.3.4.1 Identification. Carts and trucks shall be 
marked to indicate the contents. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



143 



144 

2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 19 

LUMBER YARDS AND WOOD WASTE MATERIALS 



SECTION FC 1901 
GENERAL 

1901.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the manufacture, stor- 
age and handling of lumber, wood products and wood waste 
material. 

1901.2 Permit. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 
105.6. 

1901.3 Genera!. Lumber and wood waste materials shall be 
stored and handled in accordance with this chapter. Facilities 
used for such purposes shall be designed, installed, operated 
and maintained in accordance with this chapter. 

1901.4 Manufacturing prohibited. The manufacture of lum- 
ber, including plywood and other manufactured wood sheets, 
from trees and other natural wood materials, is prohibited, 
except as approved by the commissioner. 



SECTION FC 1902 
DEFINITIONS 

1902.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chap- 
ter, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown in Chapter 2 or elsewhere in 
this code. 



SECTION FC 1903 
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

1903.1 Open yards. Open yards required by the construction 
codes, including the Building Code, shall be maintained 
around structures. 

1903.2 Reserved. 

1903.3 Reserved. 

1903.4 Reserved. 

1903.5 Control of ignition sources. Sources of ignition shall 
be controlled or protected in accordance with Chapter 3 and 
Sections 1903.5.1 and 1903.5.3. 

1903.5.1 Hot work. Hot work shall comply with the 
requirements of Chapter 26. 

1903.5.2 Reserved. 

1903.5.3 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in a lum- 
ber yard or wood waste material facility. 



SECTION FC 1904 

THROUGH AND INCLUDING 

SECTION 1907 

RESERVED 



SECTION FC1908 

OUTDOOR STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND 

OTHER WOOD WASTE MATERIALS 

1908.1 General. Wood chips and other wood waste materials 
shall be stored and handled in accordance with this section. 

1908.2 Storage areas. Storage areas shall be level and on solid 
ground or other all-weather surface. Storage areas shall be 
thoroughly cleaned before transferring wood products to the 

area. 

1908.3 Size of piles. Piles shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) 
in height, 150 feet (45 720 mm) in width and 250 feet (76 200 
mm) in length. 

Exception: The commissioner may authorize increased 
pile sizes provided that adequate fire safety is ensured by 
installing additional fire protection in accordance with 
Chapter 9 and the construction codes, including the Build- 
ing Code. The increase shall be based upon the capabilities 
of the system installed. 

1908.4 Pile separation. Piles shall be separated from adjacent 
piles by approved fire apparatus access roads. 

1908.5 Combustible waste. The storage of wood chips or 
other wood waste materials, the accumulation and handling of 
combustible materials, the control of vegetation and the dis- 
posal of combustible waste shall comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 3. 

1908.6 Pile protection. Piles of wood chips or other wood 
waste materials shall be monitored by an approved means to 
measure internal temperatures within the piles. Internal pile 
temperatures shall be measured and recorded weekly. Records 
shall be kept on file at the facility and made available for 
inspection by any representative of the department. 

1908.7 Reserved. 

1908.8 Fire protection. The commissioner may require that a 
yard hydrant system and/or monitor nozzles connected to a 
fixed water supply be installed upon the premises where the 
facility arrangement, pile arrangement, pile heights, number of 
piles or total volume of piles would hamper the effectiveness of 
hose streams to control or extinguish a fire. Portable fire 
extinguishers in compliance with the requirements of Section 
906 and with a minimum rating of 4-A:60-B:C shall be readily 
available throughout the premises. 

1908.9 Material-handling equipment. Approved mate- 
rial-handling equipment shall be available for moving wood 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



145 



LUMBER YARDS AND WOOD WASTE MATERIALS 



I chips and other wood waste materials during firefighting oper- 
ations. 



I SECTION FC 1909 

OUTDOOR STORAGE OF FINISHED 
LUMBER PRODUCTS 

I 1909.1 General. Finished lumber products shall be stored in 
accordance with this section. 

I 1909.2 Size of piles. Outdoor lumber storage shall be arranged 
to form stable piles with a maximum height of 20 feet (6096 
mm). Piles shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m 3 ) in 
volume. 

1909.3 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 

I roads in accordance with Section 503 and the construction 
codes, including the Building Code, shall be located so that a 
maximum grid system unit of 50 feet by 1 50 feet (15 240 mm 
by 45 720 mm) is established. 

1909.4 Security. Permanent outdoor lumber storage areas 
shall be surrounded with an approved fence. Fences shall be a 
minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

1909.5 Fire protection. The commissioner may require that 
the yard hydrant system specified in Section 508.2.3 to include 
monitor nozzles connected to the fixed water supply where the 
facility arrangement, pile arrangement, pile heights, number of 
piles or total volume of piles would hamper the effectiveness of 
hose streams to control or extinguish a fire. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906 
for extra-high hazards and located so that the travel distance to 
the nearest portable fire extinguisher does not exceed 75 feet 
(22 860 mm). 



146 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 20 

MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



SECTION FC 2001 
GENERAL 

2001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern facilities and pro- 
cesses where flammable and combustible liquids are used for 
the manufacture of organic coatings, other than facilities and 
processes using nonflammable coatings and operations apply- 
ing coating materials. 

2001.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2001.3 Maintenance. Service equipment within a building, 
structure or premises shall be maintained in accordance with 
this code and NFPA 35. 

2001.4 General. Organic coating manufacturing facilities and 
processes shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained 
in accordance with this chapter. 

2001.5 Prohibited organic coatings. It shall be unlawful to 
use nitrocellulose in the manufacture of an organic coating. 



SECTION FC 2002 
DEFINITIONS 

2002.1 Definition. The following term shall, for the purposes 
of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the 
meaning shown herein. 

ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as 
alkyd, acrylic or oil, and flammable and combustible liquids, 
such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, which, when 
spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protective and decora- 
tive finish. 



SECTION FC 2003 
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS 

2003.1 Building design. Manufacturing of organic coatings 
shall be conducted only in buildings or structures that do not 
have pits, basements or other areas below grade. 

2003.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations 
and operations incidental to or connected with organic coating 
manufacturing shall not be located in buildings having other 
occupancies. 

2003.2.1 Location restrictions. It shall be unlawful to 
manufacture organic coatings in any building that is located 
within 50 feet ( 1 5 240 mm) of a building occupied as a mul- 
tiple dwelling, school, hospital, theater, or other place of 
assembly. 

2003.3 Firefighting access. Organic coating manufacturing 
operations shall be accessible from at least one side for the pur- 
pose of fire control. Approved aisles shall be maintained for the 
unobstructed movement of personnel and fire suppression 
equipment. 



2003.4 Fire protection systems. It shall be unlawful to manu- 
facture an organic coating in any building unless the building is 
protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system. Fire pro- 
tection systems shall be designed, installed, operated and 
maintained, including performing all required tests and inspec- 
tions, in accordance with Chapter 9 and the Building Code. 

2003.5 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one porta- 
ble fire extinguisher complying with the requirements of Sec- 1 
tion 906 for extra hazard shall be provided in organic coating 
areas. 

2003.6 Open flames. Open flames and open-flame devices are 1 
prohibited in areas where flammable vapor-air mixtures exist. 

2003.7 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in any organic 1 
coating manufacturing facility. ■ 

2003.8 Power equipment. Power-operated equipment and 
industrial trucks shall be of a type approved for the location. 

2003.9 Tank maintenance. The cleaning of tanks that have ^ 
contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be per- 
formed under the supervision of a person trained in and knowl- 1 
edgeable about the fire and explosion potential. 1 

2003.9.1 Repairs. Where necessary to make repairs involv- 
ing hot work, the work shall be conducted in accordance 
with Chapter 26. 

2003.9.2 Reserved. J^ 

2003.10 Drainage. Drainage shall be provided to direct flam- *■ 
mable and combustible liquid leakage and fire protection water 

to an approved location away from the building, any other 
structure, storage area or adjoining premises. 

2003.11 Alarm system. An approved fire alarm system shall 
be provided in accordance with the construction codes, includ- 1 
ing the Building Code. 



SECTION FC 2004 I 

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTION 

2004.1 Wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equip- 
ment shall be designed, installed, operated and maintained in I 
accordance with this chapter and the Electrical Code. I 

2004.2 Hazardous locations. Where Class I liquids are 
exposed to the air, the facility, including all equipment and the g 
ventilation system, shall be designed in a manner that limits § 
Class I, Division 1, locations to the following: 

1. Piping trenches. 

2. Within the equipment. 

3. The immediate vicinity of pumps or equipment loca- 
tions, such as dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate 
and frame filters, opened vacuum filters, change cans 
and the surfaces of open equipment. The immediate 
vicinity shall include a zone extending from the vapor 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



147 



MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



liberation point 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally in all 
directions and vertically from the floor to a level 3 feet 
(914 mm) above the highest point of vapor liberation. 

2004.2.1 Other locations. Locations within the confines of 
the manufacturing room where Class I liquids are handled 
shall be Class I, Division 2, except locations indicated in 
Section 2004.2. 

2004.2.2 Ordinary equipment. Ordinary electrical equip- 
ment, including switchgear, is prohibited except where 
installed in a room maintained under positive pressure with 
respect to the hazardous area. The air or other media utilized 
for pressurization shall be obtained from a source that will 
not cause any amount or type of flammable vapor to be 
introduced into the room. 

2004.3 Bonding. In any area of the facility in which an ignit- 
able mixture may be present in the atmosphere, equipment, 
including, but not limited to, tanks, machinery and piping, shall 
be bonded and connected to a ground. 

2004.3.1 Piping. Electrically isolated sections of metallic 
piping or equipment shall be grounded or bonded to the 
other grounded portions of the system. 

2004.3.2 Vehicles. Cargo tanks loaded or unloaded through 
open connections shall be grounded and bonded to the 
receiving system. 

2004.3.3 Containers. Where a flammable mixture is trans- 
ferred from one portable container to another, a bond shall 
be provided between the two containers, and one shall be 
grounded. 

2004.4 Ground. Metal framing of buildings shall be grounded 
with resistance of not more than 5 ohms. 



I SECTION FC 2005 

PROCESS STRUCTURES 

2005.1 Design. Process structures shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the construction codes, including 
the Building Code. 

2005.2 Fire apparatus access. Fire apparatus access comply- 
ing with the requirements of Section 503 shall be provided for 
the purpose of fire control to at least one side of organic coating 
manufacturing operations. 

2005.3 Drainage. Drainage facilities shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 2003.10 where topographical condi- 
tions are such that flammable and combustible liquids are capa- 
ble of flowing from the organic coating manufacturing 
operation so as to constitute a fire hazard to other premises. 

2005.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in areas subject to potential deflagration hazards as set 
forth in NFPA 35. Explosion control shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 911. 

2005.5 Ventilation. Buildings in which Class I liquids are pro- 
cessed or handled shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than [1 
cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.00508 m 3 /s • m 2 )] of 
solid floor area. Ventilation shall be accomplished by exhaust 
fans that take suction at floor levels and discharge to a safe loca- 
tion outdoors. Noncontaminated intake air shall be introduced 



in such a manner that all portions of solid floor areas are pro- 
vided with continuous uniformly distributed air movement. 

2005.6 Heating. Heating provided in hazardous areas shall be 
by indirect means. Ignition sources such as open flames or 
electrical heating elements, except as provided for in Section 
2004, are prohibited within the building. | 



SECTION FC 2006 | 

PROCESS MILLS AND KETTLES 

2006.1 Mills. Mills, operating with close clearances, which 
process flammable and heat-sensitive materials shall be *■ 
located in a detached building or in a noncombustible structure 
without other occupancies. The amount of flammable material *■ 
brought into the area shall not be more than the amount 
required for a batch. 

2006.2 Mixers. Mixers shall be of the enclosed type or, where 
of the open type, shall be provided with properly fitted covers. 
Where flow is by gravity, a shutoff valve shall be installed as 
close as practical to the mixer, and a control valve shall be pro- 
vided near the end of the fill pipe. 

2006.3 Open kettles. Open kettles shall be located in outdoor 1 
areas provided with a protective roof; in a separate structure of 1 
noncombustible construction; or separated from other areas by 

a noncombustible wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least 
2 hours. 

2006.4 Closed kettles. Contact-heated kettles containing sol- 
vents shall be equipped with safety devices that, in case of a 
fire, will turn off the process heat, turn on the cooling medium 
and inject inert gas into the kettle. 

2006.4.1 Vaporizer location. The vaporizer section of 
heat-transfer systems that heat closed kettles containing sol- 
vents shall be remotely located. 

2006.5 Kettle controls. The kettle and thin-down tank shall be 
instrumented, controlled and interlocked so that any failure of 
the controls will not result in an unsafe condition. The kettle § 
shall be provided with a pressure-rupture disc in addition to the 
primary vent. The vent piping from the rupture disc shall be of 
minimum length and shall discharge to an approved location. 
The thin-down tank shall be adequately vented. Thinning oper- 
ations shall be provided with a vapor removal system capable 1 

1 



of ensuring a safe atmosphere. 



SECTION FC 2007 
PROCESS PIPING 



i 



2007.1 Design. All piping, valves and fittings shall be designed 
for the working pressures and structural stresses to which the 
piping, valves and fittings will be subjected, and shall be of 
steel or other material approved for the service intended. 

2007.2 Valves and fittings. Valves shall be of an indicating 1 
type. Terminal valves on remote pumping systems shall be of 
the dead-man type, shutting off both the pump and the flow of 
solvent. Valves and fittings shall not be constructed of castiron. I 

2007.3 Support. Piping systems shall be supported and pro- 
tected against physical damage. Piping shall be pitched to 



148 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 



avoid unintentional trapping of liquids, or approved drains 
shall be provided. 

2007.4 Connectors. Approved flexible connectors shall be 
installed where vibration exists or frequent movement is neces- 
sary. Hoses at dispensing stations shall be of an approved type. 

2007.5 Tests. Before being placed in service, all piping shall be 
free of leaks when tested for a minimum of 30 minutes at not 
less than 1.5 times the working pressure or a minimum of 5 
pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (35 kPa) at the highest 
point in the system. 



2009.6 Finished products. Finished products that are flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids shall be stored outdoors, in a sepa- 
rate building, or in a room separate from the process area, in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code. The storage of finished products shall be in tanks or 
closed containers in accordance with Chapter 34. 



I SECTION FC 2008 

RAW MATERIALS IN PROCESS AREAS 

1 2008.1 Reserved. 

2008.2 Organic peroxides. Organic peroxides brought into 

I the process area shall be in the original shipping container. 
When in the process area, the organic peroxide shall not be 
placed in locations exposed to ignition sources, heat, mechani- 

Ical shocks or flammable liquids, except that organic peroxide 
may be exposed to flammable liquid during raw material pro- 
cessing. 



SECTION FC 2009 
RAW MATERIALS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS 

2009.1 General. The storage, handling and use of flammable 
and combustible liquids in process areas shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 34. The storage, handling and use of organic per- 
oxides shall be in accordance with Chapter 39 and the storage, 
handling and use of oxidizers shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 40. 

2009.2 Tank storage. Tanks for the storage of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be installed in accordance with Chap- 
ter 34. Process equipment storing or using flammable or com- 
bustible liquids and storage in quantities necessary for 
maintaining the operation is allowed in the process area. 

2009.3 Loading and unloading. Tank car and cargo tank load- 
ing and unloading stations for Class I liquids shall be separated 

1 from the process area, other facility structures, the nearest lot 
line, public street or private road by a minimum distance in 
accordance with Chapter 34. 

2009.3.1 Loading. Loading and unloading structures and 
platforms for flammable and combustible liquids shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with Chapter 34. 

2009.3.2 Safety. Tank cars and cargo tanks for flammable 
and combustible liquids shall be loaded and unloaded in 
accordance with Chapter 34. 

I 2009.4 Reserved. 

2009.5 Organic peroxide storage. The storage of organic per- 
oxides shall be in accordance with Chapter 39. 

2009.5.1 Size. The size of the package containing organic 
peroxide shall be selected so that, as nearly as practical, full 
packages are utilized at one time. Spilled peroxide shall be 
1 promptly removed and disposed of lawfully. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



149 



150 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 21 

INDUSTRIAL FURNACES 



SECTION FC 2101 
GENERAL 

2101.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installa- 
tion, operation and maintenance of industrial furnaces used for 
commercial and industrial processing of materials. 

2101.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2101.3 General. Industrial furnaces shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this 
chapter, NFPA 86, and the construction codes, including the 
Fuel Gas Code and the Mechanical Code. 



SECTION FC 2102 
DEFINITIONS 

2102.1 Definitions. The following words shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

FURNACE. A compartment, receptacle, enclosed chamber or 
structure that is capable of being heated to a high temperature 
in order to heat the contents thereof. Furnaces may be heated by 
internal or external sources, including gas burners, oil burners, 
electrical elements, infrared lamps, induction heaters and 
steam radiation systems, regardless of whether denominated as 
an oven or furnace. 

Industrial furnaces shall be classified as follows: 

Class A. A furnace that has heat utilization equipment oper- 

Iating at or near atmospheric pressure and that presents a 
potential explosion or fire hazard if flammable volatile or 
combustible materials are processed or heated in the fur- 
nace. Such flammable volatile or combustible materials 
I include those originating from paints, powders, inks, and 
adhesives from finishing processes, such as dipped, coated, 
sprayed and impregnated materials; the substrate material; 
wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging mate- 
rials; or polymerization or other molecular rearrangements. 

^ Class B. A furnace that has heat utilization equipment oper- 
ating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there 

1 are no flammable volatile or combustible materials being 
heated. 

■► Class C. A furnace with any type of heating system and a 

I special atmosphere supply system that is potentially hazard- 
ous due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being 
used for treatment of material in process, including integral 
quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces. 

I Class D. A furnace with any type of heating system that 
operates at temperatures from above ambient to over 
5,000°F (2760°C) and at pressures normally below atmo- 

1 spheric, including special processing atmosphere furnaces. 



SECTION FC 2103 
LOCATION 

2103.1 Ventilation. Enclosed rooms, basements or other areas 
below grade containing industrial furnaces shall be provided 
with combustion air in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code, and 
with ventilation in accordance with the Mechanical Code. 

2103.2 Location. Industrial furnaces and heaters shall be 
located such that in the event of fire or explosion resulting from 
overheating or from the escape of fuel gas or fuel oil , damage to 
the building and injury to persons is minimized. 

2103.3 Ignition source. Industrial furnaces shall be located so 
as not to pose an ignition hazard to flammable vapors or mists 
or combustible dusts that may be present as a result of a manu- 
facturing operation or other lawful use and occupancy of the 
building. 

2103.4 Temperatures. Roofs and floors of furnaces shall be 
insulated and ventilated to prevent temperatures at combustible 
ceilings and floors from exceeding 160°F (71°C). 



SECTION FC 21 04 1 

FUEL PIPING 

2104.1 Fuel-gas piping. Fuel-gas piping serving industrial 
furnaces shall be designed and installed in accordance with the 1 
Fuel Gas Code. Piping for other fuel sources shall comply with 1 
the requirements of this section. ■ 

2104.2 Shutoff valves. Each industrial furnace shall be pro- ^ 
vided with an approved manual fuel shutoff valve in accor- 
dance with the construction codes, including the Mechanical I 
Code and the Fuel Gas Code. « 

2104.2.1 Fuel supply lines. Valves for fuel supply lines 
shall be located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the appliance 

served. 

Exception: When approved and the valve is located in 
the same general area as the appliance served. 

2104.3 Valve position. The design of manual fuel shutoff 
valves shall incorporate a permanent feature that visually indi- 1 
cates the open or closed position of the valve. Manual fuel shut- 
off valves shall not be equipped with removable handles or 
wrenches unless the handle or wrench can only be installed par- 
allel with the fuel line when the valve is in the open position. 



SECTION FC 2105 
INTERLOCKS 

2105.1 Shut down. Interlocks shall be provided for Class A 
furnaces so that conveyors or sources of flammable or combus- 
tible materials shall shut down if either the exhaust or 
recirculation air supply fails. 



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SECTION FC 2106 
FIRE PROTECTION 

2106.1 Required protection. Class A and B furnaces that con- 
tain, or are utilized for the processing of, combustible materials 
shall be protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system 
complying with the requirements of Chapter 9. 

2106.2 Fixed fire extinguishing systems. A fixed fire extin- 
guishing system shall be provided for Class C or D furnaces to 
protect against such hazards as overheating, spillage of molten 
salts or metals, quench tanks, ignition of hydraulic oil and 
escape of fuel. 

2106.3 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section 906 
shall be provided not closer than 1 5 feet (4572 mm) or a maxi- 
mum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from each furnace or in accor- 
dance with NFPA 10. 



SECTION FC 2107 
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 

2107.1 Furnace operation and maintenance instructions. 
The furnace manufacturer's complete installation, inspection, 
testing, operation and maintenance instructions shall be avail- 
able on the premises to those individuals responsible for the 
operation, maintenance and supervision of the furnace. 

2107.2 Furnace nameplate. The following data for Class A 
furnaces shall be furnished on the manufacturer's nameplate: 

1. The solvent used. 

2. The number of gallons (liters) used per batch or per hour 
of solvent entering the furnace. 

3. The required purge time. 

4. The oven operating temperature. 

5. The exhaust blower rating for the number of gallons 
(liters) of solvent per hour or batch at the maximum oper- 
ating temperature, or with regard to low-oxygen fur- 
naces, the maximum allowable oxygen concentration. 

2107.3 Training. The operation and maintenance of furnaces 
shall be performed by a person knowledgeable and trained in 
the operation and maintenance of such furnaces. 

2107.4 Equipment maintenance. Equipment shall be main- 
tained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



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SECTION FC 2201 
GENERAL 

2201.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, installa- 
tion, operation and maintenance of automotive liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities, CNG motor fuel -dispensing facilities and repair 
garages. 

2201.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2201.3 Design and installation documents. Design and 
installation documents shall be submitted to the department for 
review and approval prior to the installation, alteration, repair 
or construction of automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities and 
CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities in accordance with Sec- 
tion 105.4. 

2201.3.1 Compliance with other codes. The installation or 
alteration of a liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing sys- 
tem shall not be approved by the department unless the 
design and installation documents demonstrate that the pro- 
posed work complies with the regulations of the United 
States Environmental Protection Agency, as set forth in 40 
CFR Part 280, and the regulations of the New York State 
Department of Environmental Conservation, as set forth in 
6 NYCRR Parts 612, 613 and 614. 

2201.4 General. All motor fuel-dispensing facilities, CNG 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance 
with this chapter, Chapter 34 and the construction codes, 
including the Building Code, the Fuel Gas Code and the 
Mechanical Code, and, as applicable, NFPA 30A. 

2201.5 Electrical. Electrical wiring and equipment shall be 
suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 605, NFPA 30 A and 
the Electrical Code, as applicable. Upon request, proof of com- 
pliance with the Electrical Code shall be filed with the depart- 
ment. 

2201.6 Heat-producing appliances. Heat-producing appli- 
ances shall be suitable for the locations in which they are 
installed and shall comply with the requirements of the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code, the Mechanical 
Code and the Fuel Gas Code, and NFPA 30A, as applicable. 

2201.7 Supervision. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel and 
CNG motor fuel at motor fuel-dispensing 4 facilities shall be 
conducted by or under the supervision of a certified attendant, 
who shall be responsible to ensure that dispensing operations 
are conducted and the facility is maintained in accordance with 
this chapter, as follows: 

1 . Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at self-ser- 
vice 4 automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 



2. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at fleet auto- 
motive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

3 . Di spensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at full-ser- 
vice 4 automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

4. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at self-ser- 
vice 4 CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

5 . Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at fleet CNG 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

6. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at full-ser- 
vice 4 CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

7 . Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at fleet 
marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

8. Dispensing operations shall be conducted by or under the 
personal supervision of a certified attendant at full-ser- 
vice 4 marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

2201.8 Certificate of license. Persons who install, alter, test or 
repair any automotive or marine liquid motor fuel storage and 
dispensing systems shall hold a certificate of license or shall be 
employed by and perform such duties under the general super- 
vision of a person holding such certificate. 

2201.9 Records of inspections and testing. Records of all 
inspections and testing required by this chapter shall be kept in 

a bound log book or other approved recordkeeping, maintained j 
on the premises for a minimum of 4 years, and made available 
for inspection by any representative of the department. 

SECTION FC 2202 
DEFINITIONS 

2202.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- < 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. Any building, structure or premises upon which 
or wherein, liquid motor fuel is stored and dispensed from a liq- 
uid motor fuel storage and dispensing system into the fuel tanks 
of motor vehicles or motorcycles. 

CERTIFIED ATTENDANT. A person holding a certificate 
of fitness for the supervision of an automotive liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facility, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing 
facility or automotive CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

CNG. Compressed natural gas. 

CNG MOTOR FUEL. CNG used as fuel in the operation of 

motor vehicles. 



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CNG MOTOR FUEL SYSTEM. A system comprised of 
compressors, storage containers, dispensers, piping, valves 
and ancillary equipment, that compresses natural gas into 
CNG, and stores and/or dispenses CNG motor fuel. 

CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. Any 
building, structure or premises upon which, or wherein, CNG 
motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed from a CNG motor fuel 
system into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or watercraft. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispens- 
► ing device mounted above a dispensing area, typically within a 
canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead 
hose reel. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline or other 
flammable liquids used as fuel in the operation of motor vehi- 
cles, motorcycles, watercraft and aircraft. 

FLEET AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DIS- 
PENSING FACILITY. An automotive liquid motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is stored and/or 
dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or motorcycles 
owned or operated by or on behalf of the owner of the facility, 
and where dispensing operations are conducted by persons 
employed by or otherwise working for the owner of the facility. 

FLEET CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. 
Any CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein CNG motor 
fuel is stored and/or dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehi- 
cles or watercraft owned or operated by or on behalf of the 
owner of the facility itself, and where dispensing operations are 
conducted by persons employed by or otherwise working for 
the owner of the facility. 

FLEET MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENS- 
ING FACILITY. A marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facil- 
ity wherein liquid motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed into the 
fuel tank of watercraft owned or operated by or on behalf of the 
owner of the facility, and where such dispensing operations are 
conducted by persons employed by or otherwise working for 
the owner of the facility. 

FULL-SERVICE 4 AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR 
FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. An automotive liquid 
motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is dis- 
pensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or motorcycles by a 
certified attendant or, when under the personal supervision of a 
certified attendant, by persons employed by or otherwise work- 
ing for the owner of the facility. 

FULL-SERVICE 4 CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. A CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein 
CNG is dispensed into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or 
watercraft by a certified attendant or, when under the personal 
supervision of a certified attendant, by persons employed by or 
otherwise working for the owner of the facility. 

FULL-SERVICE 4 MARINE LIQUID MOTOR 
FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. A marine liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facility wherein liquid motor fuel is dispensed 
into the fuel tank of watercraft by a certified attendant or, when 
under the personal supervision of a certified attendant, by 
persons employed by or otherwise working for the owner of 
the facility. 



LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid 
state composed predominantly of methane and which may con- 
tain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other 
components normally found in natural gas. 

LIQUID MOTOR FUEL. Gasoline, diesel fuel or other flam- 
mable or combustible liquids used as fuel in the operation of 
motor vehicles, motorcycles, watercraft and aircraft. 

LIQUID MOTOR FUEL STORAGE AND DISPENSING 
SYSTEM. A liquid motor fuel storage tank and all motor fuel 
storage and dispensing equipment associated with such tank, 
including the tank, piping, valves, fill connection catchment 
basins, vent lines, pumps, dispensing devices and any other 
ancillary equipment. 

MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. Any building, structure or premises, whether on 
shore, piers, docks or wharves, upon which or wherein, liquid 
motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed from a liquid motor fuel 
storage and dispensing system into the fuel tanks of watercraft. 

MOTOR VEHICLE. A vehicle or other conveyance having 
more than 2 running wheels and using liquid motor fuel or 
flammable gas as fuel for generating motive power, except 
such vehicles as have a storage tank with a maximum capacity 
for less than 2 gallons (7.6 L) of liquid motor fuel or flammable 
gas that generates energy that is equivalent to the energy gener- 
ated by 2 gallons (7.6 L) of gasoline. 

REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof 
used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles or motorcycles. 

SELF-SERVICE AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR 
FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. An automotive liquid 
motor fuel-dispensing facility where liquid motor fuel is dis- 
pensed from a liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing system 
into the fuel tank of motor vehicles or motorcycles by custom- 
ers of the facility. 

SELF-SERVICE CNG MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. A CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility wherein 
CNG motor fuel is stored and/or dispensed from a CNG motor 
fuel system into the fuel tank of motor vehicles by customers of 
the facility. 

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVEGROUND. An atmospheric 
aboveground tank listed in accordance with UL 2085 or equiv- 
alent standard that is provided with integral secondary contain- 
ment, protection from physical damage, and an insulation 
system intended to reduce the heat transferred to the primary 
tank when the tank is exposed to a high-intensity 4 liquid pool 
fire. 



SECTION FC 2203 

AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 

FACILITY LOCATION OF DISPENSING DEVICES 

2203.1 Location of dispensing devices. Dispensing devices at 

automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be 

located as set forth in Sections 2203.1.1 and 2203.1.2. 



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2203.1.1 Outdoor dispensing devices. When installed out- 
doors, dispensing devices shall be located as follows: 

1 . Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines and build- 
ing or structure openings. 

2. Ten feet (3048' mm) or more from buildings or struc- 
tures having combustible exterior wall surfaces or 
buildings or structures having noncombustible exte- 
rior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings or struc- 
tures having combustible overhangs. 

Exception: Canopies constructed in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Build- 
ing Code, providing weather protection for the 
motor fuel dispensers. 

3. Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will 
be on the premises of the automotive liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facility. 

4. Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, 
will not reach within 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) of building or 
structure openings. 

5. Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of 
ignition. 

6. Twenty five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest 
subway grating, entrance or exit. 

2203.1.2 Indoor dispensing devices. When installed inside 
a building or structure, the dispensing area shall be located 
at street level, with no dispenser located more than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from an exit or entrance to the building or 
structure used by motor vehicles. 

2203.2 Emergency disconnect switches. An approved, 
clearly identified and readily accessible emergency disconnect 
switch shall be provided at an approved location, to immedi- 
ately shut down the transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the 
event of a fuel spill or other emergency. An emergency discon- 
nect switch for exterior fuel dispensers shall be located within 
100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
from, the fuel dispensers. For interior fuel-dispensing opera- 
tions, the emergency disconnect switch shall be installed at an 
approved location. An approved sign shall be posted on or 
immediately adjacent to such devices and shall read: EMER- 
GENCY FUEL SHUTOFF. Such emergency disconnect 
switches shall be of a type that is reset manually. 



SECTION FC 2204 

AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 

FACILITY DISPENSING OPERATIONS 

2204.1 Supervision of dispensing. The dispensing of liquid 
motor fuel at automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be conducted under the supervision of a certified atten- 
dant as set forth in Section 2201.7. 

2204.2 Self-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispens- 
ing facilities. Self-service automotive liquid motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of 



Sections 2204.2.1 through 2204.2.7. The certified attendant's 
primary function shall be to supervise, observe and monitor the 
dispensing of fuel. The certified attendant shall prevent the dis- 
pensing of fuel into containers that do not comply with the 
requirements of Section 2204.4.1, control sources of ignition, 
take immediate action upon an accidental spill or release, be 
ready to use a portable fire extinguisher, and activate the fixed 
fire extinguishing system. Nothing in this section shall be con- 
strued to prohibit a certified attendant from engaging in other 
activities so long as such activities do not interfere with the cer- 
tified attendant's ability to supervise, observe and monitor the 
dispensing of fuel and other requirements of this chapter. 

2204.2.1 Self-service dispensers. Approved self-service 
devices, equipment and systems such as, but not limited to, 
card- operated and remote-preset types, are allowed at auto- 
motive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. The certified 
attendant shall set the dispensing devices in the "off posi- 
tion when not in use if such dispensing device can be acti- 
vated without the certified attendant's knowledge. 1 

2204.2.2 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. 

2204.2.3 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating 
instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of 1 
the emergency controls required by Section 2204.2.2. 1 

2204.2.4 Monitoring of dispensing. A control area shall be 
located on the premises of every self-service automotive liq- 
uid motor fuel-dispensing facility. The control area shall be 
an interior or exterior enclosure to which the public has no 
access. The certified attendant shall be present within the 
control area while dispensing operations are conducted. The 
control area shall be designed and located so that the certi- 
fied attendant stationed therein shall have a full, unob- 
structed clear view of dispensing operations, except that 
mirrors and/or an approved closed-circuit television instal- 
lation may be provided to afford the certified attendant a 
clear view of dispensing operations when the view from the 
control area is partially or temporarily obstructed. For pur- 
poses of this section, the "clear" view provided by a 
closed-circuit television installation shall mean that the 
image on the monitor shall be of such brightness and resolu- 
tion as to allow ready identification of individuals and easy 
observation of activities at all times of day. Properly labeled 
manual switches that activate the fire extinguishing system 
and electrically disconnect the liquid motor fuel-dispens- 
ing 4 pumps shall be located adjacentto each other within the 
control area. A console that controls the self-service liquid 
motor fuel dispensers shall be provided within the control 
area and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the manual switches. 

2204.2.5 Communications. A two-way voice communica- 
tion system shall be installed to provide contact between the 
control area and each dispensing island. A telephone not 
requiring a coin to operate, or other approved clearly identi- 
fied means to notify the department, shall be provided at the 
facility in an approved location. 



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2204.2.6 Control area sign. A durable metal sign that reads 
as follows shall be posted in plain view within the control 
area: 



Emergency Procedures: 

Shut off product pumps. 

Direct vehicle occupants to exit vehicles and 

leave area immediately. 

Keep all persons away from the area. 

Manually activate fire extinguishing system. 

Notify the Fire Department (Call 911). 



Such sign shall also indicate the department telephone 
number, the nearest fire alarm box location, and the motor 
fuel-dispensing facility's address, with cross-street refer- 
ence. 

2204.2.7 Lighting. Dispensing areas shall be well lighted 
whenever the facility is open for business. 

2204.3 Fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2204.3.1 
through 2204.3.7. 

2204.3.1 General. The owner of fleet automotive liquid 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall provide, and be 
accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment inspec- 
tion, and maintenance. 

2204.3.1.1 Supervision. The supervision of dispensing 
shall be in accordance with Section 2201.7. 

2204.3.2 Reserved. 

2204.3.3 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2203.2. 

2204.3.4 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating 
instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of 
the emergency controls required by Section 2204.3.3. 

2204.3.5 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency 
procedures sign, in addition to the sign required by Section 
2206. 12, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall 
read: 

IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE 

1 . USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF 

2. ACTIVATE THE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYS- 
TEM PROTECTING THE FLAMMABLE LIQUID 
MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 4 AREA, (where 
applicable) FIRE SUPPRESSION EMERGENCY 
CONTROL LOCATED (indicate location) 

3. NOTIFY THE FIRE DEPARTMENT (CALL 911) 



FACILITY ADDRESS (indicate address, 
cross-street 4 reference). 



with 



2204.3.6 Communications. A telephone not requiring a 
coin to operate or other approved, clearly identified means 
to notify the department shall be provided at the facility in 
an approved location. 



2204.3.7 Quantity limits. Dispensing equipment used at 
fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall I 
comply with one of the following: 

1 . Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to 
limit uninterrupted liquid motor fuel delivery to not I 
more than 25 gallons (95 L) and require a manual 1 
action to resume delivery. 

2. For other than flammable liquid motor fuel, the I 
amount of liquid motor fuel being dispensed shall be I 
limited in quantity by a preprogrammed card as 
approved. 

2204.4 Dispensing into portable containers. The dispensing 
of liquid motor fuel into portable containers shall comply with I 
the requirements of Sections 2204.4.1 through 2204.4.4. § 

2204.4.1 Approved containers required. Liquid motor 1 
fuel shall not be dispensed into a portable container unless I 
such container is of approved material and construction, and 
has a tight closure with screwed or spring-loaded cover so 
designed that the contents can be dispensed without spill- 
ing. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable tanks or 
cargo tanks. 

2204.4.1.1 Container capacity. Liquid motor fuel shall 
be dispensed into approved containers with an individual 
capacity not greater than 27, gallons (9.5 L). 

2204.4.2 Nozzle operation. A hose nozzle valve used for 
dispensing liquid motor fuel into a portable container shall 
be in compliance with the requirements of Section 2206.7.6 
and be manually held open during the dispensing operation. 

2204.4.3 Location of containers being filled. Portable 
containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, 
passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle or upon a 
watercraft. 

2204.4.4 Certified attendant. Only a certified attendant 
shall dispense liquid motor fuel into portable containers. 

2204.5 Dispensing from portable containers. No motor vehi- 
cle, motorcycle or watercraft shall be fueled from a portable 
container while inside a building or structure. 

2204.6 Full service automotive liquid motor fuel-dispens- 
ing facilities. Full service automotive liquid motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 2204.6.1 through 2204.6.5. 

2204.6.1 Supervision of dispensing. Dispensing of liquid 
motor fuel shall be in accordance with Section 2201.7. 

2204.6.2 Emergency controls. Approved emergency con- 
trols shall be provided in accordance with Section 2204.3.3. 

2204.6.3 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating 
instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of 
the emergency controls required by Section 2204.6.2. 

2204.6.4 Emergency procedures. An approved emergency 
procedures sign, in addition to the sign required by Section 
2206. 1 2, shall be provided and posted in accordance with 
Section 2204.3.5. 



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2204.6.5 Communications. A telephone not requiring a 
coin to operate or other approved, clearly identified means 
to notify the department shall be provided at the facility in 
an approved location. 

2204.7 Sources of ignition. It shall be unlawful to smoke or 
use or maintain an open flame in areas where fuel is dispensed. 
The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during 
fueling. Electrical equipment shall be installed, operated and 
maintained in accordance with the Electrical Code. 

2204.8 Liquid motor fuel dispensing on piers, docks or 
wharves. Flammable liquid motor fuel shall not be dispensed 
into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles imported by ship to this 
country while on any pier, dock or wharf. 



SECTION FC 2205 

AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 

FACILITY OPERATIONAL AND MAINTENANCE 

REQUIREMENTS 

2205.1 Tank filling operations for liquid motor fuel. Deliv- 
ery operations to tanks for liquid motor fuel shall comply with 
the requirements of Sections 2205.1.1 through 2205.1.3 and 
the applicable requirements of Chapter 34. 

2205.1.1 Delivery vehicle location. Where liquid delivery 
to aboveground storage tanks is accomplished by posi- 
tive-pressure operation, cargo tanks shall be positioned a 
minimum of 15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving liquid 
motor fuel. During delivery, a cargo tank shall not obstruct a 
public street, block motorists' view of roadways or impede 
the movement of vehicles or pedestrians. 

2205.1.2 Tank capacity calculation. The driver, operator 
or attendant of a cargo tank shall, before making delivery to 
a tank, determine the unfilled, available capacity of such 
tank by an approved tank level gauging device or method. A 
measuring stick shall not be used to measure the contents of 
the tank through the fill connection line, except where there 
is a direct fill connection. 

2205.1.3 Tank connections. Delivery of liquid motor fuel 
shall be made by means of approved liquid- and vapor-tight 
connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe. 
Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery 

n^ system, all connections required for the safe and proper 
functioning of the particular vapor recovery process shall be 
made. Such connections shall be made liquid- and 
vapor-tight 4 and remain connected throughout the unload- 
ing process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level 
during delivery. 

12205.2 Equipment maintenance. Automotive liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facility equipment shall be maintained in good 
working order at all times in accordance with Sections 
2205.2.1 through 2205.2.3. 



could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the 
following precautions shall be taken: 

1 . Only persons with a certificate of license and knowl- I 
edgeable in performing the required maintenance 
shall perform the work. 

2. Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump 
serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main 
electrical disconnect panel before maintenance | 
begins. I 

3. The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where 
installed, shall be closed before maintenance begins . 1 

4. Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be pre- 
vented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the 
dispensing device before and during maintenance. 1 

2205.2.2 Emergency shutoff valves. Automatic-closing 
emergency shutoff valves required by Section 2206.7.4 
shall be checked not less than once per year by manually 
tripping the hold-open linkage. 

2205.2.3 Leak detection system. The leak detection sys- 
tem required by Section 2206.7.7 shall be inspected I 
monthly for proper operation and tested at least annually in I 
accordance with the manufacturer's specifications to ensure 
proper installation and operation. 

2205.3 Reserved. ■ 



2205.2.1 Dispensing devices. Where maintenance to dis- 
pensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance 



2205.4 Reserved. 

2205.5 Fire extinguishers. Approved portable fire 
extinguishers complying with the requirements of Section 906 
with a minimum rating of 40-B:C shall be provided and located 
such that an extinguisher is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) but 
not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from pumps, dispensers or 
storage tank fill-pipe openings. 

2205.6 Reserved. 

2205.7 Control of brush and debris. Brush, grass, vines or 
other vegetation and combustible waste shall be kept not less 
than 1 feet (3048 mm) from the tank and dispensing location. 



SECTION FC 2206 

AUTOMOTIVE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 

FACILITIES DESIGN AND INSTALLATION 

REQUIREMENTS 

2206.1 General. Storage of liquid motor fuel shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 34 except as otherwise specified in this 
chapter. 

2206.2 Method of storage. Approved methods of storage for 
liquid motor fuel at automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2206.2. 1 through 
2206.2.4. 

2206.2.1 Underground tanks. The installation of under- 
ground tanks for the storage of liquid motor fuel shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Chapter 34 except as otherwise 
specified in this chapter. 



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2206.2.1.1 Inventory control for underground tanks. 
Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and 
reconciled for underground liquid motor fuel storage 
tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks and 
piping. Inventory reconciliation shall be in accordance 
with the regulations of the New York State Department 
of Environmental Conservation as set forth in 6 NYCRR 
Part 613. The records shall be kept at the premi ses and be 
made available for inspection by any representative of 
the department. Records shall include daily reconcilia- 
tion between sales, use, receipts and inventory on hand. 
Where there is more than one system consisting of tanks 
serving separate pumps or dispensers for a product, the 
reconciliation shall be maintained separately for each 
tank system. A consistent or accidental loss of product 
shall be immediately reported to the commissioner. 

2206.2.1.2 Listing and approval. Underground liquid 
motor fuel storage tanks shall be listed and approved. 

2206.2.1.3 Tank design and construction. Under- 
ground liquid motor fuel storage tanks shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the following: 

1 . Tanks shall be completely double-walled and con- 
structed of steel, fiberglass-reinforced plastic or a 
combination of both materials. The secondary tank 
shall be capable of containing any leakage from 
the primary tank. 

2. Tanks shall be designed and constructed to with- 
stand 1 .5 times the maximum operating loads and 
stresses, regardless of the amount of liquid motor 
fuel contained in the tank. Such capabilities shall 
be established by buoyancy calculations and load 
and stress analyses. 

3. Tanks shall be designed and constructed to with- 
stand a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch 
gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa) or 1V 2 times the maxi- 
mum anticipated static head pressure, whichever is 
greater, for the primary tank and 5 pounds per 
square inch gauge (psig) (34.5 kPa) for the second- 
ary tank. 

4. The capacity of each individual tank shall not 
exceed 1 2,000 gallons (45 420 L) of liquid motor 
fuel. 

2206.2.2 Prohibited aboveground storage. The storage of 
motor fuel in aboveground tanks shall be prohibited as set 
forth in Sections 2206.2.2.1, 2206.2.2.2 and 2206.2.2.3. 

2206.2.2.1 Storage of flammable liquid motor fuel. It 

shall be unlawful to store flammable liquid motor fuel in 
aboveground tanks. 

2206.2.2.2 Storage of combustible liquid motor fuel. It 
shall be unlawful to store combustible liquid motor fuel 
in aboveground tanks, except at a fleet liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facility complying with the require- 
ments of this chapter. 



2206.2.2.3 Storage inside buildings. It shall be unlaw- 
ful to store liquid motor fuel in aboveground tanks within 
any building or structure. 

2206.2.3 Aboveground tanks located outdoors, at grade. 
Outdoor storage of combustible liquid motor fuel in above- 
ground tanks at a fleet liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility 
shall comply with the requirements set forth in Sections 
2206.2.3.1 through 2206.2.3.5. 

2206.2.3.1 Tank design and construction. Only pro- 
tected aboveground tanks shall be used. 

2206.2.3.2 Tank capacity. The capacity of each tank 
shall not exceed 4,000 gallons (15 140 L). Not more than 
a total of 4,000 gallons (15 140 L) of liquid motor fuel 
shall be stored aboveground at any facility. The total stor- 
age capacity at a facility in both aboveground and under- 
ground tanks shall not exceed 40,000 gallons (15 140 L) 
of liquid motor fuel. Each tank shall have a separate fill 
line and a separate vent line that are separate from the fill 
and vent lines of other tanks. 

Exception: When approved, individual tanks may 
exceed 4,000 gallons (151 400 L) but shall not exceed 
12,000 gallons (45 420 L). 

2206.2.3.3 Tank base support. Tanks shall be placed on 
an approved base slab. The surface of such base slab shall 
be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the level of 
the surrounding area to permit visual inspection. Tanks 
shall be adequately supported and anchored to the base 
slab to withstand uplifting by surface water and flooding. 

2206.2.3.4 Tank connections. Tank connections shall 
be designed and located so as to: 

1 . Minimize the maneuvering necessary to position a 
cargo tank to make the delivery. 

2. Minimize obstructing a public right of way or 
motorists' view of roadways, or impeding the 
movement of motor vehicles or pedestrians, dur- 
ing deliveries. 

3 . Provide connections by means of approved liquid- 
and vapor-tight 4 connections. 

2206.2.3.5 Liquid level-indicating devices. Tanks shall 
be provided with an approved liquid level-indicating 
device. The liquid level-indicating device shall be acces- 
sible to the delivery operator. Liquid level-indicating 4 
devices shall be designed and constructed to be vapor- 
and liquid-tight 4 . 

2206.2.4 Location requirements for aboveground tanks 
at fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 
2206.2.3 and as follows: 

1 . A minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from a subway 
grating, entrance or exit. 

2. At a location that will not obstruct or interfere with 
any means of egress or department access. 

3. Tanks shall not be installed under electrical transmis- 
sion lines, bridges, or public highways. 



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TABLE 2206.2.3 
MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVEGROUND TANKS AT FLEET MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 



CLASS OF LIQUID 
AND TANK TYPE 



Liquid motor fuel tanks 



INDIVIDUAL TANK 

CAPACITY 

(gallons) 



4000 
Greater than 4000 



MINIMUM DISTANCE 

FROM NEAREST 

BUILDING 

(feet) 



15 

25 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

2206.3 Security. Aboveground tanks for the storage of liquid 

(motor fuel shall be safeguarded in an approved manner from 
public access or unauthorized entry. 

12206.4 Physical protection. Posts complying with the require- 
ments of Section 312 or other approved means shall be pro- 
vided to protect aboveground tanks against impact by a motor 
vehicle unless the tank is listed as a protected aboveground tank 
with vehicle impact protection. 

2206.5 Secondary containment. Aboveground tanks shall be 
t& provided with diking in accordance with Chapter 34. Diking is 

1 not required for listed secondary containment tanks. The sec- 
ondary containment systems shall be monitored either visually 
or automatically. Enclosed secondary containment systems 
shall be provided with emergency venting in accordance with 
Section 2206.6.2.5. 

2206.6 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for 
use with liquid motor fuel. The design, fabrication, assembly, 
testing and inspection of piping, valves, fittings and ancillary 

I equipment for use with liquid motor fuel shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 34 except as otherwise specified in Sections 
2206.6.1 through 2206.6.3, 2206.9 and 2206.10. 

2206.6.1 Protection from damage. Piping shall be located 

I such that it is protected from physical damage and designed 
to accommodate settlement, vibration, expansion or con- 
traction. 

2206.6.2 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment 
■» for aboveground tanks. Piping, valves, fittings and ancil- 

Slary equipment for aboveground tanks shall comply with the 
requirements of Sections 2206.6.2.1 through 2206.6.2.11. 

2206.6.2.1 Tank openings. Tank openings for above- 

I ground tanks shall be through the top only. There shall be 

no openings except those necessary to inspect, fill, empty 
and vent the tank. 

2206.6.2.2 Fill-pipe connections. The fill-pipe for 
aboveground tanks shall be provided with a means for 
making a direct connection to the cargo tank's fuel-deliv- 
ery hose so that liquid motor fuel is not exposed to the 
open air during the filling operation. Operator safety 
equipment for the filling operation shall be provided in 
accordance with OSHA regulations. Where any portion 
of the fill-pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level 
of the top of the tank, a check valve, a dry break coupling 
and a quick closing valve shall be installed at the fill con- 
nection. Tank fill connections from a remote location are 
prohibited. 



MINIMUM DISTANCE 
FROM LOT LINE (feet) 



15 
25 



MINIMUM DISTANCE 

FROM PUBLIC STREET 

OR PRIVATE ROAD 

(feet) 



5 
15 



MINIMUM DISTANCE 

BETWEEN TANKS 

(feet) 



2206.6.2.3 Overfill protection. Overfill protection shall 
be provided for aboveground storage tanks. Overfill pre- 
vention devices shall be designed to withstand the pres- 
sure generated by the cargo tank discharge pump and 
shall automatically shut off the flow into the tank when 
the tank is not more than 95 percent full. 

2206.6.2.4 Siphon prevention. An approved antisiphon 
method shall be provided in the piping system to prevent 
flow of liquid motor fuel by siphon action. 

2206.6.2.5 Emergency relief venting. Aboveground 
storage tanks, tank compartments and enclosed second- 
ary containment spaces shall be provided with emer- 
gency relief venting in accordance with Chapter 34. 

2206.6.2.6 Spill containers. Aboveground tank spill 
containers having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons ( 1 9 
L) shall be provided for each fill connection. Spill con- - 
tainers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the 
tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains 
into the primary tank. 

2206.6.2.7 Piping material construction. Piping shall 
be of a minimum Schedule 40 galvanized steel construc- 
tion. 

2206.6.2.8 Compatibility. Piping, fittings, components 
and joint compounds shall be mutually compatible, and 
compatible with diesel fuel and other commonly-used 
combustible liquid motor fuels, including the additives 
commonly used in such combustible motor fuels. Joint 
compounds shall be listed and approved. 

2206.6.2.9 Pressure relief devices. Where liquid motor 
fuel may become trapped between shutoff valves and/or 
check valves, affected piping sections shall be provided 
with pressure-relief devices that will discharge the pres- 
sure generated by thermal expansion back into the tank. 

2206.6.2.10 Vent piping. Each tank shall be provided 
with a separate unobstructed vent line, without any trap 
or device that causes excessive back pressure, and shall 
be maintained unobstructed at all times. 

2206.6.2.11 Vent termination. Vent outlets shall dis- 
charge outdoors and upward. The discharge point shall 
be no less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjacent 
ground level and no less than 15 feet (4572 mm) from the 
nearest building opening. 

2206.6.3 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment 
for underground tanks. Piping, valves, fittings and ancil- 
lary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with the 



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requirements of Chapter 34 and NFPA 30 A, except as other- 
wise provided in Sections 2206.6.3.1, 2206.6.3 2 and 
2206.10. 

2206.6.3.1 Piping design and construction. Piping, 
including vent piping, shall be of a minimum Schedule 
40 steel construction. Approved nonmetallic piping, 
such as fiberglass-reinforced plastic or other equivalent 
corrosion-resistant material, may be installed under- 
ground. 

2206.6.3.2 Underground tank piping. Piping shall be 
installed underground, except for the vertical riser of the 
vent. 

2206.6.3.3 Compatibility. Piping, fittings, components 
and joint compounds shall be mutually compatible, and 
compatible with gasoline, diesel fuel, methanol and 
other commonly-used liquid motor fuels, including the 
additives commonly used in such liquid motor fuels. 
Joint compounds shall be listed and approved. 

2206.7 Fuel-dispensing systems for liquid motor fuel. The 

■ design, and installation of liquid motor fuel-dispensing sys- 
tems shall be in accordance with this section. 

2206.7.1 Listed equipment. Electrical equipment, dispens- 
ers, hose, nozzles and submersible or subsurface pumps 
■ used in fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed and 
approved. 

12206.7.2 Fixed pumps required. Liquid motor fuel shall be 
transferred only from the top of the tank by means of fixed 
pumps designed and equipped to allow control of the flow 
and prevent leakage or accidental discharge. 

2206.7.2.1 Aboveground tank dispenser. Only one 
vehicle may be fueled at a time. Fuel dispensing from a 
location remote from the tank may be permitted when 
approved by the commissioner. 

2206.7.2.2 Pump sumps. Pump sumps shall be compati- 
ble with the liquid motor fuel, liquid tight 3 , and accessi- 
ble for inspection. Prefabricated pump sumps shall be 
approved. 

2206.7.3 Mounting of dispensers. Dispensing devices, 
except those installed on top of a protected aboveground 
tank that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be pro- 
tected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete 
island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall other- 
wise be suitably protected in accordance with Section 312. 
Dispensing devices shall be installed and securely fastened 
to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser 
manufacturer's instructions. Dispensing devices installed 
indoors shall be located in an approved position not in a 
direct line with vehicular traffic. 

2206.7.3.1 Protection of floor openings in indoor 
facilities. Openings in floors beneath automotive liquid 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities located inside buildings 
or structures shall be sealed. 

2206.7.3.2 Dispenser pans. If a dispenser pan is 
installed beneath a dispenser, it shall be approved, com- 
patible with the liquid motor fuel, liquid tight 3 , accessi- 
ble for inspection, no larger than necessary, and installed 



solely for the purpose of collecting any liquid motor fuel 
leaking from the dispenser. The dispenser pan shall not 
be used to collect liquid motor fuel discharged from 
defective piping. The dispenser pan shall be backfilled 
up to not less than 6 inches (1 52 mm) above any nonme- 
tallic piping and shall not interfere with the operation of 
any safety device. 

2206.7.4 Dispenser emergency valve. An approved emer- 
gency shutoff valve designed to close automatically in the 
event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed i n the liq- 
uid supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a 
remote pump. The valve shall be installed so that the shear 
groove is flush with or within 0.5 inch (1 2.7 mm) of the top 
of the concrete dispenser island and there is clearance pro- 
vided for maintenance purposes around the valve body and 
operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the liquid sup- 
ply line inlet of each overhead-type dispenser. Where 
installed, a vapor return line located inside the dispenser 
housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible con- 
nector for the liquid supply line emergency shutoff valve to 
function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed and 
maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, tested at the time of initial installation and tested at 
least yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2205.2.2. 

2206.7.5 Dispenser hose. Dispenser hoses shall be a maxi- 
mum of 18 feet (5486 mm) in length unless otherwise 
approved. Dispenser hoses shall be listed and approved. 
When not in use, hoses shall be reeled, racked or otherwise 
protected from damage. The length of the dispensing hose 
shall be such that at least 1 inch (25 mm) 2 clearance between 
the hose and the ground is maintained when the nozzle is 
rested on its bracket. Dispensing hoses installed at aviation 
facilities, marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities, and 
fleet vehicle liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be 
of an approved length. 

2206.7.5.1 Breakaway devices. Dispenser hoses shall 
be equipped with a listed emergency breakaway device 
designed to retain liquid on both sides of a breakaway 
point. Such devices shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Where 
hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the 
emergency breakaway device shall be located between 
the hose nozzle and the point of attachment of the 
hose-retrieval mechanism to the hose. 

2206.7.6 Fuel delivery nozzles. A listed automatic-clos- 
ing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device shall < 
be provided for dispensers used for dispensing liquid motor 
fuel, except that a nozzle valve with a latch-open device may 
be installed and used at the following automotive liquid 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities: 

1. Full-service 4 automotive liquid motor fuel-dispens- 
ing facilities. 

2. Fleet automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. 

3. Dispensing of diesel fuel at self-service automotive 
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 



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2206.7.6.1 Special requirements for nozzles. Where 
dispensing of liquid motor fuel is performed, a listed 
automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be used 
that incorporates all of the following features: 

1. The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an 
integral latch-open device, when the use of such a 
device is authorized by this section. 

2. When the flow of product is normally controlled 
by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle 
valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of 
being opened unless the delivery hose is pressur- 
ized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall 
close automatically. 

Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporat- 
ing insertion interlock devices designed to 
achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle 
fill pipe. 

3. The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the 
nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling 
operation. 

4. The system shall include listed equipment with a 
feature that causes or requires the closing of the 
hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be 
resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be 
replaced in its normal position in the dispenser. 

2206.7.6.2 Control device. A control device shall be 
provided that will allow a liquid motor fuel pump to 
operate only when the dispensing nozzle is removed 
from its bracket on the dispenser and the switch on the 
dispenser is manually activated. The flow of liquid motor 
fuel shall automatically stop when the switch is deacti- 
vated or the nozzle returned to its bracket. 

2206.7.7 Leak detection. Underground liquid motor fuel 
storage and dispensing systems shall be provided with a leak 
detection system in accordance with the following: 

1 . The leak detection system shall provide continuous 
monitoring of the tank's interstitial space. 

2. The leak detection system shall provide continuous 
monitoring of liquid motor fuel pump sumps. Activa- 
tion of the leak detection system shall cause shutdown 
of the liquid motor fuel pumps. 

3. The leak detection system shall provide continuous 
monitoring of dispenser pans whenever such pans are 
provided. Activation of the leak detection system 
shall cause shutdown of the affected dispenser or liq- 
uid motor fuel pump supplying such dispenser. 

4. Primary discharge piping shall be provided with an 
automatic line leak detector. Activation of such leak 
detector shall cause shutdown of the liquid motor fuel 
pump or significantly restrict the product flow. 

5 . The leak detection system shall have an alarm panel in 
a supervised location on the premises; trigger both an 
audible and visible local alarm; be capable of produc- 
ing hardcopy printouts of all tests and/or leak notifi- 
cation reports; operate on low voltage; and be 
intrinsically safe for a liquid motor fuel environment. 



6. Leak detection systems shall be listed and approved. 1 

2206.7.8 Gravity and pressure dispensing. Liquid motor g 
fuel shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks, drams, I 
barrels or similar containers. Liquid motor fuel shall not be § 
dispensed by a device operating through pressure within a 
storage tank, drum or container. 

2206.7.9 Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems. 

Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems shall be in 
accordance with Section 2206.7.9, the requirements of the 1 1 
New York State Department of Environmental Conserva- I 
tion and be approved. I 

2206.7.9.1 Vapor-balance systems. Vapor-balance sys- 
tems shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1 
2206.7.9.1.1 through 2206.7.9.1.5. 

2206.7.9.1.1 Dispensing devices. Dispensing 
devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery 
shall be listed and labeled. When existing listed or 
labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor 
recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report 
by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The list- 
ing by report shall contain a description of the compo- 
nent parts used in the modification and the 
recommended method of installation on specific dis- 
pensers. Such report shall be made available for 
inspection by any department representative. Means 
shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the 
event the vapor return line becomes blocked. 

2206.7.9.1.2 Vapor-return line closeoff. An 

approved method shall be provided to close off the 1 
vapor return line from dispensers when the product is 
not being dispensed. 

2206.7.9.1.3 Piping. Piping in vapor-balance systems 
shall be in accordance with Sections 3403.6 and 
3404.2. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a ^ 
manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or 
traps in which liquid can become trapped. If neces- 
sary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed 

in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be 
designed and installed so that they can be drained 
without opening. 

2206.7.9.1.4 Flexible joints and shear joints. Flexi- 
ble joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 
3403.6.9. An approved shear joint shall be rigidly 
mounted and connected by a union in the vapor return 
piping at the base of each dispensing device. The 
shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the 
surface on which the dispenser is mounted. 

2206.7.9.1.5 Testing. Vapor return lines and vent pip- 
ing shall be tested in accordance with Section 2206.9. 

2206.7.9.2 Vapor-processing systems. Vapor-process- 
ing systems shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 1 
tions 2206.7.9.2.1 through 2206.7.9.2.4. 

2206.7.9.2.1 Equipment. Equipment in vapor-pro- 
cessing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor 



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pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for pre- 
vention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-pro- 
cessing equipment, shall be individually listed for the 
intended use in a specified manner. Vapor-processing 
systems that introduce air into the underground pip- 
ing or storage tanks shall be provided with equipment 
for prevention of flame propagation that has been 
tested and listed as suitable for the intended use. 

2206.7.9.2.2 Location. Vapor-processing equipment 
shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition 
shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches 
(457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dis- 
penser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be 
located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the near- 
est building or structure or lot line. 

Exception: Where the required distances to build- 
ings or structures, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas 
cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to 
protect equipment against fire exposure. Accept- 
able means shall include: 

1. Approved protective enclosures, which 
extend at least 1 8 inches (457 mm) above the 
equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or 
noncombustible materials; and 

2. Fire protection using an approved 
water-spray system. 

2206.7.9.2.2.1 Location and safeguards. 
Vapor-processing equipment shall be located a 
minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing 
devices. Processing equipment shall be protected 
against physical damage by guardrails, curbs, pro- 
tective enclosures or fencing. Where approved 
protective enclosures are used, approved means 
shall be provided to ventilate the volume within the 
enclosure to prevent pocketing of flammable 
vapors. Where a downslope exists toward the loca- 
tion of the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-trans- 
fer area, the commissioner may require additional 
separation by distance and height. 

2206.7.9.2.3 Installation. Vapor-processing units 
shall be securely mounted on concrete, masonry or 
structural steel supports on concrete or other 
noncombustible foundations. Vapor-recovery and 
vapor-processing equipment is allowed to be installed 
on roofs when approved. 

2206.7.9.2.4 Piping. Piping in a mechanical-assist 
system shall be in accordance with Section 3403.6. 

2206.8 Fire extinguishing system for dispensing area. 

Where flammable liquid motor fuel is dispensed at an automo- 
tive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility, the dispensing area 
shall be provided with a dry chemical fire extinguishing system 
designed and installed in accordance with Section 904.6, and 
the following requirements: 

1. The fire extinguishing system shall be designed to pro- 
vide overhead protection of the dispenser area encom- 
passed by a circle formed by the fully extended hose and 



nozzle on each fuel dispenser and both ends of the dis- 
penser island. 

2. The extinguishing agent containers shall be equipped 
with indicators to show whether the system is fully 
charged. Indicators shall be positioned to be easily read 
from grade. 

3. The installation, alteration, testing and repair of the fire 
extinguishing system, including any maintenance or 
modification of the system, shall be performed by a per- 
son possessing a master fire suppression piping contrac- 
tor license issued by the New York City Department of 
Buildings and trained and knowledgeable in the installa- 
tion, operation and maintenance of the specific fire extin- 
guishing system. 

4. Dispensers shall not be operated when the fire extin- 
guishing system has discharged or is inoperative, except 
as authorized in writing by the department. The motor 
fuel-dispensing facility certified attendant shall immedi- 
ately notify the department of system discharge or 
inoperability. 

5. Fire extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested 
in accordance with Section 2206.9. 

6. Fire extinguishing systems at fleet vehicle automotive 
liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be monitored 
by an approved central station company. 

2206.9 Inspection and testing. Inspection and testing required 
by Sections 2206.9.1 through 2206.9.7 shall be conducted at 
the owner's risk by his or her representative before a represen- 
tative of the department. 

2206.9.1 Initial tank test. Underground and aboveground 
tanks shall be tested hydrostatically at 15 pounds per square 
inch (psig) (103.4 kPa), or 1V 2 times the maximum antici- 
pated static head pressure, whichever is greater, for the inner 
tank, and pneumatically or hydrostatically at 5 pounds per 
square inch (psig) (34.5 kPa) for the annular space (second- 
ary containment tank). When a pneumatic test is allowed, an 
inert gas shall be used; however, air may be used if the tank 
or piping system does not contain any liquid motor fuel or 
combustible vapor. Test pressure shall be maintained for a 
sufficient time to complete visual inspection, but not less 
than 1 hour. A tank shall be deemed to have passed the test if 
it shows no evidence of leakage or permanent deformation. 

2206.9.2 Initial piping test. Prior to backfill, primary pip- 
i ng shall be tested hydrostatically to 1 7 2 times the maximum 
anticipated operating pressure, but not less than 15 pounds 
per square inch (psig) (103.4 kPa). After backfill and instal- 
lation of the top slab, discharge piping shall be tested hydro- 
statically at V 2 times the maximum anticipated pressure, but 
not less than 50 pounds per square inch (psig)(345 kPa). 
Secondary containment piping (annular space) shall be 
tested pneumatically or hydrostatically at 5 pounds per 
square inch (psig)(34.5 kPa). When a pneumatic test is 
allowed, an inert gas shall be used; however, air may be used 
if the tank system or piping system does not contain any liq- 
uid motor fuel or combustible vapor. Hydrostatic test pres- 
sure shall be maintained for sufficient time to complete 
visual inspection but not less than 1 hour. The test shall show 



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that there is no evidence of leakage. Test pressure for above- 
ground tank piping shall be at 1 7 2 times the maximum antic- 
ipated operating pressure but not less than 100 pounds per 
square inch (psig)(690 kPa). 

2206.9.3 Leak detection functionality test. Leak detection 
systems shall be inspected and tested at the time of installa- 
tion in accordance with the rules. Leak detection systems 
monitoring underground liquid motor fuel storage systems 
shall be tested at least once every 2 years by a person hold- 
ing a certificate of license. Such test shall confirm that all 
leak detection equipment and associated alarms are in good 
working order. 

2206.9.4 Fire extinguishing system test. A performance 
test of the fire extinguishing system shall be performed at 
the time of installation in accordance with the approved 
design and installation documents, and such procedures as 
may be prescribed by the commissioner. Fire extinguishing 
systems shall be tested at least once every 5 years from the 
date of approval of the initial installation. The test shall be in 
accordance with procedures prescribed by the commis- 
sioner. 

2206.9.5 Emergency tank and piping system test. The 

commissioner may require that a tank and piping system be 
precision tested or pressure tested in accordance with this 
section to determine the condition of the tank or piping. 
Storage systems that may contain liquid motor fuel or com- 
bustible vapor shall not be tested pneumatically. 

2206.9.6 Periodic tank and piping test. Any existing 
underground single-walled liquid motor fuel storage tanks 
previously approved by the department or any existing 
underground tanks that is not provided with a leak detection 
system meeting the requirements of Section 2206.7.7 shall 
be precision tested at least once every 5 years. 

2206.9.7 Pouring concrete and backfilling. The pouring 
of concrete for the base and top slab, the backfilling of tank 
and piping, and the construction of the top slab support shall 
be witnessed by a representative of the department at time of 
installation. 

2206.10 Installation of underground tank and piping sys- 
tems. The installation of tank and piping systems shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 34, except as otherwise specified in 
this section. 

1 . Tanks shall be located so that the forces from building 
foundations and support loads are not transmitted to the 
tanks. The distance from any part of a tank to the near- 
est wall of any basement, pit, cellar or any property line 
shall not be less than 3 feet (914 mm). Tanks shall not 
be placed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a subway 
wall. 

2. Tanks shall be installed so that the highest point of the 
tank is not less than 2 feet (609.6 mm) below the level 
of the lowest cellar floor of any building within a radius 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the tank. No tank shall be 
located under a sidewalk or beyond the property line of 
the automotive liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

3. Tanks shall be placed on a 12-inch-thick (305 mm) 2 
base slab approved by the Department of Buildings, or 



installed in such other manner as may be approved by 
the Commissioner of Buildings, and secured against 
flotation. The system used for anchoring the tank shall 
not damage the tank or its coating. 

4. Tanks shall be placed on a bed of approved backfill 
material in accordance with manufacturer's specifica- 
tions. The backfill material shall evenly and completely 
support the bottom quadrant of the tank. The backfill 
material shall be carefully placed along the bottom, 
under the sides and under the end caps or heads of the 
tank, by shoveling and tamping. Backfilling shall then 
be completed in 12-inch (305-mm) 2 lifts placed uni- 
formly around the tank. Provision shall be made, con- 
sistent with site conditions, to prevent the migration of 
backfill. 

5. Tanks shall be covered with a reinforced concrete slab 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) 2 thick, which shall 
extend not less than 12 inches (305 mm) 2 beyond the 
horizontal outlines of the tank. The slab and its support 
shall be of a design approved by the New York City 
Department of Buildings. 

6. Fill, suction and discharge piping shall be encased in 4 
inches (102 mm) 2 of concrete or covered by a minimum 
of 18 inches (457 mm) of manufacturer-approved 
backfill, or covered by 4 inches (102 mm) 2 of manufac- 
turer-approved backfill and an 8-inch (203 mm) 2 rein- 
forced concrete slab. 

7. Not more than 40,000 gallons (151 400 L) of liquid 
motor fuel shall be stored at any facility, including liq- 
uid motor fuel stored in aboveground tanks. 

8. Tanks containing identical products may discharge liq- 
uid motor fuel into a common line, provided that the 
total aggregate capacity of any group of such tanks dis- 
charging into a common line does not exceed 12,000 
gallons (45 420 L). 

9. Tank connections shall be designed and located so as 
to: 

9. 1 . Minimize the maneuvering necessary to position 
a cargo tank to make the delivery. 

9.2. Minimize obstructing a public right of way or 
motorists' view of roadways, or impeding the 
movement of motor vehicles or pedestrians, dur- 
ing deliveries. 

9.3. Provide connections by means of approved liq- 
uid and vapor-tight connections. 

1 0. Tanks installed underground inside a building or struc- 
ture shall be provided with an approved liquid 
level-indicating device. Liquid leveP-indicating 4 
devices shall be designed and constructed to prevent 
the escape of liquid or vapor and shall be approved. 

1 1 . Test wells shall be prohibited in tanks located under- 
ground inside a building or structure. Unused tank 
openings shall be permanently sealed at the tank to pre- 
vent removal of plugs or covers. 

12. Secondary containment piping shall be required on all 
nonmetallic product-carrying pipes except direct fill 



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MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



lines, suction lines or siphon lines containing only one 
check valve located at the highest point of the line. 

13. Underground piping shall have a slope of not less than 
7 8 inch (3.2 mm) 2 per foot pitched toward the tank and 
shall be installed so as to facilitate initial and periodic 
testing. 

14. Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 3403.6.9. 

1 5 . Each underground motor fuel storage tank shall be pro- 
vided with a separate unobstructed vent line without 
any trap or device that causes excessive back pressure. 

16. Vent piping shall be installed not less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) 2 below the finished surface measured from 
the point where the piping rises vertically and shall 
slope toward the tank. 

1 7. Vent outlets shall discharge outdoors and upward. The 
discharge point shall be no less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the adjacent ground level and no less than 1 feet 
(3048 mm) from the nearest building opening. 

18. An approved overfill prevention device shall be pro- 
vided to prevent overfilling. When installed in diesel 
fuel tanks, such overfill prevention device shall be 
designed to withstand the pressure generated by the 
cargo tank discharge pump and shall automatically shut 
off the flow into the tank when the tank is not more than 
95 percent full. 

19. Each tank fill connection shall be provided with a 
catchment basin with a capacity of at least 15 gallons 
(56.8 L). The contents of the catchment basin shall be 
automatically drained into the tank without overfilling 
the tank after the transfer from the cargo tank is com- 
pleted provided, however, that if the Stage II vapor 
recovery system approved for the tank does not allow 
for the installation of an automatic drain, a manual 
drain may be installed. 

20. Where the discharging piping leak detector required by 
Section 2206.7.7(4) does not cause shutdown of the liq- 
uid motor fuel pump, secondary containment piping 
shall be provided. 

2206.11 Spill control. Provision shall be made to prevent liq- 
uids spilled during dispensing operations from flowing into 
buildings, by grading driveways, raising doorsills or other 
approved means. 

2206.12 Warning signs. Durable warning signs shall be con- 
spicuously posted on or immediately adjacent to each dis- 
penser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following: 

1. It is illegal and dangerous to fill unapproved containers 
with fuel. 

2. Smoking is prohibited. 

3. The engine shall be shut off during the refueling process. 

4. Portable containers shall not be filled while located 
inside the trunk, passenger compartment or truck bed of 
a vehicle. 

5. It is unlawful for customers to fill portable containers. 
See attendant for assistance. 



SECTION FC 2207 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 2208 

COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MOTOR 

FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES 

2208.1 General. CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be 
in accordance with NFPA 52 except as otherwise specified in 
this section and Section 2201. 

2208.1.1 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1. Operate a self-service marine CNG motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facility. 

2. Fill a portable container, other than permanently 
mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles, 
except outdoors at a utility-operated facility. 

2208.1.2 Supervision of dispensing operations. The dis- 
pensing of CNG at CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be supervised by a certified attendant as set forth in 
Section 2201.7. 

2208.1.3 Maintenance. Maintenance of CNG motor 
fuel-dispensing systems shall be conducted under the per- 
sonal supervision of aperson holding a CNG fueling facility 
maintenance certificate of fitness. 

2208.1.4 Operating instructions. Dispenser operating 
instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved loca- 
tions on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of 
the emergency shutdown device controls required by Sec- 
tion 2208.7. 

2208.1.5 Communications. A telephone not requiring a 
coin to operate or otherwise approved, clearly identified 
means to notify the department shall be provided on the site 
in an approved location. 

2208.1.6 Electrical equipment. Electrical wiring and 
equipment shall be suitable for the location in which they 
are installed and shall be in accordance with Section 605, 
NFPA 52 and the Electrical Code. 

2208.1.7 Audible and visible alarms. All audible and visi- 
ble alarms required by this section shall actuate at a super- 
vised location on the premises that assures immediate 
response. 

2208.1.8 Warning signs. Durable warning signs shall be 
conspicuously posted on or immediately adjacent to each 
dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Smoking is prohibited. 

2. The engine shall be shut off during the refueling pro- 
cess. 

2208.1.9 Sell-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 2208.1.9.1 
through 2208.1.9.5. The certified attendant's primary func- 
tion shall be to supervise, observe and monitor the dispens- 
ing of CNG. The certified attendant shall prevent the 
dispensing of fuel into portable containers, control sources 



164 



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MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 



of ignition, take immediate action upon a fire, leak or other 
emergency and be ready to use a fire extinguisher. Nothing 
in this section shall be construed to prohibit a certified atten- 
dant from engaging in activities directly related to the sale of 
CNG motor fuel, such as the collection of money or process- 
ing of credit cards. 

2208.1.9.1 Self-service dispensers. Approved self-ser- 
vice devices, equipment and systems such as, but not 
limited to, card-operated and remote-preset types, are 
allowed at CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. The 
certified attendant shall set the dispensing devices in the 
"off position when not in use if such dispensing device 
can be activated without the certified attendant's knowl- 
edge. 

2208.1.9.2 Monitoring of dispensing. A control area 
shall be located on the premises of every self-service 
CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility. The control area 
shall be an interior or exterior enclosure to which the 
public has no access. The certified attendant shall be 
present within the control area while dispensing opera- 
tions are conducted. The control area shall be designed 
and located so that the certified attendant stationed 
therein shall have a full, unobstructed clear view of dis- 
pensing operations, except that mirrors and/or an 
approved closed-circuit television installation may be 
provided to afford the certified attendant a clear view of 
dispensing operations when the view from the control 
area is partially or temporarily obstructed. For purposes 
of this section, the "clear" view provided by a closed-cir- 
cuit television installation shall mean that the image on 
the monitor shall be of such brightness and resolution as 
to allow ready identification of individuals and easy 
observation of activities at all times of day. Audible and 
visible alarms required by this section shall actuate 
within the control area. A properly labeled manual 
switch that activates the emergency shutdown 3 device 
shall be located within the control area. A console that 
controls the self-service CNG motor fuel dispensers 
shall be provided within the control area and within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of the emergency shutdown 3 device manual 
switch. 

2208.1.9.3 Two-way voice communication. A two-way 
voice communication system shall be installed to pro- 
vide contact between the control area and each dispens- 
ing island. 

2208.1.9.4 Control area sign. A durable metal sign that 
reads as follows shall be posted in plain view within the 
control area. 



Emergency Procedures: 

Activate emergency CNG shutdown 3 

Direct vehicle occupants to exit vehicles and 

leave area immediately. 

Keep all persons away from the area. 

Notify the Fire Department (Call 911). 



Such sign shall also indicate the department telephone 
number, the nearest fire alarm box location, and the CNG 



motor fuel-dispensing facility's address, with 
cross-street 4 reference. 

2208.1.9.5 Lighting. Dispensing areas shall be well 
lighted whenever the facility is open for business. 

2208.1.10 Fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

Fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 2208.1.10.1 through 
2208.1.10.3. 

2208.1.10.1 General. The owner of fleet CNG motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities shall provide, and be account- 
able for, daily site visits, regular equipment inspection 
and maintenance. 

2208.1.10.2 Emergency procedures. An approved 
emergency procedures sign, in addition to the sign 
required by Section 2208.1.9, shall be posted in a con- 
spicuous location and shall read: 

IN CASE OF FIRE, LEAK OR OTHER EMERGENCY 

1. ACTIVATE EMERGENCY CNG SHUTDOWN 
LOCATED (indicate location) 

2. NOTIFY THE FIRE DEPARTMENT (CALL 91 1) 
FACILITY ADDRESS (indicate address, with 
cross-street 4 reference) 

2208.1.10.3 Quantity limits. Dispensing equipment 
used at fleet CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall 
be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted CNG deliv- 
ery to an approved amount and require a manual action to 
resume delivery. 

2208.1.11 Full service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties. Full service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 2208.1.11.1. 

2208.1.11.1 Emergency procedures. An approved 

emergency procedures sign, in addition to the sign 

required by Section 2208.1.9, shall be provided and 

posted as set forth in Section 2208.1.11.2. 

2208.2 Design, installation and testing requirements. 

Devices, equipment and systems used for the compression, 

storage and dispensing of CNG shall be designed, approved, 

listed and/or tested in accordance with Sections 2208.2.1 

through 2208.2.7. 

2208.2.1 Approved equipment. Containers, vessels, com- 
pressors, pressure regulators, pressure relief valves and 
other pressure relief devices and piping used for CNG shall 
be approved. 

2208.2.2 Listed equipment. Hoses, hose connections, dis- 
pensers, gas detection systems and electrical equipment 
used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections 
shall be listed and labeled. 

2208.2.3 Vehicle fueling hose. Vehicle fueling hose shall be 
compatible with CNG and shall withstand a pressure of at 
least 4 times the service pressure. Hoses shall be of retract- 
able design and shall be protected against physical damage. 
Hoses shall be tested for leaks with a noncorrosive 3 solution 
or equivalent leak detection method at least annually by a 
certified attendant and shall be replaced if damaged. 



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Records of required inspections and testing shall be kept in a 
bound log book or other approved recordkeeping, main- 
tained on the premises for a minimum of 4 years and made 
available for inspection by any representative of the depart- 
ment. 

2208.2.4 Container. Prior to placing containers and pres- 
sure vessels in CNG service, evidence of container and pres- 
sure vessel pressure tests shall be submitted to the 
department demonstrating compliance with the require- 
ments of NFPA 52. 

2208.2.5 Gas piping. All CNG system gas piping shall be 
tested by a qualified person in accordance with NFPA 52 at 
the owner's risk and before a representative of the depart- 
ment prior to placing the system in service. Required tests 
shall begin at the downstream side of the remote manual 
shutdown valve. 

2208.2.6 Filters and dryers. Filters and dryers used at 
CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be rated for the 
service and pressure intended and shall be tested in accor- 
dance with the gas piping test requirements set forth in Sec- 
tion 2208.2.5. 

2208.2.7 Safety devices. Upon installation, all automatic 
safety devices intended to cause equipment shutdown shall 
be tested at the owner's risk by his or her representative 
before a representative of the department. 

2208.3 Location of dispensing operations and equipment. 

CNG motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be located at a site 
operated by a natural gas utility, or other approved location. 

2208.3.1 Location on property. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 2203.1 and NFPA 52, compression, stor- 
age and dispensing devices, equipment and systems shall be 
installed as follows: 

1 . Aboveground, and not beneath power lines. 

2. At least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building, 
lot line, public street, private road, sidewalk, or 
source of ignition. 

Exception: Dispensing equipment need not be 
separated from canopies that are constructed in 
accordance with the construction codes, including 
the Building Code, and which provide weather 
protection for the dispensing equipment. 

3 . At least 25 feet (7620 mm) from the nearest rail of any 
railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from 
the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any rail- 
road or transit line where power for train propulsion is 
provided by an outside electrical source such as third 
rail or overhead catenary. 

4. At least 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the vertical plane 
below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line. 

2208.3.2 Rooftop operations. Rooftop dispensing shall be 
in accordance with Sections 2208.3.2. 1 through 2208.3.2.3. 

2208.3.2.1 Roof construction. The roof of the building 
or structure shall be of noncombustible construction. 



2208.3.2.2 Compressor and discharge piping. The 

compressor shall be located on the roof and the discharge 
piping shall not enter the building or structure. 

2208.3.2.3 Height. The building or structure shall be 75 
feet (22 860 mm) or less in height. 

2208.4 Reserved. 

2208.5 Pressure regulators. Pressure regulators shall be ' 
designed and installed or protected so that their operation will 
not be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or 
ice), mud or debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral 
part of the regulator. 

2208.6 Manual valves. Gas supply piping to equipment shall 
be provided with a remote, readily accessible manual shutoff 
valve of the fast-closing, quarter-turn type. Manual valves shall 
be located so as to minimize the risk of physical damage and 
minimize being rendered inoperable as a result of freezing. 

2208.6.1 Location. Manual valves shall be located within 
the boundary of the facility and as follows: 

1. Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the compressor 
for compressors rated for 300 standard cubic feet per 
minute or less (8.4 m 3 /s) 2 . 

2. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from the compres- 
sor for compressors rated for greater than 300 stan- 
dard cubic feet per minute (0.14 m 3 /s) 2 . 

2208.7 Emergency shutdown switches. An approved, clearly 
identified and readily accessible emergency shutdown switch 
shall be provided at an approved location. The switch, upon 
activation, shall automatically and immediately shut off the 
power supply to the compressor and close valves between the 
gas supply and the compressor and between the storage tanks ■ 
and the dispensers. Such emergency shutdown switches for 
outdoor CNG dispensers shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 
mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, the fuel dis- 
pensers. For interior fuel-dispensing operations, such emer- 
gency shutdown switches shall be installed at an approved 
location. An additional automatic emergency shutdown switch 
shall be provided in the compressor area for both indoor and 
outdoor compressors. An approved sign shall be posted on or 
immediately adjacent to such switches and shall read: EMER- 
GENCY CNG SHUTOFF. Such emergency shutdown switch 
shall be of a type that is manually resettable. 

2208.7.1 Compressor shutdown devices. Each compres- 
sor shall be equipped with an automatic shutdown device 
that will shut down the compressor in the event of low suc- 
tion pressure, high suction pressure, high motor tempera- 
ture, high discharge pressure or high discharge temperature. 

2208.7.2 Gas detection system. Indoor compressing, stor- 
age and dispensing areas shall be provided with a combusti- 
ble gas detection alarm system meeting the standards of the 
construction codes, including the Building Code. Such sys- 
tem shall activate a local audible and visible alarm at 20 per- 
cent of the LEL and automatically shut off gas supply at 50 
percent of the LEL, with simultaneous transmission of an 
alarm to the department by an approved central station com- 
pany. The automatic shut-off valve shall be located 
upstream from the confined high-pressure 4 piping and shall 



166 



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be installed underground or otherwise protected from expo- 
sure to fire in an approved manner. 

2208.73 Heat detection system. Indoor compressing, stor- 
age and dispensing areas shall be provided with a 
closed-circuit 4 heat detection system utilizing approved 
heat detection devices and equipment designed to automati- 
cally activate a local audible and visible alarm with simulta- 
neous transmission to an approved central station, activate a 
fire extinguishing system over the area or enclosure, and 
shut off the gas supply to the compressor and dispenser. The 
automatic shutoff 3 valve shall be installed underground or 
be otherwise protected from exposure to fire in an approved 
manner. 

2208.7.3.1 Outdoor heat detection system. Outdoor 
compressing, storage and dispensing shall be provided 
with a closed-circuit 4 heat detection system designed uti- 
lizing approved heat detection devices and equipment 
designed to automatically activate a local audible and 
visible alarm and shut off the gas supply to the compres- 
sor and dispenser. The automatic shutoff 3 valve shall be 
installed underground or otherwise protected from expo- 
sure to fire in an approved manner. 

2208.7.3.2 Outdoor storage exceeding 35,000 SCF 

(991.2 m 3 ). For outdoor CNG storage exceeding 35,000 
SCF (991.2 m 3 ) located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a 
building or structure, activation of the heat detection sys- 
tem shall simultaneously transmit an alarm to an 
approved central station. 

2208.7.4 Fire extinguishing systems and appliances. 
Indoor compressing, storage and dispensing areas shall be 
protected throughout by a fire extinguishing system. 

2208.7.4.1 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be provided adjacent to the CNG 
motor fuel-dispensing facility in the number and size 
specified by NFPA 52 and Section 906. 

2208.7.5 Smoking and open flames. It shall be unlawful to 
smoke or use or maintain an open flame in any area where 
CNG motor fuel is compressed, stored or dispensed. 

Exception: Welding, cutting or similar hot work may be 
conducted at times and places for emergency repair, 
alteration or installation work, providing that all neces- 
sary safety precautions are taken, and all required depart- 
ment permits and authorization from the holder of a 
certificate of fitness for CNG station maintenance has 
been obtained. 

2208.7.6 Records of incidents. Records shall be kept of all 
incidents including fire, leak, device, equipment or system 
failure, out-of-service 4 fire protection, alarm, or safety sys- 
tem, and of all equipment maintenance. Such records shall 
be kept in a bound log book or other recordkeeping 
approved by the department, maintained on the premises for 
a minimum of 4 years and made available for inspection by 
any representative of the department. 

2208.8 Discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel storage 
containers. The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel 
containers for the purposes of maintenance, container certifica- 



tion, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in 
accordance with Sections 2208.8.1 through 2208.8.1.2. 

2208.8.1 Methods of discharge. The discharge of CNG 
from motor vehicle fuel containers shall be accomplished 
through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 
2208.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting 
in accordance with Section 2208.8.1.2. 

2208.8.1.1 Closed transfer system. Documentation of 1 
the procedure for discharging the container shall be pro- 1 
vided to the commissioner for approval. The procedure i 
shall include the actions the operator will take in the 
event of a low-pressure or high-pressure natural gas 
release during the discharging activity. A schematic 1 
design document illustrating the arrangement of piping, 1 
regulators and equipment settings, and their relation to I 
the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emer- 
gency shutdown devices, shall be provided to the com- 1 
missioner for approval. I 

2208.8.1 .2 Atmospheric venting. Atmospheric venting 
of CNG shall comply with the requirements of Sections I 
2208.8.1.2.1 through 2208.8.1.2.6. 

2208.8.1.2.1 Plans and specifications. A schematic J 
design document illustrating the location of the vessel I 
support, piping, the method of grounding and bond- 
ing, and other requirements specified herein or I 
requested by the department shall be provided to the 1 
commissioner for approval. 1 

2208.8.1.2.2 Container stability. A method of rig- 
idly supporting the container during the venting of 1 
CNG shall be provided. The selected method shall 
provide not less than two points of support and shall 
prevent the horizontal and lateral movement of the 
container. The system shall be designed to prevent the 
movement of the container based on the highest 
gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the con- 
tainer's rated pressure and volume. The structure or 
appurtenance shall be constructed of noncombustible 
materials. 

2208.8.1.2.3 Separation. The structure or appurte- 
nance used for stabilizing the container shall be sepa- 1 
rated from other equipment or features as set forth in 1 
Table 2208.8.1.2.3. 

TABLE 2208.8.1 .2.3 
SEPARATION DISTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTING OF CNG 



EQUIPMENT OR FEATURE 


MINIMUM SEPARATION 
(feet) 


Buildings 


25 


Building openings 


25 


Lot lines 


15 


Public street or private roads 


15 


Vehicles 


25 


CNG compressor and storage containers 


25 


CNG dispensers 


25 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



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2208.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding. The structure 
or appurtenance used for supporting the container 
shall be grounded in accordance with the Electrical 
Code. The container valve shall be bonded prior to the 
commencement of venting operations. 

2208.8.1.2.5 Vent tube. A vent tube that will divert 
the gas flow to the atmosphere shall be installed on the 
container prior to commencement of the venting and 
purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed 
of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with 
CNG in accordance with Chapter 30. The vent tube 
shall be capable of dispersing the gas a minimum of 
10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube 
shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature 
that would limit or obstruct the gas flow. At the con- 
nection fitting of the vent tube and the CNG container, 
a listed bi-directional detonation flame arrester shall 
be provided. 

2208.8.1.2.6 Signage. Approved "No Smoking" 
signs complying with the requirements of Section 310 
shall be posted within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the con- 
tainer support structure or appurtenance. Approved 
CONTAINER SHALL BE BONDED signs shall be 
posted on the container support structure or appurte- 
nance. 

2208.9 Residential and other vehicle fueling appliance 
facilities. The compressing and dispensing of CNG by a vehi- 
cle fueling appliance shall be in accordance with Sections 
2208.9.1 through 2208.9.4. 

2208.9.1 Residential fueling appliance facilities. The 
compressing and dispensing of CNG at a residential fueling 
appliance facility shall be in accordance with Chapter 7 of 
NFPA 52 and this chapter, except that such facilities shall be 
exempt from the requirements of Section 2208.3.1(2) with 
regard to the distance to the nearest building, and Sections 
2208.7 through 2208.7.4. 

2208.9.2 Nonresidential 3 fueling appliance facilities. The 

compressing and dispensing of CNG at a nonresidential 3 
fueling appliance facility shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 6. 17 of NFPA 52 and this chapter, except that such facil- 
ities shall be exempt from Section 2208.3.1(2) with regard 
to the distance to the nearest building, and Sections 2208.7 
through 2208.7.4. 

2208.9.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1. Fill or store any containers, other than permanently 
mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles. 

2. Compress and dispense CNG indoors. 

2208.9.4 Supervision. The operation of a vehicle fueling 
appliance facility shall be under the personal supervision of 
a certified attendant. 

2208.10 Mobile CNG fuel motor compression, storage and 
dispensing. A mobile CNG motor fuel compression, storage 
and/or dispensing system may be used to fuel 
vehicle-mounted 4 containers as approved by the commissioner 
and subject to such conditions as the commissioner may pre- 
scribe consistent with public safety. 



SECTION FC 2209 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 2210 

MARINE LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 

FACILITIES 

2210.1 General. The construction of marine liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 30A. 
The installation, inspection, testing, maintenance and opera- 
tion of a 1 liquid motor fuel storage and dispensing system at 
marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accor- 
dance with this chapter governing automotive liquid motor 
fuel-dispensing facilities, except that full-service 4 marine liq- 
uid motor fuel-dispensing facilities do not require a fire extin- 
guishing system for the dispensing area. 

2210.1.1 Prohibited facility. It shall be unlawful to operate 
a self-service marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility. 

2210.2 Storage and handling. The storage and handling of 
liquid motor fuel at marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with Sections 2210.2.1 through 
2210.2.3. 

2210.2.1 Class I, II or I1IA liquid storage. Class I, II or 
IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings or structures used for 
marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be 
stored in approved containers. Storage of Class I liquids 
shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L). 

2210.2.2 Dispensing from portable containers. No 
watercraft shall be fueled from a portable container while 
inside a building or structure. 

2210.2.3 Heating equipment. Heating equipment installed 

in liquid motor fuel storage or dispensing areas shall comply 1 
with the requirements of Section 2201 .6. I 

2210.3 Dispensing. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel at 1 
marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 2210.3.1 through 2210.3.4. I 

2210.3.1 General. Unless another use has been approved, 1 
piers, docks or wharves at marine liquid motor fuel-dispens- | 
ing facilities shall be used exclusively for the dispensing or 
transfer of liquid motor fuel to or from watercraft, except § 
that transfer of essential ship stores is allowed. 

2210.3.1.1 Flexible metallic piping. Where there is a 
need to provide flexibility in piping to allow for motion 
of a pier or dock, flexible metallic piping of an approved 
length and design may be installed and used in compli- 
ance with NFPA 30A. All flexible metallic piping or 
other flexible hose connections authorized by this sec- 
tion shall be inspected for proper operation at least once a 
year by a certificate of license holder. A record of such 
inspection shall be kept in a bound log book or other 
approved form of recordkeeping, and maintained on the 
premises for a minimum of 4 years, and made available 
for inspection by any representative of the department. 

2210.3.2 Supervision. The dispensing of liquid motor fuel I 
at marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be I 



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supervised by a certified attendant as set forth in Section 
2201.7. 

2210.3.3 Hoses and nozzles. Dispensing of liquid motor 
fuel into the fuel tanks of watercraft shall be by means of an 
approved-type hose equipped with a listed automatic-clos- 
ing nozzle without a latch-open device. Hoses used for dis- 
pensing or transferring liquid motor fuel, when not in use, 
shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from mechan- 
ical damage. 

2210.3.4 Portable containers. Liquid motor fuel dispens- 
ing shall be performed in accordance with Section 2204.4, 
except that portable containers that are approved and used as 
the fuel tank for watercraft may be of a capacity not greater 
than 57 2 gallons (20.8 L). 

2210.3.5 Reserved. 

2210.4 Fueling of marine vehicles at other than approved 
marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facilities. It shall be 
unlawful to fuel floating watercraft with liquid motor fuel at 
other than a marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing facility, 
except fueling of marine vessels and watercraft performed by 
off-shore fueling vessels approved by the United States Coast 
Guard. 

2210.5 Fire prevention. Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
2210.5.1 through 2210.5.7. 

2210.5.1 Housekeeping. Marine motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities shall be maintained in a neat and orderly manner. 
Accumulations of rubbish or waste oils in excessive 
amounts are prohibited. Rubbish and other combustible 
waste shall be regularly removed from the premises and dis- 
posed of lawfully. 

2210.5.2 Spills. Spills of liquid motor fuel near or in the 
water shall be reported immediately to the department and 
other governmental agencies requiring such reporting. 

2210.5.3 Rubbish containers. Metal containers with 
tight-fitting or self-closing metal lids shall be provided for 
the temporary storage of rubbish or other combustible 
waste. 

2210.5.4 Watercraft mooring. When watercraft is being 
fueled at a fuel dock, no other watercraft shall be made fast 
to the watercraft being fueled or to the fuel dock. The dis- 
pensing hose shall not cross one watercraft to reach another. 

2210.5.5 Sources of ignition. Any activity or operation 
involving the use of open flames, arc- or spark-producing 
devices shall not be performed at marine motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the dis- 
pensing facilities, including piers, docks or wharves, except 
where approved by the commissioner. Dispensing shall not 
be conducted at such pier, dock or wharf during the course 
of such emergency repairs. 

2210.5.5.1 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke, use 
or maintain an open flame within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of 
fueling operations. "No Smoking" signs complying with 
the requirements of Section 310 shall be conspicuously 
posted throughout the premises. Such signs shall have 



letters of not less than 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) in height with a 
background of contrasting color. 

2210.5.6 Preparation of tanks for fueling. Watercraft 
owners and operators shall not offer their watercraft for 
fueling unless the tanks being filled are properly vented to 
dissipate fumes to the outside atmosphere. 

2210.5.7 Warning signs. Warning signs shall be promi- 
nently displayed at the face of each pier, dock or wharf at 
such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of 
watercraft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not 
less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of 
contrasting color bearing the following or approved equiva- 
lent wording: 

WARNING 

NO SMOKING— STOP ENGINE WHILE 

FUELING, SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY. 

DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER 

BELOW DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED. 

2210.6 Fire protection. Marine liquid motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
2210.6. 1 through 2210.6.4, and the construction codes, includ- 
ing the Building Code. 

2210.6.1 Standpipe hose stations. Fire hose, when 
required, shall be provided and enclosed within a cabinet, 
and hose stations shall be labeled: FIRE HOSE—EMER- 
GENCY USE ONLY. 

2210.6.2 Obstruction of fire protection equipment. 
Materials shall not be placed or stored on a pier, dock or 
wharf in such a manner as to obstruct access to firefighting 
equipment or piping system control valves. 

2210.6.3 Access. Where the pier, dock or wharf is accessi- 
ble to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the 
shore end of the pier, dock or wharf shall be maintained for 
access by fire apparatus. 

2210.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers. One portable fire 
extinguisher in accordance with Section 906 having a mini- • 
mum rating of 40-B:C shall be provided on the pier, dock or 
wharf within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the head of the gangway 
to the pier, dock or wharf. If the certified attendant's office is 
within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on the pier, 
dock or wharf, the fire extinguisher may be provided 
therein. 



SECTION FC 2211 
REPAIR GARAGES 

2211.1 General. Repair garages shall comply with the require- 
ments of this section and the construction codes, including the 
Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than 
one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable requirements 
of this section for each type of fuel used. Where a repair garage 
also includes a motor fuel-dispensing facility, the fuel-dispens- 
ing operation shall comply with the requirements of this chap- 
ter for motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

2211.2 Storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids. The storage and use of flammable and combustible liq- 



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uids in repair garages shall comply with the requirements of 
Chapter 34 and Sections 221 1.2.1 through 2211.2.4. 

2211.2.1 Cleaning of parts. Cleaning of parts shall be con- 
ducted in listed and approved parts-cleaning machines in 
accordance with Chapter 34. 

2211.2.2 Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liq- 
uids. Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liquids, 
including crankcase drainings shall be stored in approved 
tanks or containers, which are allowed to be stored and dis- 
pensed from inside repair garages. 

2211.2.2.1 Tanks storing waste oil. For tanks of a 
capacity of 500 gallons (1893 L) or less, the fill connec- 
tion may be located inside a building or structure pro- 
vided that discharge of vapor from the fill port is 
prevented from entering the building or structure during 
and after filling. An automatic spring-loaded vertical 
check valve in the fill line or other device designed to pre- 
vent vapors from escaping shall be provided. The fill line 
shall be capped immediately after filling. 

2211.2.3 Drainage and disposal of liquids and oil-soaked 
waste. Garage floor drains, where provided, shall drain to 
approved oil separators or traps discharging to a sewer in 
accordance with the construction codes, including the 
Plumbing Code. Contents of oil separators, traps and floor 
drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent 
intervals and removed from the premises to prevent oil from 
being carried into the sewers. Crankcase drainings and liq- 
uids shall not be dumped into sewers, streams or on the 
ground, but shall be stored in approved tanks or containers 
in accordance with Chapter 34 until removed from the pre- 
mises. Self-closing metal cans shall be used for oily waste. 

2211.2.4 Spray finishing. Spray finishing with flammable 
or combustible liquids shall comply with the requirements 
of Chapter 15. 

2211.3 Sources of ignition. Sources of ignition shall not be 
located within 1 8 inches (457 mm) of the floor and shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Chapters 3 and 26. 

2211.3.1 Equipment. Appliances and equipment installed 
in a repair garage shall comply with the requirements of the 
construction codes, including the Building Code, the 
Mechanical Code and the Electrical Code. 



2211.3.2 
garages. 



Smoking. Smoking is prohibited in repair 



2211.4 Below-grade areas. Pits and below-grade work areas 
in repair garages shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tions 22 1 1 .4. 1 through 22 1 1 .4.3 . 

2211.4.1 Construction. Pits and below-grade work areas 
shall be constructed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

2211.4.2 Means of egress. Pits and below-grade work areas 
shall be provided with means of egress in accordance with 
the Building Code. 

2211.4.3 Ventilation. Where Class I liquids are stored or 
used within a building having a basement or pit wherein 
flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement or pit 



shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Mechanical 
Code, at a minimum rate of 1.5 cubic feet per minute per 
square foot (cfm/ft 2 ) [0.008 m 3 /(s-m 2 )] to prevent the accu- 
mulation of flammable vapors. 

221 1.5 Preparation of vehicles for repair. For vehicles pow- 
ered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed 
prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system. Vehi- 
cles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has 
been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel system 
integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The 
inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery sys- 
tem for leakage. 

2211.5.1 Drainage of liquid motor fuel tanks. Portable 
equipment used for defueling and refueling shall be listed 
and labeled and shall have fuel storage tanks not exceeding 
65 gallons (246 L). Systems for defueling and refueling, 
other than by use of portable equipment, shall be approved. 

2211.6 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 1 
extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 
906. 

2211.7 Repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
lighter-than-air fuels. Repair garages for the conversion and 
repair of vehicles which use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), 
hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance j 
with Sections 221 1 .7 and 221 1 .7.2, and, as applicable, Section I 
2211. 

Exception: Repair garages where work is not performed on 
the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and main- 
tenance requiring no open flame or welding. 

2211.7.1 Ventilation. Repair garages used for the repair of 
CNG, LNG or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided 1 
with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The 
mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with 
the construction codes, including the Mechanical Code. 1 

2211.7.2 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by CNG, LNG or hydrogen shall be 1 
provided with an approved flammable gas detection system 
meeting the requirements of the construction codes, includ- 1 
ing the Building Code. 1 

2211.8 Defueling of hydrogen from motor vehicle fuel stor- 
age containers. Discharge or defueling of hydrogen from 
motor vehicle fuel storage containers for the purpose of main- 1 
tenance, container certification or other purposes shall be per- 1 
formed in accordance with Section 2211.8.1. I 

2211.8.1 Methods of discharge. The discharge of hydro- 
gen from motor vehicle fuel storage containers shall be 1 
accomplished through a closed transfer system in accor- 
dance with Section 2211.8.1.1 or an approved method of 
atmospheric venting in accordance with Section 221 1 .8.1 .2. 1 

22 1 1 .8. 1 . 1 Closed transfer system. A documented pro- 
cedure that explains the logic sequence for discharging 
the storage container shall be provided to the commis- I 
sioner for review and approval. The procedure shall I 
include the actions the operator is required to take in the 



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event of a low-pressure or high-pressure hydrogen 
release during discharging activity. Schematic design 
documents shall be provided illustrating the arrangement 
of piping, regulators and equipment settings. The design 
and installation documents shall illustrate the piping and 
regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial rela- 
tion to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and 
emergency shutdown devices. 

2211.8.1.2 Atmospheric venting of hydrogen from 
motor vehicle fue! storage containers. When atmo- 
spheric venting is used for the discharge of hydrogen 
from motor vehicle fuel storage containers, such venting 
shall be performed in accordance with Sections 
2211.8.1.2.1 through 221 1.8.1.2.4. 

2211.8.1.2.1 Defueling equipment required at 
vehicle maintenance and repair facilities. All facili- 
ties for repairing hydrogen systems on hydro- 
gen-fueled vehicles shall have equipment to defuel 
vehicle storage containers. Equipment used for 
defueling shall be listed and labeled for the intended 
use. 

2211.8.1.2.1.1 Manufacturer's equipment 
required. Equipment supplied by the vehicle man- 
ufacturer shall be used to connect the vehicle stor- 
age containers to be defueled to the vent pipe 
system. 

2211.8.1.2.1.2 Vent pipe maximum diameter. 
Defueling vent pipes shall have a maximum inside 
diameter of 1 inch (25 mm) and be installed in an 
approved manner. 

2211.8.1.2.1.3 Maximum flow rate. The maxi- 
mum rate of hydrogen flow through the vent pipe 
system shall not exceed 1 ,000 cfm (28.3 m'/min) at 
NTP and shall be controlled by means of the manu- 
facturer's equipment, at low pressure and without 
adjustment. 

2211.8.1.2.1.4 Isolated use. The vent pipe used 
for defueling shall not be connected to a venting 
system used for another purpose. 

2211.8.1.2.2 Design and installation documents. 
Design and installation documents shall be provided 
illustrating the defueling system to be utilized. Plan 
details shall be of sufficient detail and clarity to allow 
for evaluation of the piping and control systems to be 
utilized and include the method of support for con- 
tainers to be used as part of a closed transfer system, 
the method of grounding and bonding, and other 
requirements set forth in this section. 

2211.8.1.2.3 Stability of containers. A method of 
rigidly supporting containers used during defueling 
of hydrogen shall be provided. The method shall pro- 
vide not less than two points of support and shall be 
designed to resist lateral movement of the receiving 
container. The system shall be designed to resist 
movement of the receiver based on the highest 
gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the 
receiver's rated service pressure and volume. Sup- 



porting structures or appurtenances used to support 
containers shall be constructed of noncombustible 
materials in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. 

2211.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding. Containers 
and piping systems used for defueling shall be bonded 
and grounded. Structures or appurtenances used for 
supporting the containers shall be grounded in accor- 
dance with the Electrical Code. The valve of the vehi- 
cle storage container shall be bonded with the 
defueling system prior to the commencement of dis- 
charge or defueling operations. 

2211.8.2 Repair of hydrogen piping. Piping systems con- 
taining hydrogen shall not be opened to the atmosphere for 
repair without first purging the piping with an inert gas to 
achieve 1 percent hydrogen or less by volume. Defueling 
operations and exiting purge flow shall be vented in accor- 
dance with Section 221 1.8.1.2. 

2211.8.3 Purging. Each individual component of a hydro- 
gen defueling system shall have a label affixed as well as a ■ 
description in the installation and owner's manuals describ- 
ing the procedure for purging air from the system during 
startup, regular maintenance and for purging hydrogen from 
the system prior to disassembly (to admit air). For the inter- 
connecting piping between the individual manufactured 
components, the pressure rating must be at least 20 times the 
absolute pressure present in the piping when any hydrogen 
meets any air. 

2211.8.3.1 System purge required. After installation, 
repair or maintenance, the hydrogen piping system shall 
be purged of air in accordance with the manufacturer's 
specifications. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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172 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 23 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



SECTION FC 2301 
GENERAL 

2301.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern high-piled combusti- 
ble storage, and the design, installation, operation and mainte- 
nance of any building, structure or premises used for such 
purpose. 

2301.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2301.3 Permit application. Applications for permits for 
high-piled combustible storage shall include design and instal- 
lation documents that contain the following information, and 
such other information and documentation as the commis- 
sioner may prescribe: 

1. Floor plan of the building showing locations and 
dimensions of high-piled storage areas. 

2. Usable storage height for each storage area. 

3. Number of tiers within each rack, if applicable. 

4. Commodity clearance between top of storage and the 
sprinkler deflector for each storage arrangement. 

5. Aisle dimensions between each storage array. 

6. Maximum pile volume for each storage array. 

7. Location and classification of commodities in accor- 
dance with Section 2303. 

8. Location of commodities that are banded or encapsu- 
lated. 

9. Location of required fire department access doors. 

1 0. Type of fire extinguishing and fire detection systems. 

1 1 . Location of valves controlling the water supply of ceil- 
ing and in-rack sprinklers. 

12. Type, location and specifications of smoke removal 
and curtain board systems. 

1 3 . Dimension and location of transverse and longitudinal 
flue spaces. 

14. Such other information, regarding design features, 
commodities, storage arrangement and fire protection 
features within the high-piled storage area, as may be 
required by the commissioner to ensure compliance 
with the requirements of this chapter. 

2301.3.1 Records. A copy of the permit application docu- 
ments shall be maintained on the premises and made avail- 
able for inspection by any department representative. 

2301.4 Egress plan. Where the area of the high-piled combus- 
tible storage requires a permit, the owner shall prepare and 
familiarize employees with an egress plan that indicates the 
location and width of aisles, exits, exit access doors, exit signs, 
I height of storage and location of hazardous materials. Such 
I plan shall be maintained in an approved location and shall be 



made available for inspection by any representative of the 
department. 

2301.5 General. All buildings, structures and premises that 
contain high-piled combustible storage shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this 
chapter. In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the fol- 
lowing material-specific requirements shall apply: 

1 . Aerosols shall be in accordance with Chapter 28. 

2. Flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accor- 
dance with Chapter 34. 

3 . Hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 

27. 

4. Storage of combustible paper records shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13. 

5 . Storage of combustible fibers shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 29. 

6. Storage of miscellaneous combustible material shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 3. 



SECTION FC 2302 1 

DEFINITIONS 

2302.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- «■" 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

ARRAY. Each separate storage configuration, taking into con- 1 
sideration the type of packaging, flue spaces, height of storage I 
and compactness of storage. 

ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 6-inch 
(152 mm) or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air 
movement through the stored commodity. 

BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an 
aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure 
designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists 
around the boxes. 

COMMODITY. Items in high-piled combustible storage, I 
including products and product packaging. ■ 

DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread 
of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression 
fast-response performance. 

EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material 
having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous 
small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material. 

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. 
Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities that 
exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



high-hazard commodities that exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in 
height. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of 
combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible 
materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of 
■► storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. High-piled 
combustible storage also includes certain high-hazard com- 
modities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liq- 
uids, idle pallets and similar commodities, where the top of 
storage is greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building, 
i structure or premises that is designed or used for high-piled 
combustible storage. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. The flue space between 
rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading. 

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods uti- 
lizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move 
stock. 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking meth- 
ods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move 
stock. 

§ RACK STORAGE. Any storage system, except shelf storage. 

SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceed- 
ing 3 feet (9 1 4 mm) vertically. 

SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of other 
construction located in racks and that obstructs sprinkler dis- 
charge down into the racks. 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. The space between rows of 
storage parallel to the direction of loading. 



SECTION FC 2303 
COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION 

2303. 1 Classification of commodities. Commodities shall be 
classified as Class I, II, III, IV or high hazard in accordance 
with this section. Materials listed within each commodity clas- 
sification are assumed to be unmodified for improved combus- 
tibility characteristics. Use of flame-retarding modifiers or the 
physical form of the material could change the classification. 
See Section 2303 .7 for classification of Group A, B and C plas- 
tics. 

2303.2 Class I commodities. Class I commodities are essen- 
tially noncombustible products on wooden or nonexpanded 
polyethylene solid deck pallets, in ordinary corrugated cartons 
with or without single-thickness dividers, or in ordinary paper 
wrappings with or without pallets. Class I commodities are 
allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in 
accordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class I com- 
modities include the following: 

Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol 

Cement in bags 

Ceramics 

Dairy products in nonwax-coated containers (excluding 

bottles) 
Dry insecticides 



Electrical appliances, noncombustible i 

Foods in noncombustible containers 

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 

Frozen foods 

Glass 

Glycol in metal cans 

Gypsum board 

Inert materials, bagged 

Insulation, noncombustible 

Liquids, noncombustible, in plastic containers having less 1 

than a 5-gallon (19 L) capacity 
Metal products, noncombustible 

2303.3 Class II commodities. Class II commodities are Class I 
products in slatted wooden crates, solid wooden boxes, multi- 
ple-thickness paperboard cartons or equivalent combustible 
packaging material with or without pallets. Class II commodi- 
ties are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics 
in accordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class II 
commodities include the following: ^ 

Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol, in 

combustible containers 
Foods in combustible containers 
Incandescent or fluorescent light bulbs in cartons 
Thinly coated fine wire on reels or in cartons 

2303.4 Class III commodities. Class III commodities are 
commodities of wood, paper, natural fiber cloth, or Group C 
plastics or products thereof, with or without pallets. Products 
are allowed to contain limited amounts of Group A or B plas- 
tics, such as metal bicycles with plastic handles, pedals, seats 
and tires. Group A plastics shall be limited in accordance with 
Section 2303.7.4. Examples of Class III commodities include 
the following: 4b 

Aerosol, Level 1 (see Chapter 28) 

Combustible fiberboard 

Cork, baled 

Feed, bagged 

Fertilizers, bagged 

Food in plastic containers 

Furniture: wood, natural fiber, upholstered, nonplastic, 

wood or metal with plastic -padded and covered arm rests 
Glycol in combustible containers not exceeding 25 percent 
Liquids, noncombustible, in plastic containers having a 1 

capacity of more than 5 gallons ( 1 9 L) 1 

Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in metal cans 
Lumber 

Mattresses, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics 
Paints, oil base, in metal cans <5sa 

Paper, waste, baled 
Paper and pulp, horizontal storage, or vertical storage that is 

banded or protected with approved wrap 
Paper in cardboard boxes 

Pillows, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics 
Plastic-coated paper food containers 
Plywood 
Rags, baled 

Rugs, without foam backing 
Sugar, bagged 
Wood, baled 



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Wood doors, frames and cabinets 
Yarns of natural fiber and viscose 

2303.5 Class IV commodities. Class IV commodities are 
Class I, II or III products containing Group A plastics in ordi- 
nary corrugated cartons and Class I, II and III products, with 
Group A plastic packaging, with or without pallets. Group B 
plastics and free-flowing Group A plastics are also included in 
this class. The total amount of nonfree-flowing Group A plas- 
tics shall be in accordance with Section 2303.7.4. Examples of 
Class IV commodities include the following: 

Aerosol, Level 2 (see Chapter 28) 

Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 20-percent but less than 

80-percent alcohol, in cans or bottles in cartons. 

Clothing, synthetic or nonviscose 

Combustible metal products (solid) 

Furniture, plastic upholstered 

Furniture, wood or metal with plastic covering and padding 

Glycol in combustible containers (greater than 25 percent 

and less than 50 percent) 
Linoleum products 

Paints, oil base in combustible containers 
Pharmaceutical, alcoholic elixirs, tonics, etc. 
Rugs, foam back 
Shingles, asphalt 
Thread or yarn, synthetic or nonviscose 

2303.6 High-hazard commodities. High-hazard commodi- 
ties are high-hazard products presenting special fire hazards 
beyond those of Class I, II, III or IV. Group A plastics not other- 
wise classified are included in this class. Examples of 
high-hazard commodities include the following: 

Aerosol, Level 3 (see Chapter 28) 

Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 80-percent alcohol, in bot- 
tles or cartons 

Commodities of any class in plastic containers in carousel 
storage 

Flammable solids (except solid combustible metals) 

Glycol in combustible containers (50 percent or greater) 

Lacquers, which dry by solvent evaporation, in metal cans 
or cartons 

Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in plastic containers 

Mattresses, foam rubber or foam plastics 

Pallets and flats which are idle combustible 

Paper, asphalt, rolled, horizontal storage 

Paper, asphalt, rolled, vertical storage 

Paper and pulp, rolled, in vertical storage which is unhanded 
or not protected with an approved wrap 

Pillows, foam rubber and foam plastics 

Pyroxylin 

Rubber tires 

Vegetable oil and butter in plastic containers 

2303.7 Classification of plastics. Plastics shall be designated 
as Group A, B or C in accordance with this section. 

2303.7.1 Group A plastics. Group A plastics are plastic 
materials having a heat of combustion that is much higher 



than that of ordinary combustibles, and aburning rate higher 
than that of Group B plastics. Examples of Group A plastics 
include the following: < 

ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) 

Acetal (polyformaldehyde) 

Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate) 

Butyl rubber 

EPDM (ethylene propylene rubber) 

FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester) 

Natural rubber (expanded) 

Nitrile rubber (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber) 

PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate) 

Polybutadiene 

Polycarbonate 

Polyester elastomer 

Polyethylene 

Polypropylene 

Polystyrene (expanded and unexpanded) 

Polyurethane (expanded and unexpanded) 

PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 15 percent 

plasticized, e.g., coated fabric unsupported film) 
SAN (styrene acrylonitrile) 
SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) 

2303.7.2 Group B plastics. Group B plastics are plastic 
materials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate 
higher than that of ordinary combustibles, but not as high as 
those of Group A plastics. Examples of Group B plastics 
include the following: 

Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, 

ethyl cellulose) 
Chloroprene rubber 
Fluoroplastics (ECTFE, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroefhyl- 

ene copolymer; ETFE, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene 

copolymer; FEP, fluorinated ethylene-propylene 

copolymer) 
Natural rubber (nonexpanded) 
Nylon (Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6) 
PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 5-percent, but not 

exceeding 15-percent plasticized) 
Silicone rubber 

2303.7.3 Group C plastics. Group C plastics are plastic 
materials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate 
similar to those of ordinary combustibles. Examples of 
Group C plastics include the following: 

Fluoroplastics (PCTFE, polychlorotrifluoroethylene; 

PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene) 

Melamine (melamine formaldehyde) 

Phenol 

PVC (polyvinyl chloride, rigid or plasticized less than 5 

percent, e.g., pipe, pipe fittings) 
PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride) 
PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) 
PVF (polyvinyl fluoride) 
Urea (urea formaldehyde) 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



175 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



2303.7.4 Limited quantities of Group A plastics in mixed 
commodities. Figure 2303.7.4 shall be used to determine 
the quantity of Group A plastics allowed to be stored in a 
package or carton or on a pallet without increasing the com- 
modity classification. 



1 SECTION FC 2304 

DESIGNATION OF HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREAS 

2304.1 Genera!. High-piled storage areas, and portions of 
■» high-piled storage areas for storage of a commodity class dif- 
ferent from adjacent areas, shall be designed and specifically 
designated to contain Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV or 
high-hazard commodities. The designation of a high-piled 
combustible storage area, or portion thereof intended for stor- 
age of a different commodity class, shall be based on the high- 
est hazard commodity class stored except as provided in 
Section 2304.2. 

2304.2 Designation based on engineering analysis. The des- 
ignation of a high-piled combustible storage area, or portion 
thereof, is allowed to be based on a lower hazard class than that 
of the highest class of commodity stored when a limited quan- 
tity of the higher hazard commodity has been demonstrated by 
engineering analysis to be adequately protected by the sprin- 
kler system provided. The engineering analysis shall consider 
the ability of the sprinkler system to deliver the higher density 
required by the higher hazard commodity. The higher density 
shall be based on the actual storage height of the pile or rack 
and the minimum allowable design area for sprinkler operation 

^ as set forth in the density /area figures provided in NFPA 13. 
The contiguous area occupied by the higher hazard commodity 
shall not exceed 1 20 square feet (1 1 m 2 ), and additional areas of 
higher hazard commodity shall be separated from other such 
areas by 25 feet (7620 mm) or more. The sprinkler system shall 
be capable of delivering the higher density over a minimum 
area of 900 square feet (84 m 2 ) for wet pipe systems and 1 ,200 
square feet (1 1 m 2 ) for dry pipe systems. The shape of the 

I design area shall be in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. 



1 SECTION FC 2305 

HOUSEKEEPING AND MAINTENANCE 

2305.1 Rack structures. The structural integrity of racks shall 
be maintained. 

2305.2 Ignition sources. Clearance from ignition sources shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 305. 

2305.3 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited. Approved "No 
Smoking" signs shall be conspicuously posted in accordance 
with Section 310. 

2305.4 Aisle maintenance. When restocking is not being con- 
I ducted, aisles shall be kept clear of stored or waste material. 



Fire department access doors, aisles and exit doors shall not be 
obstructed. During restocking operations using manual stock- 
ing methods, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 24 inches 
(610 mm) shall be maintained in 48-inch (1219 mm) or smaller 
aisles, and a minimum unobstructed aisle width of one-half of 
the required aisle width shall be maintained in aisles greater 
than 48 inches (1219 mm). During mechanical stocking opera- 
tions, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 44 inches (1118 
mm) shall be maintained in accordance with Section 2306.9. 

2305.5 Pile dimension and height limitations. Pile dimen- 
sions and height limitations shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 2307.3. 

2305.6 Arrays. Arrays shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 2307.4. 

2305.7 Flue spaces. Flue spaces shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 2308.3. 



SECTION FC 2306 

GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY 

FEATURES 

2306.1 General. Fire protection and life safety features for 
high-piled storage areas shall be in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

2306.2 Extent and type of protection. Where required by 
Table 2306.2, fire detection systems, smoke and heat removal, 
draft curtains and sprinkler design densities shall extend the 
lesser of 15 feet (4572 mm) beyond the high-piled storage area 
or to a permanent partition. Where portions of high-piled stor- 
age areas have different fire protection requirements because of 
commodity, method of storage or storage height, the fire pro- 
tection features required by Table 2306.2 within this area shall 
be based on the most restrictive design requirements. 

2306.3 Separation of high-piled storage areas. High-piled 
storage areas shall be separated from other portions of the 
building where required by Sections 2306.3.1 through 
2306.3.2.2. 

2306.3.1 Separation from other uses. Mixed occupancies 
shall be separated in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

2306.3.2 Multiple high-piled storage areas. Multiple 
high-piled storage areas shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with Section 2306.3.2.1 or 2306.3.2.2. 

2306.3.2.1 Aggregate area. The aggregate of all 
high-piled storage areas within a building shall be used 
for application of Table 2306.2 unless such areas are sep- 
arated from each other by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
fire barrier walls constructed in accordance with the con- 
struction codes, including the Building Code. Openings 
in such walls shall be protected by opening protective 
assemblies having a 1-hour fire protection rating. 



176 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



O 

H 
CO 

< 

a, 

Q 

LU 
Q 

Z 

X 

LU 

LL 

o 



o 
> 

> 

QQ 
|_ 

Z 

LU 
O 
L£ 

LU 
Q_ 



30 



25 



20 



15 



10 



































CLASSIFY 

HIGH-HAZ, 
COMMODI 


AS 

<\RD 

TY 














CLASSIFY 
AS CLASS 
COMMODI 


IV 
TY 


















CLASSIFY 
CLASS I, II 
COMMODI" 


AS 

OR III 
FY 

i 









6 







"0 

m 

O 
m 



do 
< 



m 

9 

o 

m 

x 

TJ 
> 
Z 

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m 
o 

"D 
> 

o 







10 



15 



20 



25 



PERCENT BY WEIGHT OF UNEXPANDED PLAST!C d 



FIGURE 2303.7.4 
MIXED COMMODITIES 3 b 

This figure is intended to determine the commodity classification of a mixed commodity in a package, carton or on a pallet where plastics are involved. 
The followina is an example of how to apply the figure: A package containing a Class III commodity has 1 2-percent Group A expanded plastic by volume. The 
weight of the unexpanded Group A plastic is 1 percent. This commodity is classified as a Class IV commodity. If the weight of the unexpanded plastic is increased 
to 14 percent, the classification changes to a high-hazard commodity. 



c. Percent by volume = 

d. Percent by weight = 



Vol ume of plastic in pallet load 

Total volume of pallet load, including pallet 

Weight of plastic in pallet load 

Total weight of pallet load, including pallet 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



177 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 







TABLE 2306.2 
GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 






COMMODITY 
CLASS 


SIZE OF HIGH-PILED 

STORAGE AREA 3 

(square feet) 

1 (see Sections 2306.2 

and 2306.4) 


ALL STORAGE AREAS 
(See Sections 2306, 2307 and 2308) b 


SOLID-PILED STORAGE, SHELF 

STORAGE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE 

(see Section 2307.3) 


Automatic fire 
extinguishing 

system 
(see Section 

2306.4) 


Fire 

detection 

system 

(see Section 

2306.5) 


Building 

access 

(see Section 

2306.6) 


Smoke and 

heat removal 

(see Section 

2306.7) 


Draft 

curtains 

(see Section 

2306.7) 


Maximum pile 

dimension 

(feet) 


Maximum 

permissible 

storage 

height" 

(feet) 


Maximum 
pile volume 
(cubic feet) 


I-IV 


0-500 


Not 
Required* 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


501-2,500 


Not 
Required" 


Yes 1 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


100 


40 


100,000 


2,501-12,000 
Public accessible 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


2,501-12,000 

Nonpublic accessible 

(Option 1) 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


2,501-12,000 

Nonpublic accessible 

(Option 2) 


Not 
Required 11 


Yes 


Yes 


YesJ 


Yes' 


100 


30 f 


200,000 


12,001-20,000 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Yes 


Yes-i 


Not 
Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


20,001-500,000 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Yes 


YesJ 


Not 
Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


Greater than 
500,000-- 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Yes 


YesJ 


Not 
Required 


100 


40 


400,000 


High 
hazard 


0-500 


Not 
Required" 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


50 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


501-2,500 
Public accessible 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required e 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


50 


30 


75,000 


501-2,500 

Nonpublic accessible 

(Option 1) 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


Not 
Required 


50 


30 


75,000 


501-2,500 

Nonpublic accessible 

(Option 2) 


Not 
Required" 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes' 


YesJ 


50 


20 


50,000 


2,501-300,000 


Yes 


Not 
Required 


Yes 


YesJ 


Not 
Required 


50 


30 


75,000 


300,001-500,000- h 


Yes 


Not 
Required | 


Yes 


YesJ 


Not 
Required 


50 


30 


75,000 



; with Note g when required by the commissioner. See also 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 , 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. When sprinkler systems are required for reasons other than those in Chapter 23, the portion of the sprinkler system protecting the high-piled storage area shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with Sections 2307 and 2308. 

b. For aisles, see Section 2306.9. 

c. Piles shall be separated by aisles complying with Section 2306.9. 

d. For storage in excess of the height indicated, special fire protection shall be provided in accordance \ 
Chapters 28 and 34 for special limitations for aerosols and flammable and combustible liquids. 

e. Section 503 shall apply for fire apparatus access. 

f. For storage exceeding 30 feet in height, Option 1 shall be used. 

g. Special fire protection provisions including fire protection of exposed steel columns; increased sprinkler density; additional in-rack sprinklers without associated 
reductions in ceiling sprinkler density; or additional fire department hose connections shall be provided when required by the commissioner 

h. High-piled storage areas shall not exceed 500,000 square feet. A 2-hour fire wall constructed in accordance with the construction codes, including the Building 
Code shall be used to divide high-piled storage exceeding 500,000 square feet in area. " 

i. Not required when an automatic fire extinguishing system is designed and installed to protect the high-piled storage area in accordance with Sections 2307 and 
ZMjo. 

j. Not required when storage areas are protected throughoutby early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 1 3. 



178 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



2306.3.2.2 Multiclass high-piled storage areas. 
High-piled storage areas classified as Class I through 
Class IV not separated from high-piled storage areas 
classified as high hazard shall utilize the aggregate of all 
high-piled storage areas as high hazard for purposes of 
application of Table 2306.2. To be considered as sepa- 
rated, 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier walls shall 
be constructed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. Openings in such 
walls shall be protected by opening protective assem- 
blies having a 1-hour fire protection rating. 

Exception: As provided for in Section 2304.2. 

2306.4 Sprinkler systems. Sprinkler systems shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Sections 2307, 2308 and 2309. 

2306.5 Fire detection. Where fire detection is required by 
Table 2306.2, an approved automatic fire detection system 
shall be installed throughout the high-piled storage area. The 
system shall be monitored and be in accordance with Section 
907. 

2306.6 Building access. Where building access is required by 
Table 2306.2, fire apparatus access roads in accordance with 
Section 503 shall be provided within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of 
all portions of the exterior walls of buildings used for 
high-piled storage. 

Exception: Where fire apparatus access roads cannot be 
installed because of topography, railways, waterways, 
non-negotiable grades or other similar conditions, the com- 
missioner may require additional fire protection. 

2306.6.1 Access doors. Where building access is required 
by Table 2306.2, fire department access doors shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with this section. Access doors shall be 
accessible without the use of a ladder. 

2306.6.1.1 Number of doors required. A minimum of 
one access door shall be provided in each 100 lineal feet 
(30 480 mm), or fraction thereof, of the exterior walls 
which face required fire apparatus access roads. 

2306.6.1.2 Door size and type. Access doors shall not 
be less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and 6 feet 8 inches 
(2032 mm) in height. Roll-up doors shall not be used 
unless approved. 

2306.6.1.3 Locking devices. Only approved locking 
devices shall be used. 

2306.7 Smoke and heat removal. Where smoke and heat 
removal are required by Table 2306.2, smoke and heat vents 
shall be provided in accordance with the construction codes, 
including the Building Code. Where draft curtains are required 
by Table 2306.2, they shall be provided in accordance with the 
construction codes, including the Building Code. 

2306.8 Fire department hose connections. Where exit pas- 
sageways are required by the construction codes, including the 
Building Code for egress, a Class I standpipe system shall be 
provided in accordance with the construction codes, including 
the Building Code. 

2306.9 Aisles. Aisles providing access to exits and fire depart- 
ment access doors shall be provided in high-piled storage areas 



exceeding 500 square feet (46 m 2 ), in accordance with Sections 
2306.9.1 through 2306.9.3. Aisles separating storage piles or 
racks shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 13. Aisles 
shall also comply with the requirements of the construction 1 
codes, including the Building Code. I 

Exception: Where aisles are precluded by rack storage sys- 
tems, alternate methods of access and protection are 
allowed when approved. 

2306.9.1 Width. Aisle width shall be in accordance with 
Sections 2306.9.1.1 and 2306.9.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Cross aisles used only for employee access 
between aisles shall be a minimum of 24 inches 
(610 mm) wide. 

2. Aisles separating shelves classified as shelf stor- 
age shall be a minimum of 30 inches (762 mm) 
wide. 

2306.9.1.1 Sprinklered buildings. Aisles in buildings «■ 
protected throughout by a sprinkler system shall be a 
minimum of 44 inches (11 18 mm) wide. Aisles shall be a 
minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in high-piled 
storage areas that exceed 2,500 square feet (232 m 2 ) in 
area, and that are accessible to the public and designated 

to contain high-hazard commodities. 

Exception: Aisles in high-piled storage areas exceed- 
ing 2,500 square feet (232 m 2 ) in area, that are acces- 
sible to the public and designated to contain 
high-hazard commodities, and that are protected 1 
throughout by a sprinkler system designed for multi- 
ple-row racks of high-hazard commodities, shall be a 
minimum of 44 inches (1118 mm) wide. 

Aisles shall be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) 
wide in areas accessible to the public where mechanical 
stocking methods are used. 

2306.9.1.2 Nonsprinklered buildings. Aisles in build- 1 
ings not protected throughout by a sprinkler system shall 1 
be a minimum of 96 inches (2438 mm) wide. 

2306.9.2 Clear height. The required aisle width shall 
extend from floor to ceiling. Rack structural supports and 
catwalks are allowed to cross aisles at a minimum height of 
6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor level, 
provided that such supports do not interfere with fire depart- 
ment hose stream trajectory. 

2306.9.3 Dead ends. Dead-end aisles shall be in accordance 
with the construction codes, including the Building Code. 1 

2306.10 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 
906. 



SECTION FC 2307 
SOLID-PILED AND SHELF STORAGE 

2307.1 General. Shelf storage and storage in solid piles, solid 
piles on pallets and bin box storage in bin boxes not exceeding 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



179 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 



5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension, shall be designed and 
maintained in accordance with Section 2306 and this section. 

2307.2 Fire protection. Where sprinkler systems are required 
for solid-piled and shelf storage pursuant to Table 2306.2, a 
sprinkler system shall be provided in any area containing such 
storage that is enclosed in 1-hour fire-rated walls in accordance 
with the Building Code, or, if such storage is not enclosed 
within such fire-rated walls, throughout the building. Openings 
in such walls shall be protected by opening protective assem- 
blies having 1-hour fire protection ratings. The design and 

rt> installation of the sprinkler system and other applicable fire 

E protection shall be in accordance with this code, the construc- 
tion codes, including the Building Code, and NFPA 13. 

2307.2.1 Shelf storage. Shelf storage greater than 12 feet 
(3658 mm) but less than 1 5 feet (4572 mm) in height shall be 
in accordance with the fire protection requirements set forth 
in NFPA 13. Shelf storage 15 feet (4572 mm) or more in 
height shall be protected in an approved manner with spe- 
cial fire protection, such as in-rack sprinklers. 

2307.3 Pile dimension and height limitations. Pile dimen- 
sions, the maximum permissible storage height and pile vol- 
ume shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2. 

■► 2307.4 Array. Where a sprinkler system design utilizes protec- 
tion based on a closed array, array clearances shall be provided 
and maintained as specified by the standard used. 



SECTION FC 2308 
RACK STORAGE 

2308.1 General. Rack storage shall be designed and main- 
tained in accordance with Section 2306 and this section. Bin 
boxes exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension shall be 
regulated as rack storage. 

2308.2 Fire protection. Where a sprinkler system is required 
for rack storage pursuant to Table 2306.2, a sprinkler system 
shall be provided in any area containing such storage that is 
enclosed in 1-hour fire-rated walls in accordance with the 
Building Code, or, if such storage is not enclosed within such 
fire-rated walls, throughout the building. Openings in such 
walls shall be protected by opening protective assemblies hav- 
ing 1-hour fire protection ratings. The design and installation 

n# of the sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection 

■ shall be in accordance with this code, the construction codes, 
including the Building Code, and NFPA 13. 

2308.2.1 Plastic pallets and shelves. Storage on plastic 
pallets or plastic shelves shall be protected by approved spe- 
cially engineered fire protection systems. 

2308.2.2 Racks with solid shelving. Racks with solid 
shelving having an area greater than 32 square feet (3 m 2 ), 
measured between approved flue spaces at all four edges of 
the shelf, shall be in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Racks with mesh, grated, slatted or similar shelves 
having uniform openings not more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) apart, comprising at least 50 percent of 
overall shelf area, and with approved flue spaces, 



are allowed to be treated as racks without solid 
shelves. 

2. Racks used for the storage of combustible paper 
records, with solid shelving, shall be in accordance 
with NFPA 13. 1 

2308.2.2.1 Fire protection. Fire protection for racks 
with solid shelving shall be in accordance with NFPA 13. 1 

2308.3 Flue spaces. Flue spaces shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Table 2308.3. Required flue spaces shall be main- 
tained. 

2308.4 Column protection. Steel building columns shall be 
protected in accordance with NFPA 13. 1 

2308.5 Extra-high-rack storage systems. Approval of the 
commissioner shall be obtained prior to installing 1 
extra-high-rack combustible storage. 

2308.5.1 Fire protection. Buildings with extra-high-rack 
combustible storage shall be protected with a specially engi- 
neered sprinkler system. Extra-high-rack combustible stor- 
age shall be provided with additional special fire protection, 
such as separation from other buildings and additional 
built-in fire protection features and fire department access, 
when required by the commissioner. | 



SECTION FC 2309 | 

AUTOMATED STORAGE 

2309.1 General. Automated storage shall be designed and 
maintained in accordance with this section. 

2309.2 Sprinkler systems. Where a sprinkler system is 1 
required by Table 2306.2, a sprinkler system shall be installed I 
throughout the building. The design and installation of such 
system shall be in accordance with this code and the construe- | 
tion codes, including the Building Code. I 

2309.3 Carousel storage. High-piled storage areas having 
greater than 500 square feet (46 m 2 ) of carousel storage shall be 
provided with automatic shutdown in accordance with one of 
the following: 

1 . An automatic smoke detection system installed in accor- 
dance with the construction codes, including the Build- 1 
ing Code, with coverage extending 1 5 feet (4575 mm) in I 
all directions beyond unenclosed carousel storage sys- 
tems and which sounds a local alarm at the operator' s sta- 
tion and stops the carousel storage system upon the 
activation of a single detector. 

2. An automatic smoke detection system installed in accor- 
dance with the construction codes, including the Build- 1 
ing Code and within enclosed carousel storage systems, I 
that sounds a local alarm at the operator's station and 
stops the carousel storage system upon the activation of a 
single detector. 

3. A single dead-man-type control switch that allows the 
operation of the carousel storage system only when the 
operator is present. The switch shall be in the same room 

as the carousel storage system and located to allow for I 
observation of the carousel system. 



180 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 







TABLE 2308.3 
REQUIRED FLUE SPACES FOR RACK STORAGE 






RACK 
CONFIGURATION 


AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER 
PROTECTION 


SPRINKLER AT THE CEILING WITH OR WITHOUT 
MINIMUM IN-RACK SPRINKLERS 


IN-RACK 

SPRINKLERS AT 

EVERY TIER 


NONSPRINKLERED 


< 25 feet 


> 25 feet 


Any height 


Any height 


Storage height 


Option 1 


Option 2 


Single-row rack 


Transverse 
flue space 


Size b 


3 inches 


Not Applicable 


3 inches 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Vertically 
aligned 


Not Required 


Not Applicable 


Yes 


Not Applicable 


Not Required 


Longitudinal flue space 


Not Required 


Not Applicable 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Double-row rack 


Transverse 
flue space 


Size b 


6 inches 3 


3 inches 


3 inches 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Vertically 
aligned 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Yes 


Not Applicable 


Not Required 


Longitudinal flue space 


Not Required 


6 inches 


6 inches 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Multi-row rack 


Transverse 
flue space 


Size b 


6 inches 


Not Applicable 


6 inches 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Vertically 
aligned 


Not Required 


Not Applicable 


Yes 


Not Applicable 


Not Required 


Longitudinal flue space 


Not Required 


Not Applicable 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Three-inch transverse flue spaces shall be provided at least every 10 feet where ESFR sprinkler protection is provided. 

b. Random variations are allowed, provided that the configuration does not obstruct water penetration. 



SECTION FC 2310 
RECORD STORAGE 

2310.1 General. Records storage facilities used for the rack or 
shelf storage of combustible paper records greater than 12 feet 
(3658 mm) in height shall be designed, installed, operated and 
maintained in accordance with Sections 2306 and 2308 and 
NFPA 13. Palletized storage of records shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with Section 
2307. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



181 



182 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 24 

TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 



SECTION FC 2401 
GENERAL 

2401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern membrane structures. 

2401.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 



1 SECTION FC 2402 

DEFINITIONS 

■» 2402.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

I AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure whose struc- 
tural elements are inflated and maintained by elevated air pres- 
sure and are not occupiable spaces. 

■» AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure, the shape of 

I which is attained and maintained by elevated air pressure, and 
the occupancy of which is within the area of elevated pressure. 

m MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air-inflated, air-supported, 
m^. cable or frame-covered structure or tent, as defined in Chapter 
I 31 of the Building Code. 

I TENT. A nonpressurized 3 membrane structure of a fabric 
weather barrier supported by poles and guys in which the fabric 
weather barrier does not impart stability to the structure. Tents 
need not be fully enclosed on the sides. 



SECTION FC 2403 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 2404 
TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 

2404.1 General. All membrane structures shall be designed, 
installed, operated and maintained in accordance with this sec- 
tion and the construction codes, including the Building Code. 

12404.2 Flame-resistant treatment. The owner or agent shall 
file with the commissioner a certificate issued by an approved 
testing laboratory, certifying that the tent materials and their 
appurtenances, sidewalls, drops and tarpaulins, floor cover- 
ings, bunting, combustible decorative materials and effects, 
including sawdust when used on floors or passageways, shall 
be composed of flame-resistant material or shall be treated with 
a flame retardant in an approved manner and meet the require- 
ments for flame resistance as determined in accordance with 
§ NFPA 701 and Chapter 8, and that such flame resistance is 
effective for the period specified by the permit. 

2402.2.1 Certification. An affidavit or affirmation shall be 
submitted to the commissioner and a copy retained on the 
premises on which the tent is located. The affidavit shall 
attest to the information required in Chapter 8 and the rules. 



2404.2.2 Label. Membrane structures shall have a label per- 
manently affixed to them identifying the type and quality of 
the fabric or other material. 

2404.3 Location and access. Membrane structures shall be 
placed and afforded access for firefighting apparatus in accor- 
dance with this section. 

2404.3.1 Access. Fire apparatus access roads shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 503 and the Building 
Code. 

2404.3.2 Location. Membrane structures shall not be 
located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of parked vehicles or 
internal combustion engines. For the purpose of determin- 
ing required distances, support ropes and guy wires shall be 
considered as part of the membrane structure. 

2404.3.3 Fire break. An unobstructed fire break not less 
than 12 feet (3658 mm) wide and free from guy ropes or 
other obstructions shall be maintained on all sides of all 
membrane structures unless otherwise approved by the 
commissioner. 

2404.4 Means of egress. Means of egress for membrane struc- 
tures shall be in accordance with this section and the construc- 
tion codes, including the Building Code. 

2404.4.1 Seating arrangements. Seating in membrane 
structures shall be in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Building Code. 

2404.4.2 Exit openings from tents. Exit openings from 
tents shall remain open unless covered by a flame-resistant 
curtain. The curtain shall comply with the following 
requirements: 

1. Curtains shall be free sliding on a metal support. The 
support shall be a minimum of 80 inches (2032 mm) 
above the floor level at the exit. The curtains shall be 
so arranged that, when open, no part of the curtain 
obstructs the exit. 

2. Curtains shall be of a color, or colors, that contrasts 
with the color of the tent. 

3. Curtains shall be flame resistant in accordance with 
Chapter 8. 

2404.4.2.1 Door operation in air-supported struc- 
tures. During high winds exceeding 50 miles per hour 
(80 kph) or in snow conditions, the use of doors in 
air-supported structures shall be controlled to avoid 
excessive air loss. Doors shall not be left open. 

2404.4.3 Aisle arrangement and maintenance. The 

arrangement of aisles shall be subject to the approval of the 
commissioner and shall be maintained clear at all times. 

2404.4.4 Maintenance of means of egress. The required 
width of exits, aisles and passageways to a public street shall 
be maintained at all times. Guy wires, guy ropes and other 



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■ support members shall not cross a means of egress at a 
height of less than 8 feet (2438 mm). The surface of means 
of egress shall be maintained in an approved manner. 

2404.5 Combustible materials. Hay, straw, shavings or simi- 
lar combustible materials shall not be located within any mem- 
brane structure containing an assembly occupancy, except the 
materials necessary for the daily feeding and care of animals. 
Sawdust and shavings utilized for a public performance or 
exhibit shall not be prohibited provided the sawdust and shav- 
ings are kept damp. Combustible materials shall not be permit- 
ted under stands or seats at any time. The areas within and 
1 adjacent to the membrane structure shall be maintained clear of 
all combustible materials or vegetation that could create a fire 
hazard within 20 feet (6096 mm) from the structure. Combusti- 
ble trash shall be removed at least once a day from the structure 
during the period the structure is occupied by the public. 

I 2404.6 Smoking. Smoking shall not be permitted in membrane 
structures. Approved "No Smoking" signs shall be conspicu- 
ously posted in accordance with Section 310. 

2404.7 Open or exposed flame. Open flame or other devices 
emitting flame, fire or heat or any flammable or combustible 
liquids, gas, charcoal or other cooking device or any other 
unapproved devices shall not be permitted inside or located 
m& within 20 feet (6096 mm) of a membrane structure while open 
I to the public unless an open-flame permit has been issued. 

12404.8 Fireworks and special effects. Any fireworks or spe- 
cial effects displays in or near any membrane structure shall be 
conducted in accordance with Chapter 33. 

2404.9 Spot lighting. Spot or effect lighting shall only be by 
electricity, and all combustible construction located within 6 
feet (1829 mm) of such equipment shall be protected with 
approved noncombustible insulation not less than 9.25 inches 
(235 mm) thick. 

2404.10 Safety film. Motion pictures shall not be displayed in 
■► membrane structures unless the motion picture film is safety 

film. 

2404.11 Clearance. There shall be a minimum clearance of at 
■* least 3 feet (914 mm) between the surface of a membrane struc- 

I ture and all contents therein. 

2404.12 Portable fire extinguishers. Portable fire 
extinguishers shall be provided as required by Section 906. 

2404.13 Fire protection equipment. Fire hose lines, water 
supplies and other auxiliary fire equipment shall be maintained 

I at the site in such numbers and sizes as required by the commis- 
sioner. 

12404.14 Occupant load. The occupant load allowed in a mem- 
brane structure, shall be determined in accordance with the 
construction codes, including the Building Code. 

2404.15 Heating and cooking equipment. Heating and cook- 
ing equipment shall be in accordance with this section. 

2404.15.1 Installation. Heating or cooking equipment, 
tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves, tubing and other 

(related components shall be installed as set forth in the con- 
struction codes, including the Mechanical Code and the 
Fuel Gas Code. 



2404.15.2 Venting. Gas, liquid and solid fuel-burning 
equipment designed to be vented shall be vented to the out- 
doors in accordance with the construction codes, including 1 
the Mechanical Code and the Fuel Gas Code. Such vents 1 
shall be equipped with approved spark arresters when 
required. Where vents or flues are used, all portions of the 
membrane structure shall be not less than 1 2 inches (305 
mm) from the flue or vent. 

2404.15.3 Location. Cooking and heating equipment shall 
not be located within 1 feet (3048 mm) of exits or combus- 
tible materials. 

2404.15.4 Operations. Operations such as warming of 
foods, cooking demonstrations and similar operations that 
use solid flammables shall be approved by the commis- J 
sioner. 1 

2404.15.5 Cooking. Membrane structures in which cook- I 
ing is performed shall be separated from other membrane § 
structures by a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm). 

2404.15.6 Outdoor cooking. Outdoor cooking that pro- 
duces sparks or grease-laden vapors shall not be performed 
within 20 feet (6096 mm) from a membrane structure. 

2404.15.7 Electrical heating and cooking equipment. 
Electrical cooking and heating equipment shall comply 
with the requirements of the Electrical Code. I 

2404.16 LPG. The storage, handling and use of LPG and LPG 1 
equipment shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter § 

2404.16. 1 General. Stationary LPG installations, including 1 
tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves, tubing and other 
related components shall be approved and in accordance 
with Chapter 38. +m 

2404. 1 6.2 Location of containers. LPG containers shall be 1 
located outside the membrane structure. Pressure relief I 
valves shall be pointed away from the membrane structure. «■ 

2404.16.2.1 Containers. Portable LPG containers shall I 
have a minimum separation between the container and 
structure of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

2404.16.3 Protection and security. Portable LPG contain- 
ers, piping, valves and fittings which are being used to fuel 
LPG-fueled devices, equipment or systems inside a mem- 
brane structure shall be located outside the membrane struc- 
ture and shall be secured from movement or other hazard. 

2404.17 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage of 
flammable and combustible liquids and the use of flamma- 
ble-liquid-fueled equipment shall be in accordance with this 
section. 

2404.17.1 Use. Flammable-liquid-fueled equipment shall 
not be used in membrane structures. 

2404.17.2 Flammable and combustible liquid storage. 
Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored outside 
the membrane structure in an approved manner not less than 1 
50 feet (15 240 mm) from the membrane structure. Storage ^ 
shall be in accordance with Chapter 34. 



184 



2008 NEW YORK CITY F!RE CODE 



TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 



2404.17.3 Refueling. Refueling shall be performed at an 
approved location not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from 
membrane structures. 

2404.18 Display of liquid- and gas-fueled motor vehicles. 
Liquid- and gas-fueled vehicles and equipment may be dis- 
played within a membrane structure in accordance with this 
section and Chapter 3. 

2404.18.1 Batteries. Batteries shall be disconnected in an 
appropriate manner. 

2404.18.2 Fuel systems. Vehicles or equipment shall not be 
fueled or defueled within the membrane structure. 

2404.18.2.1 Quantity limit. Fuel in the fuel tank shall 
not exceed 1 gallon (3.8 L). 

2404.18.2.2 Inspection. Fuel systems shall be inspected 
for leaks. 

2404.18.2.3 Closure. Fuel tank openings shall be locked 
and sealed to prevent the escape of vapors. 

2404.18.3 Location. The location of vehicles or equipment 
shall not obstruct means of egress. 

2404.18.4 Display of CNG/LPG vehicles. When a com- 
pressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas 
(LPG) powered vehicle is parked inside a membrane struc- 
ture, all of 1 the following conditions shall be met: 

1 . The quarter-turn shutoff valve or other shutoff valve 
on the outlet of the CNG or LPG container shall be 
closed and the engine shall be operated until it stops. 
Valves shall remain closed while the vehicle is 
indoors. 

2. The hot lead of the battery shall be disconnected. 

3. Dual-fuel vehicles equipped to operate on gasoline 
and CNG or LPG shall comply with the requirements 
of this section and Sections 2404.18 through 
2404.18.3 for gasoline-powered vehicles. 

2404.18.5 Competitions and demonstrations. Liquid and 
gas-fueled vehicles and equipment used for competition or 

► demonstration within a membrane structure shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 2404.18.5.1. 

2404.18.5.1 Fuel storage and dispensing. Fuel for vehi- 
cles or equipment shall be stored and dispensed in an 
approved location outside of the membrane structure in 
accordance with Section 2404.17.2, Section 2404.17.3 
and Chapter 22. 

2404.19 Separation of generators. Generators and other 
internal combustion power sources shall be separated from 
membrane structures by a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) and 
shall be isolated from contact with the public by fencing, enclo- 
sure or other approved means. 

2404.20 Fire guards. When the interest of public safety so 
requires, the commissioner may order the owner of any mem- 
brane structure in which a performance, exhibition, display, 
contest or other activity is to be conducted to provide one or 
more fire guards or other qualified persons to remain on duty 
during the times such places are open to the public, or when 
such activity is being conducted. Such fire guards shall keep 



diligent watch for fires during the time such place is open to the 
public or such activity is being conducted and take prompt 
measures for extinguishment of fires that occur and assist in the 
evacuation of the public from the structure. 

2404.21 Vegetation removal. Vegetation shall be removed 
from the area occupied by a membrane structure, and from 
areas within 30 feet (9144 mm) of such structures. 

2404.22 Waste material. The floor surface inside membrane 
structures and the grounds outside and within a 30-foot (9144 
mm) perimeter shall be kept clear of combustible waste. Such 
combustible waste shall not be permitted to accumulate and 
shall be stored in approved containers until removed from the 
premises and disposed of lawfully. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



185 



1 86 2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 25 

TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE 



SECTION FC 2501 
GENERAL 

2501.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the design, operation 
and maintenance of tire rebuilding plants, tire storage and tire 
byproduct facilities. 

2501.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

25013 General. Tire rebuilding plants, tire storage and tire 
byproduct facilities shall be designed, operated and maintained 
in accordance with this chapter, NFPA 1 3, NFPA 23 ID, and if 
applicable, Chapter 23. 



SECTION FC 2502 
DEFINITIONS 

2502.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2. Terms used in this chap- 
ter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings defined 
therein. 



1 SECTION FC 2503 

TIRE REBUILDING 

2503.1 Construction. Tire rebuilding plants shall comply with 

I the requirements of the construction codes, including the 
Building Code. 

1 2503.2 Location. Buffing operations shall be conducted in a 
room separated from the remainder of the building housing the 
tire rebuilding or tire recapping operations by a 1-hour fire bar- 
rier. 

Exception: Buffing operations are not required to be sepa- 
§ rated where the following requirements are complied with: 

II . Buffing operations are protected throughout by a con- 
tinuous water-spray fire protection system directed at 
the point of cutting action. 

2. Buffing machines are connected to particle-collecting 
systems providing a minimum air movement of 1 ,500 
cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.71m 3 /s) in volume and 

■t 4,500 feet per minute (fpm) (23 m/s) in-line velocity. 

3. The collecting system shall discharge the rubber par- 
ticles to an approved outdoor noncombustible or 

I noncombustible container, which is emptied at fre- 

quent intervals to prevent overflow. 

12503.3 Cleaning. The buffing area shall be cleaned and com- 
bustible waste regularly removed and disposed of to prevent 
the accumulation of rubber particles. 

12503.4 Spray rooms and booths. Spray rooms or spray booths 
wherein flammable or combustible solvents are applied shall 
comply with the requirements of Chapter 15. 



SECTION FC 2504 
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE 

2504.1 Open fires and flames prohibited. It shall be unlawful 
in a tire storage yard to ignite or maintain an open fire or open 
flame. 

2504.2 Hot work prohibited. It shall be unlawful in a tire stor- 
age yard to conduct hot work operations. 

2504.3 Smoking prohibited. It shall be unlawful in a tire stor- 
age yard to smoke. 

2504.4 Power lines. Tire storage piles shall not be located 
beneath electrical power lines having a voltage in excess of 750 
volts or near lines supplying power to fire emergency systems 
where a fire in such storage piles would damage such lines. 

2504.5 Reserved. 

2504.6 Communications. A telephone not requiring a coin to 
operate, or other approved clearly identified means to notify 
the department, shall be provided at the facility in an approved 
location. A sign shall be conspicuously posted at or near the 
telephone indicating that all fires shall be immediately reported 
to the department, and setting forth the facility's address with 
cross-street reference and the fire department telephone num- 
ber. 



SECTION FC 2505 
OUTDOOR STORAGE 

2505.1 Individual piles. Tire storage shall be restricted to indi- 
vidual piles not exceeding 5,000 square feet (464.5 m 2 ) of con- 
tinuous area. Piles shall not exceed 50,000 cubic feet (1416 m 3 ) 
in volume or 10 feet (3048 mm) in height. 

2505.2 Separation of piles. Individual tire storage piles shall 
be separated from other piles of salvage by a clear space of at 
least 40 feet (12 192 mm). 

2505.3 Distance between piles of other stored products. Tire 
storage piles shall be separated by a clear space of at least 40 
feet (12 192 mm) from piles of other stored product. 

2505.4 Distance from lot lines and buildings. Tire storage 
piles shall be located at least 50 feet (1 5 240 mm) from lot lines 
and buildings unless the commissioner approves a lesser sepa- 
ration distance of tire storage piles in accordance with the crite- 
ria set forth in NFPA 23 ID. 

2505.5 Fire breaks. Storage yards shall be maintained free 
from combustible ground vegetation for a distance of 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) from the stored material to grass and weeds; and 
for a distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm) from the stored product 
to brush and forested areas. 

2505.6 Volume more than 150,000 cubic feet. Where the bulk 
volume of stored material is more than 150,000 cubic feet 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE 



(4248 m 3 ), fire breaks shall be provided around the perimeter of 
each group of storage piles in accordance with the following: 

1. Individual storage piles shall be arranged so that there 
are not more than 1 6 individual storage piles per group. 

2. Fire breaks shall at least be 75 feet (22 860 mm) wide. 

2505.7 Location of storage. Outdoor waste tire storage shall 
not be located under bridges, elevated trestles, elevated road- 
ways or elevated railroads. 



be more than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Tires stored adjacent to or 
along one wall shall not extend more than 25 feet (7620 mm) 
from that wall. Other piles shall not be more than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) in width. 



SECTION FC 2506 
FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS 

2506.1 Required access. New and existing tire storage yards 
shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accor- 
dance with Section 503 and this section. 

2506.2 Location. Fire apparatus access roads shall be located 
within all pile clearances identified in Section 2505.4 and 
within all fire breaks required in Sections 2505.5 and 2505.6. 
Access roadways shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of any 
point in the storage yard where storage piles are located, at least 
20 feet (6096 mm) from any storage pile. 



SECTION FC 2507 
FENCING 

2507.1 Where required. Where the bulk volume of stored 
material is more than 20,000 cubic feet (566 m 3 ), a firmly 
anchored fence or other approved method of security that con- 
trols unauthorized access to the storage yard shall surround the 
storage yard. 

2507.2 Construction. The fence shall be constructed of 
approved materials and shall be at least 6 feet (1 829 mm) high 
and provided with gates at least 20 feet (6096 mm) wide. 
Where gates are constructed, they shall comply with the verti- 
cal clearance requirements of Section 503.6. 

2507.3 Security. All gates to the storage yard shall be locked 
when the storage yard is not staffed. 



SECTION FC 2508 
FIRE PROTECTION 

2508.1 Water supply. A public or private fire protection water 
supply shall be provided in accordance with Section 508. The 
water supply shall be arranged such that any part of the storage 
yard can be reached by using not more than 300 feet (91 m) of 
hose. 

2508.2 Portable fire extinguishers. Buildings or structures 
shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers in accor- 
dance with Section 906. Fuel-fired vehicles operating in the 
storage yard shall be equipped with a minimum 2-A:20-B:C 
rated portable fire extinguisher. 



SECTION FC 2509 
INDOOR STORAGE ARRANGEMENT 

2509.1 Pile dimensions. Where tires are stored on-tread, the 
dimension of the pile in the direction of the wheel hole shall not 



188 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



CHAPTER 26 

WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK 



1 SECTION FC 2601 

GENERAL 

I 2601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern welding, cutting and 
other torch and hot work operations and equipment. 

2601.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2601.3 Approved locations. Hot work shall be conducted only 
in the areas set forth in this section or approved by the commis- 
sioner. 

2601.3.1 Authorized areas. Hot work may be conducted in 
the following areas: 

1 . Areas designed for hot work operations. 

2. Areas authorized for that purpose by the responsible 
person at the premises when precautions have been 
taken in compliance with the requirements of this 
chapter. 

2601.3.2 Restricted areas. Hot work shall not be con- 
ducted in the following areas unless approval has been 
obtained from the commissioner: 

1. Areas where the sprinkler system is impaired. 

2. Areas where there exists the potential of an explosive 
atmosphere, such as locations where flammable 
gases, liquids or vapors are present. 

3 . Areas with readily ignitable materials, such as storage 
of large quantities of bulk sulfur, baled paper, cotton, 
lint, dust or loose combustible materials. 

4. On board marine vessels or watercraft at dock under 
construction or repair. 

T 2601.4 Containers. Compressed gas containers shall be 
designed, installed, operated and maintained in accordance 
with this chapter and Chapter 30. 

2601.5 Design and installation of oxygen-fuel gas systems. 
An oxygen-fuel gas system shall be designed and installed in 

| accordance with NFPA 51 and ANSI Z49.1, as applicable. 

2601.5.1 Oxygen at construction sites. The storage and 
use of oxygen at a construction site shall additionally com- 
ply with the requirements of Chapter 14. 

2601.6 Torches. Torches and tips that utilize a flammable gas 
for hot work operations shall be listed. 



| SECTION FC 2602 

DEFINITIONS 

2602.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

IFIRE GUARD. A person holding a certificate of fitness for 
such purpose, who is trained in and responsible for maintaining 



a fire watch and performing such fire safety duties as may be 1 
prescribed by the commissioner. I 

HOT WORK. Cutting, welding, thermit welding, brazing, «■ 
soldering, grinding, thermal spraying, thawing pipe, 
cadwelding, installation of torch-applied roof systems or any 
other similar operation or activity. I 

HOT WORK AREA. The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, 
radiant heat, or convective heat as a result of hot work. 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. Electric or gas welding or cut- ^ 
ting equipment used for hot work. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. A program, implemented by a 
responsible person designated by the owner of a building or 
structure in or on which hot work is being performed, to over- 
see and issue authorizations for such hot work for the purpose 
of preventing fire and fire spread. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM AUTHORIZATIONS. Authori- 
zations issued by the responsible person under a hot work pro- 
gram allowing welding or other hot work to be performed at the 
premises. 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the fire safety 
hazards associated with hot work and in the necessary and 
appropriate measures to minimize those hazards, who is desig- 
nated by the owner of a premises to authorize the performance 
of hot work at the premises. 

TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. Bituminous roofing 
systems using membranes that are adhered by heating with a 
torch and melting asphalt back coating instead of mopping hot 
asphalt for adhesion. 



SECTION FC 2603 I 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

2603.1 General. Hot work operations, including temporary 1 
and fixed hot work areas, shall be conducted in accordance 1 
with this chapter. 

2603.1.1 Torch operations using LPG. The use of LPG for 

torch operations shall additionally comply with the require- 
ments of Chapter 38. 

2603.1.2 Torch operations using CNG. The use of CNG 
for torch operations shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of Chapter 35. 

2603.2 Hot work program. Whenever hot work is performed 
in any building or structure, on a building roof or on a building 
setback, the owner shall ensure that such work is performed in 
accordance with this chapter and shall designate a responsible 
person to ensure compliance. 

2603.2.1 Hot work program responsible person. The 
responsible person shall ensure that a permit has been 
obtained from the department when one is required, and 
ensure that the hot work is performed in compliance with 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK 



the terms and conditions of the permit. The responsible per- 
son shall inspect the hot work site prior to issuing a hot work 
program authorization and periodically monitor the work as 
it is being performed to ensure there are no fire safety haz- 
ards. 

2603.2.2 Responsible person supervision. Hot work oper- 
ations shall be conducted under the general supervision of 
the responsible person. 

2603.3 Hot work program authorization. A hot work pro- 
gram authorization bearing the signature of the responsible 
person shall be obtained for any project conducted on a pre- 
mises involving hot work operations by the person in charge of 
such hot work operations. Hot work authorizations, issued by 
the responsible person, shall be available for inspection by any 
representative of the department during the performance of the 
work and for 48 hours after the work is complete. 

2603.4 Qualifications of operators. An authorization for hot 
work operations shall not be issued unless the individuals in 
charge of performing such operations are capable of perform- 
ing such operations safely. Demonstration of a working knowl- 
edge of the provisions of this chapter shall constitute 
acceptable evidence of compliance with this requirement. 

2603.4.1 Torch operations using oxygen and flammable 
gases. Torch operations using oxygen and a flammable gas, 
and any torch operation for torch-applied roof systems, 
shall be performed by a certificate of fitness holder. 

Exception: Torch operations using oxygen and piped 
natural gas for manufacturing jewelry may be performed 
under the personal supervision of a certificate of fitness 
holder, who shall be responsible to regulate the pressure 
and flow of oxygen and natural gas to each torch. 

2603.5 Records. The responsible person for the hot work area 
shall maintain "prework check" reports in accordance with 
Section 2604.3. 1 . These reports shall be maintained on the pre- 
mises for a minimum of 48 hours after work is complete. 

2603.6 Signage. Visible hazard identification signs shall be 
provided where required by Chapter 27. Where the hot work 
area is accessible to persons other than the operator of the hot 
work equipment, signs shall be posted in a conspicuous loca- 
tion to warn others before they enter the hot work area. Such 
signs shall read as follows: 

CAUTION 

HOT WORK IN PROGRESS 

STAY CLEAR. 



SECTION FC 2604 
FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

2604.1 Protection of combustibles. Combustible material and 
combustible waste shall be protected in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2604.1.1 through 2604.1.9. 

2604.1.1 Separation from combustibles. Hot work areas 
shall not be less than 35 feet (10 668 mm) from combustible 
materials and combustible waste or shall be provided with 
appropriate shielding to prevent sparks, slag or heat from 
igniting exposed combustibles. 



2604.1.2 Openings. Openings or cracks in walls, floors, 
ducts or shafts within 35 feet (10 668 mm) of the hot work 
area shall be tightly covered to prevent the passage of sparks 
to adjacent combustible areas, or shielded by metal 
fire-resistant guards, or provided with curtains to prevent 
passage of sparks or slag. 

2604.1.3 Housekeeping. Combustible waste shall not be 
allowed to accumulate on floors and other surfaces within 
the hot work area. Hot work areas shall be regularly cleaned 
and combustible waste removed and disposed of lawfully. 

2604.1.4 Conveyor systems. Conveyor systems that are 
capable of carrying sparks to distant combustibles shall be 
shielded or shut down. 

2604.1.5 Partitions. Partitions segregating hot work areas 
from other areas of the building shall be of noncombustible 
construction. In fixed hot work areas, the partitions shall be 
securely connected to the floor such that no gap exists 
between the floor and the partition. Partitions shall prevent 
the passage of sparks, slag and heat from the hot work area. 

2604.1.5.1 Motor-fuel dispensing facilities. The use of 
a torch within a repair garage located on a property upon 
which a motor-fuel dispensing facility is situated shall be 
conducted within a fire-rated enclosure. All doors of 
such enclosure shall be fireproof and self-closing. 

2604.1.5.2 Repair garages. In a repair garage with a 
capacity for more than one vehicle, hot work shall be 
conducted within a fire-rated enclosure in compliance 
with Section 2604.1.5.1 or behind a noncombustible 
screen that is positioned and of sufficient size to prevent 
the passage of sparks, slag and heat from the hot work 
area. 

2604. 1 .6 Floors. Fixed hot work areas shall have floors with 
noncombustible surfaces. 

2604.1.7 Precautions in hot work. Hot work shall not be 
performed on a container or equipment that contains or has 
contained flammable liquids, gases or solids until the con- 
tainer or equipment has been thoroughly cleaned, inerted or 
purged; except that "hot tapping" shall be allowed at bulk 
plants and terminals on tanks and piping when such work is 
conducted by competent personnel. Hot work involving cut- 
ting, welding or heating of any flammable solid in any form 
shall be conducted only with the approval of the commis- 
sioner. 

2604.1.8 Sprinkler protection. Sprinkler system protec- 4 
tion shall not be shut off or impaired while hot work is per- j 
formed unless approved by the commissioner. Where hot i 
work is performed close to sprinklers, noncombustible bar- 4 
riers or damp cloth guards shall shield the individual sprin- 
kler heads and shall be removed when the work is 
completed. If the work extends over several days, the shields 
shall be removed at the end of each workday. 4 

2604.1.9 Fire detection systems. Approved special precau- 
tions shall be taken to avoid accidental operation of auto- 
matic fire detection systems. 



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2604.2 Fire watch. A fire watch shall be maintained and fire 
guards provided in accordance with Sections 2604.2. 1 through 
2604.2.7. 

2604.2.1 When required. A fire watch shall be maintained 
during hot work operations. The fire watch shall continue 
for a minimum of 30 minutes after the conclusion of the 
work. The commissioner, or the responsible person imple- 
menting a hot work program, may extend the duration of the 
fire watch based on the hazards or work being performed. 

2604.2.2 Location. The fire watch shall observe the entire 
hot work area. Hot work conducted in areas with vertical or 
horizontal fire exposures that are not observable by a single 
individual shall have additional personnel assigned to 
ensure that exposed areas are monitored. 

2604.2.3 Duties. Individuals assigned to fire watch duty 
shall have fire extinguishing equipment readily available 
and shall be trained in the use of such equipment. Individu- 
als assigned to fire watch duty shall be responsible for iden- 
tifying and extinguishing spot fires and reporting such fires 
to the department. 

2604.2.4 Fire training. The individuals responsible for per- 
► forming the hot work, and for the fire watch, shall be trained 

in the use of portable fire extinguishers. 

2604.2.5 Fire hoses. Where hose lines are required, they 
shall be connected, charged and ready for operation. 

2604.2.6 Portable fire extinguishers. A minimum of one 
portable fire extinguisher complying with the requirements 
of Section 906 and with a minimum 2-A:20-B:C rating shall 
be readily accessible within 30 feet (9144 mm) of the loca- 
tion where hot work is performed and where the fire guards 
are positioned. 

2604.2.7 Fire guards for torch operations. The fire watch 
for torch operations conducted at the following locations 
shall be conducted by fire guards: 

1 . Construction sites. 

2. On any rooftop, or in connection with any 
torch-applied roof system operation. 

3. In any building or structure, when the torch operation 
is conducted by a person holding a citywide permit 
for torch operations. 

2604.2.7.1 Construction sites and torch-applied roof 
systems. A fire guard shall be provided for each torch 
operation at a construction site and in connection with 
torch-applied roofing system operations. A fire guard 
shall be provided for each torch in operation. An addi- 
tional fire guard shall be provided on the floor or level 
below the torch operation. 

2604.3 Area reviews. Before hot work is authorized and at 
least once per day while the authorization is in effect, the hot 
work area shall be inspected by the responsible person to 
ensure that it is a fire safe area. 

2604.3.1 Pre-hot work check. A pre-hot work check shall 
be conducted by the responsible person prior to work to 
ensure that all equipment is safe and hazards are recognized 
and protected. A report of the check shall be kept at the work 



site during the work and made available for inspection by 
any representative of the department. The pre-hot work 
check shall be conducted at least once per day and shall ver- 
ify the following: 

1. The hot work equipment is in good working order. 

2. The hot work area is clear of combustibles and flam- 
mable solids or that such materials present in the 
area are protected in accordance with Section 
2604.1.1. 

3. Exposed construction is of noncombustible materi- 
als or, if combustible, is protected. 

4. Openings are protected. 

5. Hot work area floors are clear of combustible waste 
accumulation. 

6. Reserved. 

7. Fire watch personnel, where required, are assigned. 

8. Approved actions have been taken to prevent acci- 
dental activation of extinguishing and detection 
equipment in accordance with Sections 2604.1.8 
and 2604. 1.9. 

9. Portable fire extinguishers and fire hoses (where 
provided) are operable and available. 

10. All persons performing hot work possess certifi- 
cates of fitness, where such certificates are required. 

11. All persons performing hot work requiring a permit 
possess a site-specific permit or citywide permit, 
authorizing such work. 



SECTION FC 2605 ■ 

GAS WELDING AND CUTTING 

2605.1 General. Devices or attachments mixing air or oxygen 
with flammable gases prior to consumption, except at the § 
burner or in a standard torch or blow pipe, shall not be allowed 
unless approved. 

2605.2 Container storage, handling and use. Storage, han- «n 
dling and use of compressed gas containers shall be in accor- 1 
dance with this section and Chapter 30. 

2605.3 Precautions. Containers, valves, regulators, hose and I 
other apparatus and fittings for oxygen shall be kept free of oil 
or grease. Oxygen containers, apparatus and fittings shall not 
be handled with oily hands, oily gloves, or greasy tools or 
equipment. 

2605.4 Acetylene gas. Acetylene gas shall not be piped except 
in approved container manifolds and container manifold con- 
nections, or piped or utilized at a pressure exceeding 15 pounds 
per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa). Acetylene gas stored in 1 
containers shall be dissolved in a suitable solvent. Acetylene I 
gas shall not be brought in contact with unalloyed copper, 
except in a torch. 

2605.5 Remote locations. Oxygen and fuel gas containers 1 
shall be located at a distance from the hot work area sufficient | 
to protect such containers from heat, sparks, slag, or misdirec- 1 
tion of the torch flame. 



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2605.6 Container shutoff. The torch valve shall be closed and 
the gas supply to the torch completely shut off when hot work 
operations are discontinued for a period of 1 hour or more. 

2605.6.1 Emergency shutoff 3 . Oxygen and fuel gas con- 
tainer valves shall be accessible to the torch operator or fire 
guard for immediate shutoff 3 of the gas supply in the event 
of an emergency. 

2605.7 Prohibited operations. The following hot work opera- 
tions shall be prohibited. 

1 . Welding or cutting operations supported by or resting on 
compressed gas containers. 

2. Torch-applied roof system operations on roofs con- 
structed of combustible materials. 

3. Use of acetylene generators. 

12605.8 Tests. It shall be unlawful to test piping equipment or 
systems for leaks using a flame. Tests for suspected leaks in 
piping equipment and systems shall be made using soapy 

■■► water. 



SECTION FC 2606 
ELECTRIC ARC HOT WORK 

2606.1 General. The frame or case of electric hot work 
machines, except internal-combustion-engine-driven 
machines, shall be grounded. Ground connections shall be 
mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required 
current. 

2606.2 Return circuits. Welding current return circuits from 
the work to the machine shall have proper electrical contact at 
joints. The electrical contact shall be periodically inspected. 

2606.3 Disconnecting. Electrodes shall be removed from the 
holders when electric arc welding or cutting is discontinued for 
any period of 1 hour or more. The holders shall be located to 
prevent accidental contact and the machines shall be discon- 
nected from the power source. 

2606.4 Emergency disconnect. A switch or circuit breaker 
shall be provided so that fixed electric welders and control 
equipment can be disconnected from the supply circuit. The 
disconnect shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical 
Code. 

2606.5 Damaged cable. Damaged cable shall be removed 
from service until properly repaired or replaced. 



SECTION FC 2607 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 2608 
RESERVED 



SECTION FC 2609 

PIPING MANIFOLDS AND HOSE SYSTEMS FOR 

FUEL GASES AND OXYGEN 

2609.1 General. The use of piping manifolds, protective 
equipment and hose systems in oxygen-fuel gas systems, 
including natural gas supplied from a utility for use in an oxy- 
gen-fuel gas system, shall be designed, installed, operated and 
maintained in accordance with Section FC 2609, Chapter 30 
andNFPA51. 

2609.2 Protection. Piping shall be protected against physical 
damage. 

2609.3 Signage. Signage shall be provided for piping and hose 
systems as follows: 

1. Aboveground piping systems shall be marked in accor- 
dance with ANSI A 13.1. 

2. Station outlets shall be marked to indicate their intended 
usage. 

3. Signs shall be posted, indicating clearly the location and 
identity of section shutoff valves. 

2609.4 Manifolding of containers. Oxygen manifolds shall 
be located at least 20 feet (6096 mm) away from combustible ■ 
waste and combustible material, including oil and grease, and 
gas containers containing flammable gases, unless the gas con- 
tainers are separated from each other by a fire partition. 

2609.5 Identification of manifolds. Signs shall be posted for 
oxygen manifolds with service pressures not exceeding 250 
psig (1379 kPa). Such signs shall read as follows: 

LOW-PRESSURE MANIFOLD 

DO NOT CONNECT HIGH-PRESSURE CONTAINERS 

MAXIMUM PRESSURE 250 PSIG 

2609.6 Clamps. Hose connections shall be clamped or other- 
wise securely fastened. 

2609.7 Inspection. Hoses shall be inspected frequently for 
leaks, burns, wear, loose connections or other defects. < 

2609.8 Piped natural gas precautions. When piped natural 
gas is used with oxygen in any hot work operation, a listed pro- 
tective device that serves as a combination flashback arrester 
and backflow check valve shall be provided at an approved 
location on both the natural gas and oxygen supply lines so as 
to ensure the safe operation of all devices, equipment and sys- 
tems, including the utility gas meter. Where pressure of the 
piped natural gas supply is insufficient to ensure such safe 
operation, approved equipment shall be provided between the 
gas meter and the fuel-consuming 4 appliance that increases 
such pressure to the level required for such safe operation. Not- 
withstanding any section of this code to the contrary, such 
flashback arresters and check valves, and pressure-increasing 4 
equipment, shall be installed as components of both new and 
existing installations. Installations involving the use of piped 
natural gas with oxygen in any hot work operation shall addi- 
tionally comply with the rules. 



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CHAPTER 27 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



SECTION FC 2701 
GENERAL 

2701.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the storage, handling, 
use and transportation of hazardous materials. Hazardous 
material storage, handling and use shall additionally comply 
with the requirements of the New York State Department of 
Environmental Conservation regulations, as set forth in 6 
NYCRR Parts 595 through 614. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The storage, handling and use in retail or wholesale 
sales occupancies of alcoholic beverages, medi- 
cines, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and consumer products 
containing not more than 50 percent by volume of 
water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the 
solutions not being flammable, when packaged in 
individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 
L) in volume. 

2. Storage, handling and use of hazardous materials for 
agricultural purposes as a pesticide, fertilizer or sim- 
ilar application, when approved for such use by the 
regulatory agency having jurisdiction and when 
such storage, handling and use is in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

3. Reserved. 

4. Reserved. 

5. Refrigerating systems when designed, installed, 
operated and maintained in accordance with the 
Mechanical Code and Section 606. 

6. Stationary lead-acid batteries when in accordance 
with Section 608. 

7 . The storage, handling and use, including storage for 

► sale, of fireworks, in accordance with Chapter 33. 

8. The storage, handling and use of corrosives in 
Group M occupancies, including storage for sale, of 
personal and household products, when in the man- 

► ufacturer's original consumer packaging. 

9. The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden 
barrels and casks. 

10. The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing 
alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or 
Class II liquids when in accordance with Section 

3405.5. 

2701.1.1 Relationship with other chapters. This chapter 
shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those mate- 
rials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that when spe- 
cific requirements inconsistent with the provisions of this 
chapter are set forth elsewhere in this code, those specific 
requirements shall apply to the extent that they are inconsis- 
tent. Where a material is in multiple hazard categories, com- 
pliance with each hazard category shall be required. Where 



a material is both a physical hazard and a health hazard, 1 
compliance with the requirements for each hazard category 
shall be required. 

2701.2 Material classification. Hazardous materials shall be 
classified by physical hazard, health hazard and/or other haz- 
ards associated with the properties of the material, or if the haz- 
ardous material is a mixture, with the hazards associated with 
the mixture as a whole. The commissioner may determine the 
appropriate hazard classification of a hazardous material, or 
may accept the classification set forth in nationally recognized 
standards, material safety data sheets, or other approved stan- 
dard or method. 

2701.2.1 Reserved. I 

2701.2.2 Reserved. 1 

2701.2.2.1 Physical hazards. The material categories 
listed in this section are classified primarily as physical 
hazards. 

1. Explosives and blasting agents. 

2. Flammable and combustible liquids. 

3. Flammable solids and gases. 

4. Organic peroxide materials. 

5. Oxidizer materials. 

6. Pyrophoric materials. 

7. Unstable (reactive) materials. 

8. Water-reactive solids and liquids. 

9. Cryogenic fluids. 

2701.2.2.2 Health hazards. The material categories 
listed in this section are classified primarily as health 
hazards. «■ 

1 . Highly toxic and toxic materials. 

2. Corrosive materials. 

2701.3 Reserved. 1 

2701.4 Retail and wholesale storage and display. For retail 
and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and 
nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials 
in Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, 
see Section 2703.11. 

2701.5 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. *■ 

2701.5.1 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. The 
commissioner may require each application for a permit to 1 
include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). 
Such plan shall be drawn approximately to scale. The 1 
HMMP shall contain the following: *■ 

1. Storage, handling and use areas. 



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2. Maximum amount of each material stored, handled or 
used in each area. 

3. Type and size of containers to be used for storage. 

4. Location of valves and devices used to control and 
mitigate the accidental or unauthorized release of 
hazardous materials, and where such valves are of the 
self-indicating type, an illustration of their on and off 
position. 

5. Piping through which hazardous material liquids or 
gases are transferred, other than utility-owned natural 
gas lines and low-pressure natural gas lines subject to 
compliance with the requirements of the Plumbing 
Code. 

6. Reserved. 

7. Storage plan showing the storage arrangement, 
including the location and dimensions of aisles. 

8. The location and type of emergency equipment. 

9. Such other information and documentation as the 
commissioner may prescribe. 

2701.5.2 Hazardous materials reporting. The storage of 
hazardous materials shall be reported as required by the 
New York State General Municipal Law Section 209-u. The 
commissioner may require an application for a permit pur- 
suant to this code to include a copy of the current filing pur- 
suant to such New York State General Municipal Law for 
the facility or premises for which a permit is sought. 

2701.6 Facility closure. Facilities shall be placed permanently 
out of service in accordance with Sections 2701.6.2 and 
2701.6.3 and, as applicable, with the New York State Depart- 
ment of Environmental Conservation regulations as set forth in 
6 NYCRR Sections 598.10 and 613.9. 

2701.6.1 Reserved. 

2701.6.2 Permanently out of service facilities. Facilities 
that are not operated for a period of more than one year or for 
which a permit has lapsed for more than one year shall be 
deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed 
in an approved manner. 

2701.6.3 Facility closure plan. The commissioner may 
require permittees to apply for approval to permanently 
close a facility that manufactures, stores, handles or uses 
hazardous materials. Such application shall be submitted at 
least 30 days prior to the planned closure of the facility. 
Such plan and/or such other requirements as the commis- 
sioner may prescribe shall demonstrate that hazardous 
materials that are manufactured, stored, handled or used in 
the facility will be lawfully disposed of in a manner that 
eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat 
to public health and safety. 



SECTION FC 2702 
DEFINITIONS 

2702.1 Definitions. The following terms shall, for the pur- 
poses of this chapter, Chapters 28 through 44, and as used else- 
where in this code, have the meanings shown herein. 



BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds 
per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where 
a boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for 
mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the 
purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point 
of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 
shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. 

CARGO TANK. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car or 
marine vessel, with a tank mounted thereon or built as an inte- 
gral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or 
combustible liquids, LPG or other hazardous materials, includ- 
ing self-propelled vehicles and full trailers and semi-trailers, 
with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the 
load. 

CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air- 
borne contaminant to which one may be exposed shall be as 
established by the regulations of the United States Department 
of Labor, as setforth in 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, or if not listed 
therein, the ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) 
concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Threshold Limit 
Value — Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the 
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists 
(ACGIH), the ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure 
Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), or other approved 
standard. 

CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture of 
elements or compounds or both. 

CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemi- 
cal in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by 
the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the 
Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name 
that will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conduct- 
ing an evaluation. 

CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a lid 
or other device capable of preventing the escape of liquid, 
vapor or dusts in the ordinary course of storage, handling or 
use. 

CONTAINER. For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a 
vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in capacity used for storage 
or transportation. For compressed gases, a cylinder, pressure 
vessel or tank designed for pressures greater than one atmo- 
sphere at 68°F (20°C). Pipes, piping systems, engines and 
engine fuel tanks associated with solid or liquid hazardous 
materials or compressed gases, shall not be deemed to be con- 
tainers if in active use. 

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building that are 1 
enclosed and bounded by exterior walls, fire walls, fire barriers 
and roofs, or a combination thereof, where quantities of haz- 
ardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quan- 
tities per control area are stored, handled or used, including any 1 
dispensing. § 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material 



194 



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1 



i 



at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have 
an explosive effect. 

DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a 
pressure vessel, device, component or system is designed to 
withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use. 

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, 
without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage, han- 
dling or use of hazardous materials and located an approved 
distance from other buildings or structures. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring by other means of 
any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, which 
would release dusts, fumes, mists, vapors or gases to the atmo- 
sphere, unless such release is prevented by a device, equipment 
or system designed for that purpose. 

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other 
approved device, equipment or system designed to shut off 
flow caused by a rupture in a pressurized piping system. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. A device, typically consisting 
of a hood equipped with a fan that serves to capture and exhaust 
fumes, mist, vapors and gases generated at a workstation or 
other local environment. An exhausted enclosure does not 
include a room provided with general ventilation. 

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, whether or not accompanied by a shock 
wave or disruption, of enclosing materials, including the 
effects of the following sources of explosion: 

1 . Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration 
or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway 
polymerization (usually detonations). 

2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures. 

3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion). 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration 
of flammable constituents in air that exceeds 25 percent of their 
lower flammable limit (LFL). 

GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure 
used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas 
containers in storage or use, including any doors and access 
ports for exchanging containers and accessing pressure-regu- 
lating controls. 

GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in 
which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

HANDLING. The movement of a material in its container, the 
removal of the material from its container, or any other action 
or process that may affect the material, other than its storage or 
use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or sub- 
stances that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined 
and classified in this chapter, whether the materials are in 
usable or waste condition. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 



health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic, highly 
toxic and corrosive. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants that 
poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent 
adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from 
such an environment, as established by the National Institute of 4 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxic- 
ity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per mil- 
lion by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter 
(mg/m 3 ). If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment 
of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial 
hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory 
agency or other source approved by the commissioner shall 
make such determination. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, if mixed or 
combined, could explode, generate heat, gases or other byprod- 
ucts, or react in a way hazardous to life or property. 

LABORATORY CHEMICAL. A material with a health, 
flammability and/or instability hazard ranking of 2, 3 or 4 as 
defined in NFPA 704. 

LABORATORY UNIT. An enclosed space of a minimum 
one-hour fire-rated 4 construction, designed or used as a 
non-production laboratory. Laboratory units may include one 
or more separate laboratory work areas, and accessory storage 
rooms or spaces within or contiguous with the laboratory unit, 
such as offices and lavatories. 

LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or 
less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68°F (20°C) at 14.7 psia (101 kPa). When not otherwise identi- 
fied, the term "liquid" includes both flammable and combusti- 
ble liquids. 

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See "Lower flamma- 
ble limit." 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum con- 
centration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will 
occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is some- 
times referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). A document 
prepared in accordance with the regulations of the United 
States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 
1910. 1200 or a federally approved state OSHA plan which sets 
forth information concerning a hazardous material. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. The maximum amount of a hazardous material 
allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a build- 
ing or structure or an outdoor control area. 

NON-PRODUCTION LABORATORY. A building or por- 
tion thereof wherein chemicals or gases are stored, handled or 
used on a non-production basis for testing, research, experi- 
mental, instructional or educational purposes. 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A 
temperature of 70°F (21 °C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. 



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OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that con- 
tains hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities of Table 2703 . 1 . 1 (3) or 2703 . 1 . 1 (4) . 

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum 
permitted 8-hour time-weighted-average concentration of an 

I air-borne contaminant as established by the regulations of the 
United States Department of Labor, as set forth in 29 CFR Part 
1910.1 000, the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concen- 
trations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Threshold Limit 
Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) concentrations 
published by the American Conference of Governmental 
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the Workplace Environmental 
Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American 

I Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), or other approved 
standard. 

PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including 

(fungicides, but excluding any product defined as a drag in the 
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, intended for the pur- 
pose of preventing, repelling or killing pests or pest infesta- 
tions, or for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. 

I PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate at 
pressures above 15 psig (103 kPa). 

■ SAFETY CAN. An approved container with a capacity of not 
more than 5-gallons (1 9 L) and equipped with a spring-closing 
§a#> lid and spout cover designed to relieve internal pressure when 
1 exposed to fire. 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. A device, equipment or 
system designed to contain liquid or solid, that is external to 
and separate from the primary containment device, equipment 
or system. 

SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or 
sublimates at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 

■ STANDARD CUBIC FEET (SCF). Cubic feet of gas at nor- 
mal temperature and pressure (NTP). 

1 SYSTEM. An assembly of devices, equipment, containers, 
appurtenances, pumps, compressors and connecting piping 

■ that is designed to perform a complex and/or complete func- 
tion. 

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to operate 
at pressures from atmospheric through 1.0 pound per square 
inch gauge (760 mm Hg through 812 mm Hg) measured at the 
top of the tank. 

1 TANK, PORTABLE. A container of more than 60-gallon 
■t (227 L) capacity, and designed to be loaded into or on or tem- 
1 porarily attached to a transport vehicle or marine vessel and 
equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate han- 
dling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include any 
w$ cargo tank or tank car. 

TANK, STATIONARY. A container having not less than 
1,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity, designed primarily for 
stationary installations, and not intended to be moved in the 
course of normal use. 



VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid, 
as determined in accordance with ASTM D 323. 



SECTION FC 2703 I 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

2703.1 General. Hazardous materials shall be manufactured, 
stored, handled, used and transported in accordance with this 
chapter. 

2703.1.1 Maximum allowable quantity per control area. 
The maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be 

as specified in Tables 2703.1. 1(1) through 2703. 1.1(4), and 1 
for retail and wholesale storage and display in Group M 
occupancies, and Group S storage, as specified in Section 1 
2703.11. 

2703.1.2 Conversion. A conversion factor of 10 pounds per 
gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used to ascertain the weight per 
gallon of liquid when such weight is not provided or other- 
wise available to the commissioner. 

2703.1.3 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantity per control area. The storage, handling and 
use of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in 
Tables 2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 2701 and 2703. 

2703.1.4 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area. The storage, handling and use § 
of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maxi- 
mum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 
2703.1.1(1) through 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance 
with this chapter. 

2703.1.5 Additional specific requirements. The storage, 
handling and use of hazardous materials shall additionally 
comply with the specific requirements of Chapters 28 
through 44, as applicable. 

2703.2 Devices, equipment, systems and processes. Devices, 1 
equipment, systems and processes utilized for storage, han- *■ 
dling and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance 
with Sections 2703.2. 1 through 2703.2.8 and the regulations of 
the New York State Department of Environmental Conserva- 
tion as set forth in 6 NYCRR Parts 596, 598, 599, 612, 613 and 
614. 

2703.2.1 Design and construction of containers and 

tanks. Containers and tanks shall be designed and con- *■ 
structed in accordance with approved standards. Contain- 
ers, tanks and other means used for containment of ^ 
hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. 

2703.2.2 Piping, tubing, valves and fittings. Piping, tub- 
ing, valves and fittings conveying hazardous materials, 
except piping for inlet connections to prevent backflow or I 
piping for pressure relief devices, shall be designed and 1 
installed in accordance with approved standards and Sec- 
tions 2703.2.2.1 and 2703.2.2.2. 



196 



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2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



201 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



2703.2.2.1 Design and construction. Piping, tubing, 
I valves, fittings and ancillary equipment used for hazard- 

ous materials shall be in accordance with the following: 

1 1. Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and ancillary equip- 

ment shall be designed and fabricated from materi- 
als compatible with the material to be contained 
and shall be of adequate strength and durability to 
withstand the pressure, structural and seismic 

I stress, and exposure to which they are subjected. 

2. Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance 
with ANSI A 13.1 to indicate the material con- 
veyed. 

3. Readily accessible manual valves, or automatic 
remotely-activated fail-safe emergency shutoff 
valves, shall be installed on supply piping and tub- 

Iing at the point of use and at the tank, container or 
other source of supply. 

w+ 4. Emergency shutoff valves shall be clearly visible 

I and readily accessible. A durable sign shall be con- 

spicuously posted immediately adjacent to such 
valves that identifies their location. 

5. Backflow prevention or check valves shall be pro- 
vided when the backflow of hazardous materials 
could create a hazardous condition or cause the 
unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials. 

6. Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of 
health hazard Class 3 or 4, flammability Class 4, or 
reactivity Class 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 

1 704 are conveyed in pressurized piping above 15 

pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa), an 
approved means of leak detection and emergency 
shutoff or excess flow control shall be provided. 
Where the piping originates from within a hazard- 
ous material storage room or area, the excess flow 
control shall be located within the storage room or 

I area. Where the piping originates from any other 

source of supply, the excess flow control shall be 
located as close to the source of supply as practical. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Piping for inlet connections designed to pre- 
vent backflow. 

2. Piping for pressure relief devices. 

2703.2.2.2 Additional regulations for supply piping 
for health-hazard materials. Supply piping and tubing 
for gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 
or 4 in accordance with NFPA704 shall be in accordance 
with ANSI B31.3 and the following: 



1. 



Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of 
highly toxic, toxic or highly volatile corrosive liq- 
uids and gases shall have welded, threaded or 
flanged connections throughout, except where 
connections are located within a ventilated enclo- 
sure if the material is a gas, or an approved method 
of drainage or containment is provided for connec- 
tions if the material is a liquid. 



2. Piping and tubing shall not be located within corri- 
dors, within any portion of a means of egress 
required to be enclosed in fire-resistance-rated 
construction or in concealed spaces in areas not 
classified as Group H occupancies. 

Exception: Piping and tubing within the space 
defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or 
roof above or in concealed spaces above other 
occupancies when installed in accordance with 
Section 415.9.6.3 of the Building Code for 
Group H-5 occupancies. 

2703.2.3 Devices, equipment and systems. Devices, 
equipment and systems, including required detection and 
alarm systems, installed or used in conjunction with the 
storage, handling and use of hazardous materials shall be 
listed or approved. 

2703.2.4 Installation of tanks. Installation of tanks shall be 
in accordance with Sections 2703.2.4.1 through 
2703.2.4.2. 1 and with the regulations of the New York State 
Department of Environmental Conservation as set forth in 6 
NYCRR Sections 599.6, 614.7 and 614.13. 

2703.2.4.1 Underground tanks. Underground tanks 
used for the storage of liquid hazardous materials shall 
be provided with secondary containment. < 

2703.2.4.2 Aboveground tanks. Aboveground station- 
ary tanks used for the storage of liquid hazardous materi- 
als shall be located and protected in compliance with the 
requirements for outdoor storage of the particular mate- 
rial involved. 

2703.2.4.2.1 Marking. Aboveground stationary 
tanks shall be marked as required by Section 2703.5. 

2703.2.5 Empty containers and tanks. Empty containers 
and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous 
materials shall be free from residual material and vapor in 
compliance with the requirements of DOTn, the Resource 
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or other govern- 
mental agencies having jurisdiction, or shall be stored, han- 
dled and used in compliance with the requirements of this 
code. 

2703.2.6 Maintenance. In addition to the requirements of 
Section 2703.2.3, all devices, equipment and systems used 
in conjunction with hazardous materials, including tanks, 
and detection and alarm systems, shall be maintained in 
good working order. Defective devices, equipment and sys- 
tems shall be removed from service and repaired or 
replaced, or disposed of lawfully. 

2703.2.6.1 Tanks out of service for 30 days. Stationary 
tanks not used for a period of 30 days or more shall be 
properly safeguarded or removed in an approved man- 
ner. Such tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and 
pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines 
shall be properly maintained. Stationary tanks contain- 
ing flammable and combustible liquid out of service for a 
period of 30 days or more shall additionally comply with 
the requirements of Section 3404.2.13. 



202 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



2703.2.6.1.1 Return to service. Tanks that are 
returned to service shall be tested in an approved man- 
ner prior to use. 

2703.2.7 Liquid-level limit control. Atmospheric tanks 
that contain hazardous material liquids shall be equipped 
with a liquid-level limit control or other approved means to 
prevent overfilling of the tank. 

Exception: Tanks with a capacity not exceeding 500 gal- 
lons (1893 L) that are filled from a source other than a 
cargo tank or tank car. 

2703.2.8 Seismic protection. Machinery and equipment 
utilizing hazardous materials shall be braced and anchored 
in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the 
Building Code for the seismic design category in which the 
machinery or equipment is classified. 

2703.3 Release and disposal of hazardous materials. It shall 
be unlawful to release or dispose of any amount of hazardous 
material, including pesticides and fertilizers used for domestic, 
agricultural or horticultural purposes, into a sewer, storm drain, 
ditch, drainage canal, creek, stream, river, lake or tidal water- 
way or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the 
atmosphere, except when allowed by federal, state or local reg- 
ulations or permits, including the regulations of the New York 
State Department of Environmental Conservation, as set forth 
in 6 NYCRR Parts 595 and 611. 

1 2703.3.1 Reporting of discharges. When hazardous mate- 
rials are released in quantities reportable under federal, state 

1 or local regulations, the commissioner shall be notified and 
the following procedures required in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2703.3.1.1 through 2703.3.1.4. 

2703.3.1.1 Records. Accurate records shall be kept of 
m+ the discharge of hazardous materials. 

2703.3.1.2 Preparation. Provisions shall be made for 
1 controlling and mitigating accidental discharges. 

b» 2703.3.1.3 Control. When a discharge is caused by a 

container failure, the container shall be repaired or 
removed from service. 

2703.3.1.4 Responsibility for cleanup. The owner of a 
facility or other person responsible for an accidental dis- 
charge shall undertake all actions necessary to remediate 
such discharge. When deemed necessary by the commis- 
sioner, cleanup may be initiated by the department or 
other city agency. Costs associated with such cleanup 
shall be borne by the owner or other person responsible 
for the discharge. The department shall give such owner 
or other person written notice of such costs and an oppor- 
tunity to be heard. Payment of such costs shall be recov- 
erable in any manner authorized by law, rule or 
regulation. Failure to pay such costs shall cause a lien to 
be placed upon the premises pursuant to the provisions of 
Section 1 17.4 of this code, as applicable, or against vehi- 
cles or other personal property in accordance with the 
provisions applicable thereto. Nothing in this section 
shall be construed to preclude the implementation of 
response measures, or the recovery of the costs of such 
measures, by any other city agency, either prior or subse- 



quent to any response measure implemented pursuant to 1 
this section. ' 

2703.4 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) shall be readily available on the premises for 
hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. -*■ 

2703.5 Hazard identification signs. Unless otherwise 
exempted by the commissioner, hazard identification signs as 1 
set forth in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall I 
be conspicuously affixed on stationary containers and above- 1 
ground tanks and at entrances to locations where hazardous 
materials are stored, handled or used, including dispensing, in 
quantities requiring a permit, including locations where such 
materials are dispensed, and at such other locations as may be 
designated by the commissioner. 

2703.5.1 Markings. Individual containers, cartons or pack- 
ages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in an 
approved manner. Signs reading "COMPRESSED GAS" 
shall be conspicuously posted at the entrance to rooms or on 
cabinets containing compressed gases. 

2703.6 Signs. Signs and markings required by Sections 2703.5 
and 2703.5. 1 shall not be obscured or removed, shall be in Eng- 
lish as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code, 
shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be 
acceptable to the commissioner. 

2703.7 Sources of ignition. Sources of ignition shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 2703.7.1 through 2703.7.3. 

2703.7. 1 Smoking. It shall be unlawful to smoke in the fol- 
lowing locations, and "No Smoking" signs shall be pro- 
vided in English as a primary language and in symbols 
complying with the requirements of Section 3 10: 

1. In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are 
stored or used in open systems in amounts requiring a < 
permit. 

2. Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor hazardous 
material storage, handling and use areas, including 
dispensing areas. 

3. Facilities or areas within facilities in which smoking 
has been entirely prohibited shall have "No Smoking" 
signs conspicuously placed at all entrances to the 
facility or area. Facilities or areas within facilities in 
which smoking is permitted in designated areas shall 
have signs indicating that smoking is permitted in 
designated areas only. 

4. In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible 
hazardous materials are stored, handled or used. 

2703.7.2 Open flames. Open flames and devices that gen- 
erate or operate at a high temperature shall be kept a safe dis- 
tance from hazardous material in storage or use. 

2703.7.3 Industrial trucks. Powered industrial trucks used 
in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations in 
accordance with the Electrical Code shall be listed and 1 
labeled in accordance with NFPA 505. *■ 

2703.8 Construction requirements. Buildings, structures, 1 
control areas, enclosures and cabinets for hazardous materials 



! 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



203 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



1 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 
2703.8.1 through 2703.8.6.2. 

i 2703.8.1 Buildings. Buildings, structures, or portions 
thereof, in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or 
used shall be constructed in accordance with the construc- 
tion codes, including the Building Code. 

2703.8.2 Required detached buildings. Group H occupan- 
cies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess 
of those set forth in Table 2703.8.2 shall be in detached 
buildings. 

2703.8.3 Control areas. Control areas shall be those spaces 
I within a building or structure and outdoor areas where quan- 
tities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 

I quantities allowed by this code are stored, handled or used. 

2703.8.3.1 Construction requirements. Control areas 
shall be separated from each other by not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with the 
1 construction codes, including the Building Code. 



2703.8.3.2 Number. The maximum number of control 
areas within a building or structure shall be in accordance 
with Table 2703.8.3.2. 

2703.8.3.3 Separation. The required fire-resistance rat- 
ing for fire barrier assemblies shall be in accordance with 
Table 2703.8.3.2. The floor construction of the control 
area and construction supporting the floor of the control 
area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2703.8.3.4 Hazardous materials in Group M and S 
occupancies. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable 
solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid haz- 
ardous materials allowed within a single control area of a 
Group M or S occupancy is allowed to exceed the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities specified in Tables 
2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2) without classifying the 
building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that 
the materials are stored in accordance with Section 
2703.11. 



TABLE 2703.8.2 
REQUIRED DETACHED STORAGE 



DETACHED STORAGE IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 



Material 



Explosives 3 



Oxidizers 



Class 



Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4 C 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 



Class 4 



Unstable (reactives) detonable 



Water-reactives 4 detonable 



Oxidizer, liquids and solids 



Organic peroxides 



Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 



Water-reactives 4 nondetonable 



Pyrophoric material 



Class 3 or 4 



Class 2 or 3 



Solids and liquids (tons) a 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Gases (SCFf 



Not Applicable 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Class 3 
Class 2 



Unclassified Detonable 
Class 1 
Class II 
Class III 



Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 



Class 3 
Class 2 



Detonable 



Pyrophoric gases 



Nondetonable 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



1,200 
2,000 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 
50 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 
1 

25 



1 
25 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 



Not Applicable 



Not Applicable 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 
2,000 
10,000 



Not Applicable 



Not Applicable 



Maximum Allowable Quantity 
2,000 



For SI: I pound = 0.454 kg, ] cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 , 1 ton = 2000 lbs. = 907.2 kg. 2 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in the Building Code. For materials classified as explosives the 
required separate distances shall be as specified in Chapter 33. Unclassified detonable orgamc peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see 

s^agrbts 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 2703 11(1) 

c. Limited to Division 1 .4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco 
and Firearms regulaUons, or unpackaged arttcles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles providn the ne" 
explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. p ° 



204 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS-GENERAL PROVISIONS 



TABLE 2703.8.3.2 
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 



FLOOR LEVEL 



PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 3 



Above grade 



Below grade 



Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 
3 

2 



NUMBER OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR b 



1 

2 
Lower than 2 



5 

5 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 

50 

75 
100 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR 
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURS" 



75 

50 

Not Allowed 



1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 



3 

2 

Not Allowed 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 



1 

1 
Not Allowed 



bT i^ 

age conditions and quantities in accordance with Section 2703.11. hHldW 

c. lire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation trom other portions of the building. 



2703.8.4 Gas rooms. Where a gas room is provided to com- 
ply with the requirements of Chapter 37, the gas room shall 
be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.4.1 and 2703.8.4.2. 

2703.8.4.1 Construction. Gas rooms shall be protected 
with a sprinkler system. Gas rooms shall be separated 
from the remainder of the building in accordance with 
the construction codes, including the Building Code, 
based on the occupancy group into which the building 
has been classified. 

2703.8.4.2 Ventilation system. The ventilation system 
for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative 
pressure relative to the surrounding area. Highly toxic 
and toxic gases shall additionally comply with the 
requirements of Section 3704.2.2.6. The ventilation sys- 
tem shall be installed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Mechanical Code. 

2703.8.5 Exhausted enclosures. Where an exhausted 
enclosure is used to increase maximum allowable quantity 
per control area or when the location of hazardous materials 
in exhausted enclosures is provided to comply with the 
requirements of Chapter 37, the exhausted enclosure shall 
be in accordance with Sections 2703.8.5.1 through 
2703.8.5.3. 

2703.8.5.1 Construction. Exhausted enclosures shall be 
of noncombustible construction. 

2703.8.5.2 Ventilation. The ventilation system for 
exhausted enclosures shall be designed to operate at a 
negative pressure relative to the surrounding area. Venti- 
lation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall 
additionally comply with the requirements of Sections 
3704.1.2(1), 3704.1.2(2) and 3704.1.2(3). The ventila- 
tion system shall be installed in accordance with the con- 
struction codes, including the Mechanical Code. 

2703.8.5.3 Fire extinguishing system. Exhausted 
enclosures where flammable materials are used shall be 
protected by a fire extinguishing system in accordance 

2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



i 



with Chapter 9 and the construction codes, including the I 
Building Code. 

2703.8.6 Gas cabinets. Where a gas cabinet is used to 
increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area 
or when the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is 
provided to comply with the requirements of Chapter 37, 
the gas cabinet shall be in accordance with Sections 
2703.8.6.1 through 2703.8.6.3. 

2703.8.6.1 Construction. Gas cabinets shall be con- 
structed of not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (No. 12 «■ 
gauge) steel; provided with self-closing limited access 
ports or noncombustible windows to give access to 
equipment controls; and have all interior surfaces 
treated, coated or constructed of materials that are com- 
patible with the hazardous materials stored. 

2703.8.6.2 Ventilation. The ventilation system for gas 
cabinets shall be designed to operate at a negative pres- 
sure relative to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems 
used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall additionally 
comply with the requirements of Sections 3704.1.2(1), 
3704.1.2(2) and 3704.1.2(3). The ventilation system 
shall be installed in accordance with the construction 
codes, including the Mechanical Code. 

2703.8.6.3 Maximum number of containers per gas 

cabinet. The number of containers stored in a single gas I 

cabinet shall not exceed three. 
2703.8.7 Hazardous materials storage cabinets. Where 
storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable 
quantity per control area or to comply with the requirements 1 
of this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with 
Sections 2703.8.7.1 and 2703.8.7.2. 

2703.8.7.1 Construction. All interior surfaces of such I 
cabinets shall be treated, coated or constructed of materi- 
als that are nonreactive with the hazardous material 
stored. Cabinets shall either be listed in accordance with «■ 



205 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



1 



UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or con- 
structed in accordance with the following: 

1 . Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not 
less than 0.0478 inch (1 .2 mm) (No. 18 gage). The 
cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled 
with a 1.5-inch (38 mm) airspace between the 
walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be 
tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing 
and equipped with a self-latching device. 

2. The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of 
liquids shall be liquid-tight 4 to a minimum height 
of 2 inches (51 mm). 

2703.8.7.1.1 Electrical equipment. Electrical equip- 
ment and devices within cabinets used for the storage 
of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance 
with the Electrical Code. 

2703.8.7.2 Warning markings. Cabinets shall be 
clearly identified in an approved manner with red letters 
on a contrasting background to read: HAZARDOUS — 
KEEP FIRE AWAY. 

2703.9 General safety precautions. General precautions for 
the safe storage, handling and use of hazardous materials shall 
be in accordance with Sections 2703.9.1 through 2703.9.9. 

2703.9.1 Personnel training and written procedures. 

Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which haz- 
ardous materials are stored, handled or used, including dis- 
pensing, shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the 
materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary 
m the event of fire, leak or spill. A certificate of fitness shall 
be required when specified by this code or the rules or as a 
condition of a permit. 

2703.9.1.1 Fire department liaison. One or more 
responsible persons shall be designated to serve as a liai- 
son to the department in connection with any emergency 
response to the premises, for purposes of providing 
access to the location where hazardous materials are 
stored on the premises, providing access to Material 
Safety Data Sheets, and otherwise assisting in the devel- 
opment and implementation of emergency procedures. 
The names and telephone numbers of such responsible 
persons shall be included on the annual inventory 
required by New York State General Municipal Law Sec- 
tion 209-u and on a hazardous materials management 
plan when such plan is required. Telephone numbers 
shall include a 24-hour contact number for such respon- 
sible persons. 

2703.9.2 Security. Storage, handling and use areas, includ- 
ing dispensing areas, shall be secured against unauthorized 
entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the commis- 
sioner. 

2703.9.3 Protection from vehicles. Posts or other approved 
means shall be provided to protect storage tanks and con- 
nected piping, valves and fittings; use areas; and dispensing 
areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Sec- 
tion 312. 



I 



2703.9.4 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with the Electrical Code. | 

2703.9.5 Static accumulation. When conditions exist that 
could cause a flammable mixture to be ignited by static elec- 
tricity, equipment shall be grounded and all other necessary 
and appropriate actions taken to prevent the accumulation of 
a static charge. 

2703.9.6 Protection from light. Materials that are sensitive 
to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect 
them from such exposure. 

2703.9.7 Shock protection. Materials that are sensitive to I 
shock shall be padded, suspended or otherwise protected 
against jarring, seismic activity or other movement. | 

2703.9.8 Separation of incompatible materials. Incom- 
patible materials shall be separated while in storage or use ^ 
except for stored materials in containers having a capacity 

of not more than 5 pounds (2 kg) or 0.5 gallon (2 L). Separa- 
tion shall be accomplished by: 

1. Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a 
distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). 

2. Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a 
noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored 
material. 

3. Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous mate- 
rial storage cabinets. Materials that are incompatible 
shall not be stored in the same cabinet. 

4. Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures in accordance with Sections 
2703.8.5 and 2703.8.6. Materials that are incompati- 
ble shall not be stored within the same cabinet or 
exhausted enclosure. 

2703.9.9 Shelf storage. Shelving shall be of substantial 
construction, and shall be braced and anchored in accor- 
dance with the seismic design requirements of the construe- 1 
hon codes, including the Building Code, for the seismic 1 
zone in which the material is located. Shelving shall be 
treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compati- 
ble with the hazardous materials stored. Shelves shall be 
provided with a lip or guard when used for the storage of 
individual containers. 

Exceptions: 

1. Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or 
laboratory furniture specifically designed for such 
use. 

2. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not 
requiring a permit in accordance with Section 
105.6. 

Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained 
in an orderly manner. 

2703.10 Handling. In addition to the requirements of Section «■ 
2703.2, the handling of hazardous materials in corridors or exit 
enclosures shall be in accordance with Sections 2703 10 1 
through 2703. 10.3.6. 



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2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



2703.10.1 Valve protection. Hazardous material gas con- 
tainers and tanks moved during handling shall have their 
protective caps in place. Containers and tanks of highly 
toxic or toxic compressed gases shall have their valve out- 
lets capped or plugged with an approved closure device in 
accordance with Chapter 30. 

2703.10.2 Carts and trucks required. Containers of haz- 
ardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 pursuant 
to NFPA 704, and liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons 
(19 L), shall be moved during handling on a cart or truck 
meeting the requirements of Section 2703.10.3, when 
moved through any corridor or exit enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Two hazardous material liquid containers, which 
are hand carried in acceptable safety carriers. 

2. Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gal- 
1 Ions (208 L) each, which are moved by suitable 

drum trucks. 

I 3. Containers of compressed gases, which are moved 

by approved hand tracks, and containers not 
exceeding 25 pounds (1 1 kg), which are hand car- 
ried. 

4. Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 
1 pounds (45 kg), which are moved by approved 

hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 
50 pounds (23 kg), which is hand carried. 

2703.10.3 Carts and trucks. Carts and trucks required by 
Section 2703.10.2 to be used to move hazardous materials 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2703.10.3.1 through 2703.10.3.6. 

I 2703.10.3.1 Design. Carts and trucks used to move haz- 

ardous materials shall be designed to provide a stable 

I base for such movement during handling and shall have a 

means of restraining containers to prevent accidental 
dislodgement. Compressed gas containers placed on 
carts and trucks shall be individually restrained. 

2703.10.3.2 Speed-control devices. Carts and trucks 
shall be provided with a device that will enable the opera- 
1 tor to safely control movement by providing stops or 

speed-reduction devices. 

12703.10.3.3 Construction. The cart or truck shall be 
sturdily constructed of materials compatible with the 
material being moved. 

1 2703.10.3.4 Spill control. Carts and trucks used to move 

liquids shall be capable of containing a spill from the 
I largest single container being moved. 

12703.10.3.5 Attendance. Carts and trucks used to move 
materials shall not obstruct or be left unattended in any 
corridor, exit enclosure, or other means of egress. 

2703.10.3.6 Incompatible materials. Incompatible 
I materials shall not be moved during handling on the 

same cart or truck. 

12703.10.4 Emergency alarm. Where hazardous materials 
having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 pursuant to NFPA 704 are 



handled through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be 
an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 
150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals throughout the handling 
route, and at each exit doorway throughout the handling 
route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central sta- 
tion or remote supervising station or a constantly attended 
on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm. 

2703.11 Group M storage and display and Group S storage. 

The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflam- 
mable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored 
and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occu- 
pancy, or an outdoor control area, or stored in a single control 
area of a Group S occupancy, may exceed the maximum allow- E 
able quantity per control area indicated in Section 2703. 1 when 
stored and displayed in accordance with Sections 2703.1 1.1 I 
through 2703.1 1.3.10. 

2703.11.1 Maximum allowable quantity per control 
area in Group M or S occupancies. The aggregate amount 
of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and dis- 
played within a single control area of a Group M occupancy 
or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy 
shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 2703. 11.1. 

2703.11.2 Maximum allowable quantity per outdoor 
control area in Group M or S occupancies. The aggregate 
amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and dis- 
played within a single outdoor control area of a Group M 
occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 
2703.11.1. 

2703.11.3 Storage and display. Storage and display shall 
be in accordance with Sections 2703.11.3.1 through 
2703.11.3.10. 

2703.11.3.1 Density. Storage and display of solids shall 
not exceed 200 pounds per square foot (976 kg/m 2 ) of 
floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise. Stor- 
age and display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gallons per 
square foot (0.50 L/m 2 ) of floor area actually occupied 
by liquid merchandise. 

2703.11.3.2 Storage and display height. Display height 
shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished 
floor in display areas of Group M occupancies. Storage 
height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the fin- 
ished floor in storage areas of Group M and Group S 
occupancies. 

2703.11.3.3 Container location. Individual containers 
less than 5 gallons (1 9 L) or less than 25 pounds (11 kg) 
shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves. 

2703.11.3.4 Racks and shelves. Racks and shelves used 
for storage or display shall be in accordance with Section 
2703.9.9. 

2703.11.3.5 Container type. Containers shall be 
approved for the intended use and identified as to their 
content. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



207 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



TABLE 2703.11.1 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES 

NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS "■' 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 




Material" 


Class 


Solids Pounds 


Liquids gallons 




HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS— NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 


Corrosives' 1 - c 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 




Highly Toxics 


Not Applicable 


20"' c 


2 b,c 


Toxics b ' c 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS —NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 


Oxidizers 5 ' c 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 




3 


1,1508 


115 




2 


2,250 h 


225 




1 


18,000^ 


l,800 f -J 


Nondetonable 
unstable (reactives) b ' c 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 




3 


550 


55 




2 


1,150 


115 




1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Nondetonable water reactives 


3 b,c 


550 


55 




2 b,c 


1,150 


115 




1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For ST: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 . 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in Section 2701.2.2. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings protected throughout by a sprinkler system. When Note c applies amounts increased 
shall be as set forth in both notes. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 1 00 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 2703.8 When Note b applies 
amounts increased shall be as set forth in both notes. 

d. See Table 2703.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 2703.1. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts may be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not 
exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts may be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not 

exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. Quantities are unlimited where protected by a sprinkler system, 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 



2703.11.3.6 Container size. Individual containers shall 
not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg) for solids or 10 gallons 
(38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas. 

2703.11.3.7 Incompatible materials. Incompatible 
materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 
2703.9.8. 

2703.11.3.8 Floors. Floors shall be in accordance with 
Section 2704.12. 

2703.11.3.9 Aisles. Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width 
shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or dis- 
play area. 

2703.1 1.3.10 Signs. Hazard identification signs shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 2703.5. 

2703.12 Outdoor control areas. Outdoor control areas for 
hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum 



allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in compli- 
ance with the following requirements: 



1 



Outdoor control area shall be kept free from vegetation, 
rubbish and other combustible waste, and combustible 
materials not necessary to the storage. The area sur- 
rounding an outdoor control area shall be kept clear of 
such materials for a minimum of 15 feet (4572 mm). 

2. Outdoor control areas shall be located at least 5 feet 
(1524 mm) from a building opening and at least 15 feet 
(4572 mm) from Group A occupancies. Outdoor control 
areas shall be located at least 20 feet (6096 mm) from a 
lot line, public street or private road. 

Exception: A 2-hour fire-resistance -rated wall with- 1 
out openings extending not less than 30 inches (762 
mm) above and to the sides of the storage area is 



208 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



allowed in lieu of such distances required from a 
building opening, lot line, public street or private 
road. 

3. Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m 2 ), 
there may be two outdoor control areas separated by a 
minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm), when 
approved. 

4. Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m 2 ), 
there may be multiple outdoor control areas, separated a 
minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm), when 
approved. 



SECTION FC 2704 
STORAGE 

• 2704.1 General. Hazardous materials in amounts exceeding 
the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in 
Section 2703.1 shall be stored in accordance with Sections 

•2701, 2703 and 2704. Hazardous materials in amounts not 
exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as 
set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be stored in accordance with 

> Sections 2701 and 2703. Nonflammable solid and nonflamma- 
ble and noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M 
retail occupancies and Group S wholesale storage shall be 
stored and displayed in accordance with Section 2703.11. 

2704.2 Spill control and secondary containment for liquid 
and solid hazardous materials. Buildings, structures, rooms 
or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materi- 
als shall be provided with spill control and secondary contain- 
ment in accordance with Sections 2704.2. 1 through 2704.2.3. 

Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved con- 
tainment pallets in accordance with Section 2704.2.3. 

2704.2.1 Spill control for hazardous material liquids. 
Buildings, structures, rooms or areas used for the storage of 
hazardous material liquids in individual vessels having a 
capacity of more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the 
aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gal- 
lons (3785 L), shall be provided with spill control to prevent 
the flow of liquids to adjoining areas. Floors in indoor loca- 
tions, and similar surfaces in outdoor locations, shall be 
constructed to contain a spill from the largest single vessel 
by one of the following methods: 

1 . Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor loca- 
tions or similar protection in outdoor locations. 

2. Liquid-tight floors and raised or recessed sills or 
dikes in indoor locations or similar protection in out- 
door locations. 

3. Sumps and collection systems. 

4. Other approved engineered systems. 

Except for surfacing, the floors, sills, dikes, sumps and col- 
lection systems shall be constructed of noncombustible 
material, and the liquid-tight seal shall be compatible with 



the material stored. When liquid-tight sills or dikes are pro- 
vided, they are not required at perimeter openings having an 
open-grate trench across the opening that connects to an 
approved collection system. 

2704.2.2 Secondary containment for hazardous mate- 
rial liquids and solids. Where required by Table 2704.2.2, 
buildings, structures, rooms or areas used for the storage of I 
hazardous materials liquids or solids shall be provided with 
secondary containment in accordance with this section 
when the capacity of an individual vessel or the aggregate 
capacity of multiple vessels exceeds the following quanti- 
ties: 

1 . Liquids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 55 
gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple 
vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L). 

2. Solids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550 
pounds (250 kg) or the aggregate capacity of multiple 
vessels exceeds 10,000 pounds (4540 kg). 

2704.2.2.1 Containment and drainage methods. The 1 
building, structure, room or area shall contain or drain 
the hazardous materials and fire protection water 
through the use of one of the following methods: 

1. Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor 
locations or similar protection in outdoor loca- 
tions. 

2. Liquid-tight floors and raised or recessed sills or 
dikes in indoor locations or similar protection in 
outdoor locations. 

3. Sumps and collection systems. 

4. Drainage systems leading to an approved location. 

5. Other approved engineered systems. 

2704.2.2.2 Incompatible materials. Incompatible 
materials used in open systems shall be separated from 
each other in the secondary containment system. 

2704.2.2.3 Indoor design. Secondary containment for 
indoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill 
from the largest vessel plus the design flow volume of 
fire protection water calculated to discharge from the fire 
extinguishing system over the minimum required system 
design area or area of the room or area in which the stor- 
age is located, whichever is smaller. The containment 
capacity shall be designed to contain the flow for a mini- 
mum period of 20 minutes. 

2704.2.2.4 Outdoor design. Secondary containment for 
outdoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill 
from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to 
rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to 
include the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by 

a 25-year storm but in no case less than 1 1 percent of the I 
largest individual vessel and provisions shall be made to j 
drain accumulations of ground water and rainwater. 1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



209 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 





TABLE 2704.2.2 
REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT— HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE 




MATERIAL 


INDOOR STORAGE 


^_ OUTDOOR STORAGE 




Solids 


Liquids 


Solids 


Liquids 




Physical-hazard materials 




Combustible liquids 


Class II 


Not Applicable 


See Chapter 34 


Not Applicable 


See Chapter 34 




Class IIIA 


See Chapter 34 


See Chapter 34 




Class IIIB 


See Chapter 34 


See Chapter 34 




Cryogenic fluids 


See Chapter 32 


See Chapter 32 




Explosives" 


See Chapter 33 


See Chapter 33 




Flammable liquids 


Class IA 


Not Applicable 


See Chapter 34 


Not Applicable 


See Chapter 34 




Class IB 


See Chapter 34 


See Chapter 34 




Class IC 


See Chapter 34 


See Chapter 34 


W^i» 


Flammable solids 


Not Required 


Not Applicable 


Not Required 


Not Applicable 




Organic peroxides, nondetonable 


Class I 


Required 


Required 


Not Required 


Required 




Class II 


Required 


Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 




Class III 




Class IV 




Class V 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


1 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Required 


Required 


Not Required 


Required 




Class 3 


Not Required 




Class 2 


Not Required 




Class 1 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


i 


Pyrophorics, nondetonable 


Not Required 


Required 


Not Required 


Required 




Unstable (reactives), nondetonable 


Class 4 


Required 


Required 


Required 


Required 




Class 3 




Class 2 




Class 1 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 




Water-reactives 4 , nondetonable 


Class 3 


Required 


Required 


Required 


Required 




Class 2 




Class 1 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 


Not Required 




Health-hazard materials 




Corrosives 


Not Required 


Required 


Not Required 


Required 




Highly toxics 


Required 


Required 


Required 






Toxics 


Requ 


ired 



a. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 4 1 ), detonable unstable (reactive) materials (see Chapter 
43) and detonable water-reactive materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage, handling and use (see Chapter 33). 



210 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS-GENERAL PROVISIONS 



■t 2704.2.2,5 Monitoring. Monitoring shall be provided to 

detect hazardous materials in the secondary containment 

1 system. The method of monitoring may be visual inspec- 

tion of the primary or secondary containment, or other 
approved means. Where secondary containment is sub- 
ject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for 
detecting water shall be provided. Where monitoring 
devices are provided, they shall be connected to 
1 approved audible or visible alarms. 

2704.2.2.6 Drainage system design. Drainage systems 
I shall be in accordance with the Plumbing Code and the 

following requirements: 

1 . The slope of floors to drains in indoor locations, or 
similar protection in outdoor locations, shall not be 
less than 1 percent. 

2. Drains from indoor storage areas shall be sized to 
carry the volume of the fire protection water as 
determined by the design density discharged from 

■» the fire extinguishing system over the minimum 

required system design area or area of the room or 
area in which the storage is located, whichever is 
smaller. 

3. Drains from outdoor storage areas shall be sized to 
carry the volume of the fire flow and the volume of 
a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25 -year 
storm. 

4. Materials of construction for drainage systems 
shall be compatible with the materials stored. 

5. Incompatible materials used in open systems shall 
be separated from each other in the drainage 
system. 

6. Drains shall terminate in an approved location 
| away from buildings, structures, valves, means of 

egress, fire access roadways, adjoining property 
and storm drains. 

2704.2.3 Containment pallets. When used as an alterna- 
tive to spill control and secondary containment for outdoor 
storage in accordance with the exception set forth in Section 
2704.2, containment pallets shall be in compliance with the 
following requirements: 

1 . A liquid-tight sump accessible for visual inspection 
shall be provided. 

2. The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 
gallons (250 L). 

3. Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material 
stored. 

4. The containment pallet shall be protected to prevent 
collection of rainwater within the sump. 

2704.3 Ventilation. Indoor storage areas and storage buildings 
shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natu- 
ral ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to be 
acceptable for the materials as stored. 

Exception: Storage areas for flammable solids complying 
i with the requirements of Chapter 36. 

2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



2704.3.1 System requirements. Exhaust ventilation sys- 
tems shall comply with the following requirements: 1 

1 . Installation shall be in accordance with the Mechani- 1 
cal Code. * 

2. Mechanical ventilation shall be at a rate of not less 
than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 
m 3 /(s m 2 )] of floor area over the storage area. 

3. Systems shall operate continuously unless alternative 
designs are approved. 

4. A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of 
the room in a position adjacent to the access door to 
the room or in an approved location. The switch shall 
be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VEN- 
TILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

5. Exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the 
density of the potential fumes or vapors released. For 
fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall 
be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of 
the floor. 

6. The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings 
shall be designed to provide air movement across all 
portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumula- 
tion of vapors. 

7. Exhaust ventilation shall not be recirculated within 
the room or building if the materials stored are capa- 
ble of emitting hazardous vapors. 

2704.4 Separation of incompatible hazardous materials. 
Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with 
Section 2703.9.8. 

2704.5 Sprinkler systems. Indoor storage areas and storage < 
buildings shall be protected throughout by a sprinkler system. 
The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that 
required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a minimum design 
area of 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ). Where the materials or stor- 
age arrangement are required by other regulations to be pro- 
vided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the 
higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided. 

2704.6 Explosion control. Buildings, structures and indoor 
rooms and other areas shall be provided with explosion control 
in accordance with Section 911. 

2704.7 Emergency power. Where mechanical ventilation, 
treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or 
other electrically operated systems are required, such systems 
shall be provided with an emergency power system in accor- 
dance with the Electrical Code, and the construction codes, 
including the Building Code, and Section 604. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers. 

2. Storage areas for Class III, IV and V organic perox- 
ides. 

3 Storage areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, in 
accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.2.6. 

4. Storage areas for which an approved fail-safe engi- 
neered system has been installed for mechanical ven- 

211 



I 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



1 



tilation, treatment systems or temperature control 
systems. 

2704.8 Limit controls. Limit controls shall be provided in 
accordance with Sections 2704.8.1 and 2704.8.2. 

2704.8.1 Temperature control. Materials that must be kept 
at temperatures other than normal ambient temperatures 
shall be provided with an approved means to maintain the 
temperature within a safe range. Redundant temperature 
control equipment that will operate on failure of the primary 
temperature control system, or other approved means to 
maintain the required temperature range, shall be provided. 

2704.8.2 Pressure control. Stationary tanks and equipment 
containing hazardous material liquids that can generate 
pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires 
or internal reaction, shall have some form of construction or 
other approved means that will relieve excessive internal 
pressure. The means of pressure relief shall vent to an 
approved location outdoors or to an exhaust scrubber or 
treatment system in accordance with Chapter 37. 

2704.9 Emergency alarm. An approved manual emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas 
used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-ini- 
tiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or 
exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activa- 
tion of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local 
alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving 
hazardous materials. 

' 2704.10 Supervision. Emergency alarm, detection and fire 
extinguishing systems required by Section 2704 shall be super- 
vised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station ser- 
vice or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly 
attended on-site location. 

2704.11 Clearance from combustibles. The area surrounding 
an outdoor storage area or tank shall be kept clear of vegetation, 
rubbish and other combustible waste, and combustible materi- 
als, for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm). 

2704.1 2 Noncombustible floor. Except for surfacing, floors of 
storage areas shall be of noncombustible construction. 

2704.13 Weather protection. Outdoor hazardous material 
storage areas sheltered by overhead noncombustible construc- 
tion shall not be considered indoor storage when the area is 
constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather 
protection as required by the construction codes, including the 
Building Code. 

Exception: Storage of explosives shall be considered as 
indoor storage. 



I SECTION FC 2705 

HANDLING AND USE 

■» 2705.1 General. Hazardous materials in amounts exceeding 
the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in 
I Section 2703.1 shall be handled and used, including dispensed 
■» in accordance with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2705. Hazardous 



1 



I 



materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area set forth in Section 2703.1 shall be 
handled and used, including dispensed, in accordance with 1 
Sections 2701 and 2703. 

2705.1.1 Separation of incompatible materials. Separa- 
tion of incompatible materials shall be in accordance with 
Section 2703.9.8. 

2705. 1 .2 Noncombustible floor. Except for floor finishing 1 
operations, floors of areas where liquid or solid hazardous 1 
materials are used in open systems shall be of 
noncombustible, liquid-tight construction. 

2705.1.3 Spill control and secondary containment for 
hazardous material liquids. Where required by other pro- 
visions of Section 2705, spill control and secondary con- 
tainment shall be provided for hazardous material liquids in 
accordance with Section 2704.2. 

2705.1.4 Limit controls. Limit controls shall be provided in 
accordance with Sections 2705.1.4.1 through 2705.1.4.4. 

2705.1.4.1 High-Jiquid-level control. Open tanks in 
which liquid hazardous materials are used shall be 
equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other means 
to prevent overfilling of the tank. 

2705.1.4.2 Low-liquid-level control. Approved safe- 
guards shall be provided to prevent a low-liquid level in a 
tank from creating a hazardous condition, including 
overheating of a tank or its contents. 

2705.1.4.3 Temperature control. Temperature control 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.8.1. 

2705.1.4.4 Pressure control. Pressure control shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 2704.8.2. 

2705.1.5 Emergency power. Where mechanical ventila- 
tion, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detec- 
tion or other electrically operated systems are required, such 
systems shall be provided with an emergency power system 
in accordance with the Electrical Code, the construction 1 
codes, including the Building Code, and Section 604. f 

Exceptions: 

1. Areas in which an approved fail-safe engineered 
system has been installed for mechanical ventila- 
tion, treatment systems and temperature control 

systems. 

2. Systems for highly toxic or toxic gases provided 
with emergency power in accordance with Sec- 
tions 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.2.6. 

2705.1.6 Supervision. Alarm, detection and fire extin- • 
guishing systems required by other provisions of Section 
2705 shall be supervised by an approved central station or 
shall initiate an audible and visible signal at a continuously 
attended on-site location. 

2705.1.7 Lighting. Adequate lighting by natural or artifi- 
cial means shall be provided. 



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2705.1.8 Fire extinguishing systems. Indoor rooms or 
1 areas in which hazardous materials are handled or used shall 
*■ be protected by a fire extinguishing system in accordance 

(with Chapter 9 and the construction codes, including the 
Building Code. The design of any sprinkler system shall not 
be less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, 
with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ). 
Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by 
other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprin- 
kler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system 
protection shall be provided. 

2705.1.9 Ventilation. Indoor use areas, including dispens- 
ing areas, shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in 

1 accordance with Section 502.8 of the Mechanical Code. 

I Exception: Ventilation is not required for flammable 

solids, unless they are in the form of finely divided parti- 
cles or generate finely divided particles during use. 

2705.1.10 Liquid transfer. Liquids having a hazard rank- 
1 ing of 3 or 4 pursuant to NFPA 704 shall be transferred by 

one of the following methods: 
1 1. From safety cans complying with the requirements of 

UL 30. 

2. Through an approved closed piping system. 

3. From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking 
suction through an opening in the top of the container 
or tank. 

4. From containers or tanks by gravity through an 
approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve 
when the container or tank and dispensing operations 
are provided with spill control and secondary contain- 
ment in accordance with Section 2704.2. Highly toxic 
liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks. 

5. Approved engineered liquid transfer systems. 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 when 
dispensed from approved containers not 
exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L). 

2. Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 when 
dispensed from approved containers not 
exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L). 

I 2705.2 Indoor use. Indoor use, including dispensing, of haz- 
ardous materials shall be in buildings complying with the 
I requirements of the construction codes, including the Building 
Code, and in accordance with Section 2705.1 and Sections 
2705.2.1 through 2705.2.2.5. 

■» 2705.2.1 Open systems. Use of hazardous materials in 
open containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 2705.2.1.1 through 2705.2.1.4. 

2705.2.1.1 Ventilation. Where gases, liquids or solids 
having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4, as defined in NFPA 



704 are used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be 
provided to capture fumes, mists or vapors at the point of 
generation. 

Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that do not gener- 
ate harmful fumes, mists or vapors. 

2705.2.1.2 Explosion control. Explosion control shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 2704.6 when an 
explosive environment can occur because of the charac- 
teristics or nature of the hazardous materials or the man- I 
ner in which they are used. ■ 

2705.2.1.3 Spill control for hazardous material liq- 
uids. Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous mate- 
rial liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 
1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems 
exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided 
with spill control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1 . 

2705.2.1.4 Secondary containment for hazardous 
material liquids. Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, 
buildings, structures, rooms or areas where hazardous 
material liquids are used in open systems shall be pro- 
vided with secondary containment in accordance with 
Section 2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual ves- 
sel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or sys- 
tems exceeds the following quantities: 

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gal- 
lons (5 L). 

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gal- 
lons (20 L). 

2705.2.2 Closed systems. Use of hazardous materials in 
closed containers or systems shall be in accordance with 
Sections 2705.2.2.1 through 2705.2.2.5. 

2705.2.2.1 Design. Systems shall be suitable for the use 
intended and shall be designed by a qualified person. 
Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from 
entering or leaving the process or reaction systems at 
other than the intended time, rate or path. Where auto- 
matic controls are provided, they shall be designed to be 
fail safe. 

2705.2.2.2 Ventilation. Where closed systems are 
designed to be opened as part of normal operations, ven- 
tilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 

2705.2.1.1. 

2705.2.2.3 Explosion control. Explosion control shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 2704.6 where an 
explosive environment exists because of the hazardous 
materials or the manner in which they are used. 1 

Exception: Where process vessels are designed to 
contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated 
within the vessel under process conditions based on 
the most likely failure. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



TABLE 2705.2.1.4 
REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT— HAZARDOUS M A TERIAL SO LIDS AND LIQUIDS USE 



MATERIAL 



INDOOR USE 



Solids 



Physical-hazard materials 



Combustible liquids 



Cryogenic fluids 



Explosives" 



Flammable liquids 



Flammable solids 



Organic peroxides nondetonable 



Class II 



Class IIIA 



Class IIIB 



Class IA 



Class IB 



Class IC 



Class I 



Class II 



Class III 



Oxidizers 



Pyrophorics, nondetonable 



Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 



Water-reactives 4 , nondetonable 



Class IV 



Class V 



Class 4 



Class 3 



Class 2 



Class 1 



Not Required 



Class 4 



Class 3 



Class 2 



Class 1 



Class 3 



Class 2 



Class 1 



Health-hazard materials 



Corrosives 



Highly toxics 



Toxics 



Not Required 



Required 



Not Reqiiired 



OUTDOOR USE 



Liquids 



Solids 



Not Applicable 



Not Applicable 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 32 



See Chapter 33 



Not Applicable 



Not Required 



Not Required 



Required 



Not Required 



Not Required 



Not Required 



Not Required 



Required 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



Not Applicable 



Required 



Not Required 



Required 



Not Required 



Required 



Not Required 



Required 



Not Required 



Not Required 



Liquids 



Not Applicable 



Not Applicable 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 32 



See Chapter 33 



Not Applicable 



Not Applicable 



Not Required 



Not Required 



Not Required 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



See Chapter 34 



Not Applicable 



Required 



Not Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



a. Unclassified detonable organic peroxides (see Chapter 39), detonable pyrophoric materials (see Chapter 41), detonable unstable (reactive) materials (see Chapter 
43) and detonable water-reactive materials (see Chapter 44) shall be treated as explosives for purposes of storage, handling and use (see Chapter 33). 



214 



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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



2705.2.2.4 Spill control for hazardous material liq- 
uids. Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous mate- 
rial liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 
55-gallon (208 L) capacity shall be provided with spill 
control in accordance with Section 2704.2.1. 

2705.2.2.5 Secondary containment for hazardous 
material liquids. Where required by Table 2705.2.1.4, 
buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liq- 
uids are used in vessels or systems shall be provided with 
secondary containment in accordance with Section 
2704.2.2 when the capacity of an individual vessel or 
system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems 

1 exceeds the following quantities: 

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gal- 
lons (208 L). 

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 
gallons (3785 L). 

1 2705.3 Outdoor use. Outdoor use, including dispensing, of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 
2705.3.1 through 2705.3.9. 

2705.3.1 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area. Outdooruse of hazardous mate- 
rials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in 
amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per 
control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 
2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701, 
2703,2705.1 and 2705.3. 

2705.3.2 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allow- 
in* able quantity per control area. Outdoor use of hazardous 

materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in 
amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity 
per control area indicated in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 
2703.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 2701 and 
2703. 

eg*> 2705.3.3 Location. Outdoor use areas for hazardous mate- 
rials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in 
accordance with Section 2704. 

2705.3.4 Spill control for hazardous material liquids in 
open systems. Outdoor areas where hazardous material liq- 
uids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) 
capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 
L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accor- 
dance with Section 2704.2.1. 

2705.3.5 Secondary containment for hazardous mate- 
rial liquids in open systems. Where required by Table 
2705.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids 
are used in open systems shall be provided with secondary 
containment in accordance with Section 2704.2.2 when the 
capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of 
multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following 
quantities: 

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons 
(5 L). 



2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons 
(20 L). 

2705.3.6 Spill control for hazardous material liquids in 

closed systems. Outdoor areas where hazardous material 
liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons 
(208 L) shall be provided with spill control in accordance 
with Section 2704.2.1. 

2705.3.7 Secondary containment for hazardous mate- 
rial liquids in closed systems. Where required by Table 
2705.2. 1 .4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids 
are used in closed systems shall be provided with secondary 
containment in accordance with Section 2704.2.2 when the 
capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of 
multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following 
quantities: 

1. Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons 
(208 L). 

2. Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gal- 
lons (3785 L). 

2705.3.8 Clearance from combustibles. The area sur- 
rounding an outdoor use area, including an area used for dis- | 
pensing, shall be kept clear of vegetation, rubbish and other 1 
combustible waste, and combustible materials, for a mini- i 
mum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm). 

2705.3.9 Weather protection. Outdoor hazardous material 1 
use areas sheltered by overhead noncombustible construe- 1 
tion shall not be considered indoor use when the area is con- 
structed in accordance with the requirements for weather 
protection as required in the construction codes, including 1 
the Building Code. ■ 

Exception: Use of explosives shall be considered as 
indoor use. 

2705.4 Handling. Handling of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with Sections 2705.4.1 through 2705.4.4. 

2705.4.1 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area. Handling of hazardous materi- 
als in indoor and outdoor locations in amounts exceeding 
the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated 
in Tables 2703. 1.1(1) through 2703. 1.1(4) shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 2701, 2703, 2705.1 and 2705.4. 

2705.4.2 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantity per control area. Handling of hazardous 
materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in 
Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2) shall be in accordance 
with Sections 2701, 2703 and 2705.1. Handling of hazard- 
ous materials in outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding 
the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated 
in Tables 2703.1.1(3) and 2703.1.1(4) shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 2701 and 2703. 

2705.4.3 Location. Outdoor handling areas for hazardous 
materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in 
accordance with Section 2704. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



SECTION FC 2706 
NON-PRODUCTION CHEMICAL LABORATORIES 

2706.1 Scope. This section shall govern the storage, handling 
and use of laboratory chemicals in a non-production laboratory 
and accessory storage of laboratory chemicals in a storage 
room. The design and construction of non-production labora- 
tories and accessory storage rooms for laboratory chemicals 
shall comply with the requirements of the construction codes, 
including the Building Code and the Mechanical Code. 

2706.2 General. Laboratory chemicals within a laboratory 
unit shall be stored, handled and used in accordance with this 
section and, except as otherwise provided in this section, NFPA 
45 laboratory unit fire hazard class D requirements. 

2706.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6. 

2706.4 Supervision. Non-production laboratory operations 
requiring a permit shall be under the personal supervision of a 
certificate of fitness holder. At least one certificate of fitness 
holder shall be present on each floor of the laboratory unit on 
which laboratory operations are being conducted while the lab- 
oratory is in operation. Additional certificate of fitness holders 
shall be provided as the commissioner may require as a condi- 
tion of the permit. Accessory laboratory chemical storage 
rooms shall be under the general supervision of a certificate of 
fitness holder. 

2706.5 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful in any non-produc- 
tion laboratory or any accessory storage of laboratory chemi- 
cals in a storage room to: 

1 . Store, handle or use any explosive. 

2. Store, handle or use any unclassified detonable organic 
peroxide, detonable pyrophoric material, detonable 
unstable (reactive) material or detonable water-reactive 
material. 

3. Store, handle or use any Class 4 unstable (reactive) mate- 
rial. 

4. Store, handle or use any Class 4 oxidizing material. 

5. Store, handle or use below grade any flammable gas. 

6. Use an open flame for heating or distilling any flamma- 
ble solid, flammable liquid or flammable gas. 

2706.6 Quantity limitations. 

2706.6.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The den- 
sity and total quantity of flammable and combustible liquids 
allowed within a laboratory unit, excluding storage rooms, 
shall be in accordance with Table 1 0. 1 . 1 of NFPA 45 for lab- 
oratory unit fire hazard Class D. 

Exceptions: For laboratory units other than educational 
or instructional laboratories pursuant to NFPA 45: 

1 . The density of flammable and combustible liquids 
allowed within a laboratory unit may be increased 
to those set forth in Table 10.1.1 of NFPA 45 for 
laboratory unit fire hazard class B provided the 
total quantity of flammable and combustible liq- 



uid, including any in storage cabinets or safety 
cans, does not exceed 25 gallons (95 L). 

2. The density of flammable and combustible liquids 
allowed within a laboratory unit may be increased 
to those set forth in Table 10.1 .1 of NFPA 45 for 
laboratory unit fire hazard Class B provided the 
total quantity of flammable and combustible liq- 
uid, including any in storage cabinets or safety 
cans, does not exceed 30 gallons (1 14 L) and the 
walls, floors and ceilings of the laboratory unit are 
separated from all adjoining areas by 2-hour 
fire-rated 4 construction. 

3. The quantity of flammable and combustible liq- 
uids allowed within a laboratory unit, excluding 
quantities in storage cabinets or safety cans, may 
be increased to 100 gallons (379 L), and the total 
quantities of flammable and combustible liquids, 
including quantities in storage cabinets or safety 
cans, may be increased to 200 gallons (757 L) pro- 
vided the walls, floors and ceilings of the labora- 
tory unit are separated from all adjoining areas by 
2-hour fire -rated 4 construction. 

2706.6.2 Flammable solids. The storage, handling and use 
of flammable solids within a laboratory unit shall be in 
accordance with Chapters 27 and 36. The total quantity of 
flammable solids stored, handled and used, excluding any 
quantities in a storage room, shall not exceed 10 pounds 
(4.54 kg). 

Exception: The total quantity of flammable solids 
allowed within a laboratory unit that is provided with 
walls, floors and ceilings that separate the laboratory unit 
from all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire-rated 4 construc- 
tion shall not exceed 15 pounds (6.81 kg). 

2706.6.3 Oxidizers and organic peroxides. The storage, 
handling and use of solid and liquid oxidizers and organic 
peroxides within a laboratory unit shall be in accordance 
with Chapters 27, 39 and 40 and the total quantity of all such 
material, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall 
not exceed 40 pounds (18.16 kg), provided that not more 
than 2 pounds (0.908 kg) of such oxidizers are Class 3 oxi- 
dizers and not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such perox- 
ides are Class I organic peroxides. 

Exception: The total aggregate quantity of solid and liq- 
uid oxidizers and organic peroxides allowed within a lab- 
oratory unit that is provided with walls, floors and 
ceilings that separate the laboratory unit from all adjoin- 
ing areas by 2-hour fire-rated 4 construction shall not 
exceed 50 pounds (22.7 kg), provided that not more than 
2 pounds (0.908 kg) of such oxidizers are Class 3 oxidiz- 
ers and not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such perox- 
ides are Class I organic peroxides. 

2706.6.4 Unstable (reactive) material. The storage, han- 
dling and use of unstable (reactive) material within a labora- 
tory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 43 and 
the total quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage 
room, shall not exceed 6 pounds (2.724 kg), provided not 



216 



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more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such reactive material is 
Class 3 unstable (reactive). 

Exception: The total quantity of unstable (reactive) 
material allowed within a laboratory unit that is provided 
with walls, floors and ceilings that separate the labora- 
tory unit from all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire-rated 4 
construction shall not exceed 12 pounds (5.44 kg), pro- 
vided not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of such reactive 
material is Class 3 unstable (reactive). 

2706.6.5 Water-reactive 4 material. The storage, handling 
and use of water-reactive 4 material within a laboratory unit 
shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 44 and the total 
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall 
not exceed 2.5 pounds (1.135 kg). 

Exception: The total quantity of water-reactive 4 material 
allowed within a laboratory unit that is provided with 
walls, floors and ceilings that separate the laboratory unit 
from all adjoining areas by 2-hour fire-rated 4 construc- 
tion shall not exceed 5 pounds (2.27 kg). 

2706.6.6 Pyrophoric material. The storage, handling and 
use of solid or liquid pyrophoric material within a labora- 
tory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 41 and 
the total quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage 
room, shall not exceed 0.5 pounds (0.227 kg). 

Exception: The total quantity of solid or liquid 
pyrophoric material allowed within a laboratory unit that 
is provided with walls, floors and ceilings that separate 
the laboratory unit from all adjoining areas by 2-hour 
fire-rated 4 construction shall not exceed 1 pound (0.454 
kg). 

2706.6.7 Highly toxic material. The storage, handling and 
use of solid or liquid highly toxic material within a labora- 
tory unit shall be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 37 and 
the total quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage 
room, shall not exceed 5 pounds (2.27 kg). 

2706.6.8 Toxic material. The storage, handling and use of 
solid or liquid toxic material within a laboratory unit shall 
be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 37 and the total 
quantity, excluding any quantities in a storage room, shall 
not exceed 250 pounds (1 13.5 kg). 

2706.6.9 Corrosive material. The storage, handling or use 
of solid or liquid corrosive material within a laboratory shall 
be in accordance with Chapters 27 and 31 and the total 
quantity, excluding any quantity in a storage room, shall not 
exceed 250 gallons (946 L). 

2706.6.10 Highly toxic and toxic gases. It shall be unlaw- 
ful to store, handle or use in any educational and instruc- 
tional laboratory unit any combination of highly toxic and 
toxic gases in quantities that exceed 20 SCF (0.566 m 3 ). 

2706.7 Storage room classification. Storage rooms for labo- 
ratory chemicals accessory to a laboratory unit shall be classi- 
fied as set forth in the Building Code. 

2706.8 Storage rooms. In addition to the quantities that may 
be stored, handled and used in a laboratory unit pursuant to 



Section 2706.6, chemicals for use in a laboratory unit may be 
stored in a dedicated storage room complying with the follow- 
ing requirements: 

1. Storage room capacity shall not exceed a maximum of 
300 gallons ( 1 1 36 L) of chemicals or 5 gallons per square 
foot (204 L/m 2 ) of floor area. 

2. Flammable gas storage rooms shall not contain more 
than 2,500 SCF (70.8 m 3 ) of flammable gas. 

3. Chemicals that are incompatible with each other shall 
not be stored in the same storage room, unless in compli- 
ance with the requirements of this chapter. 

4. Chemicals shall not be used within the storage room. 

2706.9 Safety showers. Where more than 5 gallons (19 L) of 
corrosive liquid or flammable liquid are stored, handled or 
used, suitable facilities with fixed overhead or flexible 
hand-held showers shall be provided. Such shower shall be 
within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the laboratory unit and storage 
room door and shall be maintained in good working order, and 
readily accessible at all times. 

2706.10 Neutralizing or absorbing agents. Where more than 
5 gallons (19 L) of corrosive liquids are stored, handled or 
used, a sufficient quantity of suitable neutralizing or absorbing 
agents shall be provided. 

2706.11 Curtains and drapes. Curtains and drapes installed 
in a laboratory unit shall comply with the flame resistance 
requirements of Chapter 8. 



SECTION FC 2707 
TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

2707.1 Scope. This section shall govern the transportation of 
hazardous materials, as defined in the regulations of the United 
States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR 
Part 173. 

2707.2 General. Transportation of hazardous materials shall 
be in accordance with the regulations of the United States 
Department of Transportation and this section. 

2707.3 Prohibitions. It shall be unlawful to: 

1. Transport hazardous materials in or through the city 
where such transport is prohibited or restricted by federal 
or state law, rule or regulation, including restrictions on 
transportation of hazardous materials over bridges and 
through tunnels. 

2. Transport in or through the city hazardous materials of 
such type, in such quantities, or in such manner as is pro- 
hibited by this code or the rules, except where such trans- 
port is in accordance with approved routes and times or 
other approved procedures or safety measures. 

3. Transport hazardous materials in quantities requiring a 
permit pursuant to this code or the rules without such 
permit. 

4. Deliver hazardous materials in quantities requiring a per- 
mit pursuant to this code or the rules to any location 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



217 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



unless the owner or other person taking delivery thereof 
is in possession of a permit for the storage, handling 
and/or use of such hazardous material at such location. 

2707.4 Permits. Permits to transport hazardous materials shall 
be required as set forth in Section 105.6. Such permits shall be 
issued to a particular vehicle or marine vessel for such trans- 
portation. Any hazardous material for which a permit is 
required pursuant to Section 105.6 for transportation, may be 
transported without a permit provided that such cargo origi- 
nates outside New York State and: (1) remains in continuous 
transit without picking up or delivering such cargo in the city; 
or (2) remains in continuous transit through the city until deliv- 
ering such cargo to piers, airports and shipping terminals for 
transshipment out of the city. Such transport shall be in accor- 
dance with approved routes and times or other approved proce- 
dures and safety measures. 

2707.5 Transportation of hazardous materials by vehicle. 
Transportation of hazardous materials by vehicle shall be in 
accordance with this section, the rules, and the requirements 
contained in the regulations of the United States Department of 
Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR, Parts 171, 172, 173 
177, 178, 180, 383, 387, 390, 392, 393, 396 and 397 and their 
appendices, and any amendments thereto, with respect to: 

1 . The design, construction, maintenance and equipment of 
cargo tanks and other vehicles. 

The marking and placarding of vehicles. 

The preparation, execution and use of shipping docu- 
ments. 



2. 
3. 



4. The handling, loading and unloading of hazardous mate- 
rials. 

5. The qualifications and commercial driver's license 
requirements of vehicle operators. 

6. Insurance and other financial requirements. 

2707.6 Transportation of explosives by vehicle. Transporta- 
tion of explosives by vehicle for storage, handling and use in 
the city shall additionally comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tions 2707.6.1 through 2707.6.6. 

2707.6.1 Approved vehicles. It shall be unlawful to trans- 
port, including delivering, any blasting materials or Divi- 
sion 1 . 1 or 1 .5 explosives for storage, handling or use in the 
city, except in a vehicle designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with the rules, and for which a permit has been issued. 

2707.6.2 Nitroglycerine. It shall be unlawful to transport 
any nitroglycerine-containing material, except nitroglycer- 
ine in the form of tablets, pills or granules, in quantities not 
exceeding 10,000, containing not more than 1/50 of a grain 
each, or to transport frozen nitroglycerine. 

2707.6.3 Packing and marking. Other than as prescribed 
or approved by the commissioner, it shall be unlawful to sell 
or deliver for use any explosive except in original and 
unopened packages, packed in accordance with Sections 
2707.6.3.1 through 2707.6.3.3. 

2707.6.3.1 Explosives containing liquids. Dynamite 
and other explosives containing a liquid which may 
exude a liquid shall be transported in DOTn approved 



cases, lined with a liquidproof 3 plastic lining sufficient to 
prevent the exudation of the liquid. Such cases shall con- 
tain not more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of net explosive 
weight. 

2707.6.3.2 Other explosives. Other blasting materials 
(except black powder, blasting powder and smokeless 
propellant) that do not contain a substance subject to 
deterioration or instability by exposure to moisture shall 
be transported in DOTn approved cases each containing 
not more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of net explosive 
weight. 

2707.6.3.3 Sticks or cartridges. All explosives in the 
form of sticks or cartridges shall be packed so as to lie on 
their sides; and, when the boxes are loaded in or upon a 
vehicle or marine vessel, they shall be so arranged that 
the sticks or cartridges rest on their sides. 

2707.6.4 Detonators. Transportation of blasting caps and 
other detonators shall additionally comply with the require- 
ments of Sections 2707.6.4.1 and 2707.6.4.2. 

2707.6.4.1 Packaging. It shall be unlawful to bring into, 
transport, or deliver within the city any blasting caps and 
other detonators, unless packaged in original, unopened 
boxes. 

2707.6.4.2 Delivery vehicles. It shall be unlawful to 
transport any detonators in quantities exceeding 5,000, 
or to transport or cause to be transported, detonators 
together with any other explosives, except in an approved 
container in accordance with the regulations of the 
United States Department of Transportation, as set forth 
in 49 CFR Part 177. 

2707.6.5 Black powder, blasting powder or smokeless 
propellants. Black powder, blasting powder or smokeless 
propellant shall be transported in containers of not more 
than 25 pounds (11.35 kg). 

2707.6.6 Restrictions. Vehicles transporting explosives 
shall comply with the following requirements: 

1 . Vehicles shall deli ver explosives only during daylight 
hours. 

2. No unnecessary stops shall be made in transit. 

3. Vehicles shall be escorted in accordance with Section 
2707.12, as applicable. 

4. If explosives are being transported in more than one 
vehicle, the vehicles shall maintain a safe distance 
from each other of not less than 250 feet (76 200 mm). 

5. It shall be unlawful to transport or deliver any explo- 
sives in a subway or other underground tunnel or con- 
veyance, except as approved for blasting operations. 

2707.7 Transportation of explosives by marine vessel. 
Transportation of explosives by marine vessel shall be in accor- 
dance with the regulations of the United States Department of 
Transportation, as set forth in CFR Part 176, and any amend- 
ments thereto, and shall additionally comply with the require- 
ments of Sections 2707.7.1 through 2707.7.5. 

2707.7.1 Temporary storage on marine vessel. It shall be 
unlawful to store for more than 48 hours on board of any 



218 



2008 NEW YORK CITY FIRE CODE 



HAZARDOUS MATERIALS— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



marine vessel lying to at a wharf, pier, bulkhead or other 
structure over or contiguous to navigable waters within the 
city, any explosives in excess of the amount required for the 
vessel's own use for signaling or lifesaving 3 purposes. 

2707.7.2 Supervision. Any powder-boat or other marine 
vessel used to transport explosives upon the navigable 
waters within the city for delivery at a wharf, pier, bulkhead 
or other structure over or contiguous to navigable waters, or 
to a marine vessel lying thereto, shall, while transporting 
explosives, have on board at all times two persons, each 
holding a certificate of fitness for explosives handling. Only 
such certificate holders, the permit holder and the marine 
vessel's crew shall be allowed in or upon such vessel. When- 
ever practicable, all explosives shall be stowed on deck 
under a waterproof cover or otherwise kept dry. 

2707.7.3 Detonators. Except for marine vessels engaged in 
export trade, it shall be unlawful to carry in or upon a marine 
vessel transporting explosives within the city, detonators 
together with any other explosives, except in approved con- 
tainers in accordance with the regulations of the United 
States Department of Transportation, as set forth in 49 CFR 
Part 176. 

2707.7.4 Unloading. It shall be unlawful to unload explo- 
sives onto a wharf, pier, bulkhead or other structure over or 
contiguous to navigable waters. Explosives intended for 
storage, handling or use within the city shall be transferred 
from t